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System No. U0002-3007201212392000
Title (in Chinese) 含綠色準則之台灣電子業供應商評選-運用分析網路程序法
Title (in English) An Application of ANP to Supplier Selection with Environmental Criteria for the Electronics Industry in Taiwan.
Other Title
Institution 淡江大學
Department (in Chinese) 管理科學學系碩士班
Department (in English) Master’s Program, Department of Management Sciences
Other Division
Other Division Name
Other Department/Institution
Academic Year 100
Semester 2
PublicationYear 101
Author's name (in Chinese) 林怡君
Author's name(in English) Yi-Chun Lin
Student ID 699620729
Degree 碩士
Language Traditional Chinese
Other Language
Date of Oral Defense 2012-06-14
Pagination 99page
Committee Member advisor - 時序時
co-advisor - 鄭啟斌
co-chair - 溫麗琪
co-chair - 莊忠柱
co-chair - 張炳騰
Keyword (inChinese) 供應商評選
綠色準則
多準則決策
因素分析
內容效度分析
分析網路程序法(Analytic Network Process)
BOCR分析法
敏感度分析
Keyword (in English) Supplier Selection
Green Criteria
Multi-Criteria Decision Making,MCDM
Factor Analysis
Content Validity Ratio
Analytic Network Process,ANP
Benefits,Opportunities,Costs and Risks Analysis
Sensitive Analysis
Other Keywords
Subject
Abstract (in Chinese)
本研究在探究台灣電子業目前因應環境保護的要求下,評選供應商時應考慮的多重準則,並利用BOCR-ANP (Analytic Network Process with Benefits, Opportunities, Costs, and Risks Analysis)的模型進行評估,再以某家筆記型電腦電源供應器 (NB Adapter)的採購進行案例驗證,以了解綠色相關評估準則的影響。
   以往企業的採購決策多強調較為確定的準則或指標,較少涵蓋營運時所面臨的機會與風險的不確定性,透過BOCR-ANP分析法可避免因忽略不確定性而造成不適宜的決策。本研究首先參考國內外供應商評選之相關文獻彙整出十二項一般準則與六項綠色準則,透過內容效度分析 (Content Validity Ratio)與因素分析 (Factor Analysis)獲得BOCR的元素與群組,再應用分析網路程序法處理元素間與群組間的相依及回饋的問題,藉以獲得準則與方案的優先順序。並對模型進行元素與群組的敏感度分析以確保本分析的穩健度。
   透過本建議模型能將一般評選準則與綠色準則同時思考,以獎勵在環境保護上表現優異的供應商,而非如傳統上將綠色準則作為篩選門檻。根據研究結果發現:在BOCR下最受到重視的群組因BOCR構面不同而稍有差異,依序為「生產應變能力」、「對顧客承諾」、「價格」及「產品可靠度」;由其內容來看,「交期」準則反映最為重要,綠色準則反而不被重視,此與直覺不同的結果說明綠色準則並不是當前企業實務上的主要考量。BOCR-ANP分析法除可細緻描述準則內涵外,並可將實務上不確定性的影響納入分析,以利適切決策。最後,針對企業在供應商評選時較忽略綠色準則的問題,分別對供應商、企業及政府提出建議,以期提升未來對環境保護的重視。
Abstract (in English)
This study aims to investigate the problem of supplier selection according to the environmental requirements for the electronic industry in Taiwan. BOCR-ANP (Analytic Network Process with Benefits, Opportunities, Costs, and Risks Analysis) model is used to assess those criteria. An real-world case of supplier selection for a notebook adapter is compared to understand the impact of green related criteria.
    Enterprises in the past mostly relied on tangible criteria or specific indices for making purchasing decisions instead of considering the uncertain opportunities and risks in the evaluating process. These uncertainties could be to the detriment of business operations with inappropriate decisions. BOCR-ANP can incorporate the uncertainties into the model and avoid unsuitable choices. First of all, 12 general criteria and 6 green criteria were compiled from literatures on supplier selection. Secondly, to obtain the priority of criteria and alternatives, content validity ratio and factor analysis were used for acquiring elements and clusters under BOCR, and ANP approach was then applied to process the independence and feedback among elements and clusters. Lastly, a sensitive analysis was executed to ensure the robustness of the model.
    The general criteria and green criteria can be considered simultaneously in this model, instead of screening green suppliers by environmental regulations, to reward the environmental efforts of the suppliers. The result shows that valued clusters are slightly different due to aspects of BOCR, i.e., “production adaptability”, “promise to customer”, “price” and “product reliability”, and “delivery time” is the major concern while green criteria are less valued. The results differ from our intuition which green criteria are not the main concerns of current enterprises. BOCR-ANP can not only describe the criteria in details, but also consider the effects of uncertainties for a suitable decision. In the final part, suggestions for suppliers, the electronic industry, and the government are drawn in hope of making their more efforts on environmental protection in the future.
Other Abstract
Table of Content (with Page Number)
第1章 緒論 1
1.1    研究背景與動機	1
1.2    研究目的	3
1.3    研究架構	3

第2章 文獻回顧 5 
2.1    綠色供應鏈	5
2.1.1  供應鏈管理	5
2.1.2  綠色供應鏈管理	7
2.2    綠色採購	10
2.2.1  綠色採購之演進	10
2.2.2  綠色採購於台灣電子業發展	12
2.3    供應商評選	13
2.3.1  供應商評選準則	14
2.3.2  供應商評選方法	15
2.4    分析網路程序法與BOCR分析法	18
2.4.1  分析網路程序法介紹	18
2.4.2  BOCR-ANP的概念	20
2.4.3  BOCR-ANP之應用	24
2.5   小結	26

第3章 模型建構 27
3.1    BOCR-ANP網路建構	29
3.1.1  內容效度問卷	29
3.1.2  內容效度的檢驗	30
3.1.3  因素分析	32
3.1.4  確認相依及回饋關係	38
3.2    BOCR-ANP專家問卷	40
3.2.1  問卷設計	41
3.2.2  建立成對比較矩陣	42
3.2.3  計算特徵值與特徵向量	42
3.2.4  一致性檢定	43
3.2.5  整合專家問卷	44
3.2.6  建立超級矩陣	44
3.2.7  綜合權重	46
3.3  小結	47

第4章 實證分析 48
4.1    案例背景介紹	48
4.1.1  BOCR-ANP 專家背景	49
4.2    專家問卷整合與分析	49
4.2.1  專家問卷整合	49
4.2.2  建立超級矩陣	50
4.2.3  各構面及因素權重分析	54
4.2.4  供應商評選結果分析	57
4.3   敏感度分析	58
4.4   BOCR之經濟意涵	60
4.5   小結	60

第5章 結論與建議 61
5.1   結論	61
5.2   管理意涵	62
5.3   未來研究建議	63

參考文獻 64
中文文獻	64
英文文獻	66

附錄一 供應商評選準則彙整 70
附錄二 機會、成本及風險之未加權、加權及極限矩陣 75
附錄三 第一階段問卷擷取範例 84
附錄四 第二階段專家問卷擷取範例 87

圖目錄
圖1.1 研究流程圖	4
圖2.1  台灣電機電子產業供應鏈架構	6
圖2.2  供應商評選方法在評選過程中的定位	16
圖2.3  定量工具之供應商評選方法	17
圖2.4  ANP網路圖	20
圖2.5  完整BOCR網路圖	22
圖2.6  不完善BOCR之應用	26
圖3.1  建構BOCR-ANP模型流程 	28
圖3.2  BOCR-ANP架構圖-利益 	38
圖3.3  BOCR-ANP架構圖-機會 	39
圖3.4  BOCR-ANP架構圖-成本 	39
圖3.5  BOCR-ANP架構圖-風險 	40
圖4.1 調整準則之敏感度分析	58
圖4.2 調整環境群組之敏感度分析	59
圖4.3 調整利益構面之敏感度分析	59


表目錄
表2.1  DICKSON 23項評選準則	14
表2.2  供應商評選方法之優劣比較	17
表2.3  關於BOCR的文獻	25
表3.1  供應商選擇一般準則	29
表3.2  供應商評選綠色準則 	30
表3.3  第一階段各構面準則 	31
表3.4  KMO AND BARTLETT球形檢定 	33
表3.5  供應商評選一般準則因素分析 	34
表3.6  轉軸後的成份矩陣 	35
表3.7 供應商準則分類 	37
表3.8  問卷評估尺度意義說明	41
表3.9  問卷填寫範例  	41
表3.10  R.I. 值 	44
表4.1  專家背景資料 	49
表4.2  利益下之未加權超級矩陣 	51
表4.3  利益下之加權超級矩陣 	52
表4.4  利益下之極限超級矩陣 	53
表4.5  各構面及元素之權重	55
表4.6  供應商評選結果排序	57
附表1.1  供應商評選一般準則70
附表1.2  供應商評選綠色準則73
附表2.1  機會下之未加權超級矩陣75
附表2.2  機會下之加權超級矩陣76
附表2.3  機會下之極限超級矩陣77
附表2.4  成本下之未加權超級矩陣78
附表2.5  成本下之加權超級矩陣79
附表2.6  成本下之極限超級矩陣80
附表2.7  風險下之未加權超級矩陣81
附表2.8  風險下之加權超級矩陣82
附表2.9  風險下之極限超級矩陣83
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