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System No. U0002-2109202017023600
Title (in Chinese) 解構美軍戰略溝通機制兼論對國軍政治作戰的影響
Title (in English) Deconstructing the US military Strategic communication mechanism: It’s Impact on the political warfare of the Republic of China’s military.
Other Title
Institution 淡江大學
Department (in Chinese) 國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
Department (in English) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
Other Division
Other Division Name
Other Department/Institution
Academic Year 108
Semester 2
PublicationYear 109
Author's name (in Chinese) 吳淑如
Author's name(in English) Shu-Ju Wu
Student ID 802330034
Degree 博士
Language Traditional Chinese
Other Language
Date of Oral Defense 2020-06-29
Pagination 301page
Committee Member advisor - WONG, MING-HSIEN
co-chair - Lu-Hsun Hung
co-chair - MO, DA-HUA
co-chair - Li, Da-jung
co-chair - Dr. Stephan Hsu
Keyword (inChinese) 戰略溝通
Keyword (in English) strategic communication
political warfare
cognitive warfare
asymmetric warfare
Other Keywords
Abstract (in Chinese)
「戰略溝通」(Strategic Communication)概念在各國的運用日益廣泛,無論是美國、英國、日本、德國、俄羅斯、中國等。尤其是美國在發生911事件後發動了「全球反恐戰爭」(Global War on Terror),開始積極重視「戰略溝通」,重新體認資訊力量及外交上的應用。後又歷經科索沃、阿富汗及兩次波灣戰爭,美國深覺軍事勝利不敵宣傳,佔有資訊優勢並非最後勝出的一方,更加重視「戰略溝通」及「不對稱作戰」的相關研究。
我國於103年由國防部(政戰局文宣心戰處)發展此機制,編成「戰略溝通小組」,並規劃戰略溝通相關作為與編修準則,早已納入各項演習驗證,已然建構穩定運作與發展之機制。「戰略溝通」(Strategic Communication)這名詞第一次揭櫫在我國官方文件是在民國106年的《四年期國防總體檢報告書》(QDR)中,接續在106、108年國防報告書中,均將戰略溝通明列為國軍「精神戰力」重要一環。
以實務經驗來檢視「戰略溝通」,發現此機制類同國軍政治作戰制度及相關工作。然而,兩者若是類同,國軍既已存在政治作戰機制,為何引進美軍戰略溝通機制概念?引進後,對於現行政治作戰制度的轉型與影響?其所面臨的限制與能力為何?如何精進相關作為?這是筆者亟欲探究的核心問題,也是研究此議題的重要價值。因此,主要研究目的為: 一、理解「戰略溝通」概念的發展與影響;二、探究戰略溝通有關的學理基礎與論述;三、檢視「戰略溝通」在波灣戰爭的實踐情形;四、比較戰略溝通與政治作戰之差異;五、建議我國發展戰略溝通相關作為。
Abstract (in English)
The concept of “strategic communication” is commonly used among the US, the UK, Japan, Germany, Russia, China and many other countries. After the September 11 attacks in the US, the US and its allies launched the Global War on Terror, and the concept started to gain attention from the world in recognition of the power of information and the uses of diplomatic measures. Later on, the US further experienced Kosovo War, the War in Afghanistan and two Gulf Wars. The US realized that even if it triumphed on the military front, it still suffered from opponents’ propaganda efforts. Also, even with information superiority, the US still could not rest assured its victory in a war. As a result, the US started to pay more attention on the research of “strategic communication” as well as “asymmetric warfare.”
Among the US’ national security affairs, information operation plays a very important role. Judged from the lesson of the Global War on Terror, we can see that the battlefield of information warfare is not only limited to traditional battlefields with tanks, warships, aircraft and other weapons in it. In information warfare, people’s emphasis is now shifted to “wetware”, namely the recognition domain that forms the public opinion and the decision-making process. The most effective weapon in this battlefield is information, and the transparency of the battlefield and coverage of live reports underline the importance and influence of information warfare. Given that the US has achieved a huge progress in “strategic communication” through its military practices in the two Gulf Wars, militaries around the world also successively conducted reforms in their military affairs learning from the lesson of the US’ practices during the two wars.
The Republic of China (ROC) developed this mechanism in 2014 by Psychological Warfare Division of Political Warfare Bureau, Ministry of National Defense. The division integrate a "strategic communication group" into its annual military drills to validate its functions, and developed relevant activities and guidelines. The term "Strategic Communication" first appeared in the official documents, the "Quadrennial Defense Report (QDR) of the Republic of China in 2017", and later it was also appeared in the National Defense Report of 2017 and 2019. The official documents had all listed strategic communication as an important part of the ROC military’s "spiritual combat power."
Judged from the practices of “strategic communication,” we can see that the concept shares a lot of similarities with ROC military’s political warfare system and relevant practices. In that case, why do we bother introducing the new concept if something similar already exists in the system? Also, how will the introduction of the new concept transform existing political warfare system of the ROC military and possible impacts? What are the effects and restrictions of the concept? What can we do to improve relevant measures? These are key questions to be discussed in this paper, which would bring significant values to the research of the concept. Therefore, major research goals are listed as follows: First, understanding the development and impacts of the concept; Second, exploring underlying theories and narratives of strategic communication; Third, reviewing US practices of the concept in Gulf Wars; Forth, comparing the differences between the concept and ROC military’s political warfare system; Fifth, recommending relevant measures of strategic communication to the ROC government. 
This research discovered the following two facts. First, the strategic communication mechanism of US military and the mechanism of ROC military’s political warfare system share the same concept in nature. Second, the two also share the same approaches while performing missions. Third, the two face challenges in choosing the right names for their concepts. 
Last but not least, the paper proposes the following recommendations for the ROC government. First, a cross-department task force should be established as a platform to facilitate communications between the ministry and different governmental departments. Second, the US or mainland China are innovating new operational tactics in response to the change of operations patterns. In recent years, US organizations, mostly think tanks, have conducted numerous studies on the concepts of strategic communication. Meanwhile, China has also stepped up its efforts to conduct broad research on the same concept with abundant success. In 2018, RAND Corporation, a known US think bank, also released a report pointing out the fact that the ability to conduct political warfare is the key to effective strategic communication. It can be seen that the front of the political warfare, media communications, public publicity capabilities and the cultivation of professionals are inevitable. After the introduction of the concept of strategic communication, the political warfare system of the ROC military is facing pressure of transformation and renovation. However, relevant impacts and effects will be discussed in a separate paper, rather than this one. It is also a recommended research topic for future researchers.
Other Abstract
Table of Content (with Page Number)
第一章 緒論....................................1
第一節  研究緣起...............................1
第二節  研究動機與目......................…....16
第三節  研究途徑與方法.........................20
第四節  研究範圍與限制.........................23
第五節  研究架構..............................24
第二章 文獻檢評與相關理論探討..................26
第一節  文獻檢評:三種取徑的戰略溝通研究.........26
第二節  建構主義理論的建構與重構...............52
第三節  溝通理論對戰略溝通的詮釋與批判.........72
第四節  公關理論與戰略溝通的發展與融合.........77
第五節  綜合評析......................…....86
第三章 戰略溝通概念發展與影響..............88
第一節 戰略溝通概念之起源與定義............92
第二節 戰略溝通的爭議...................134
第三節 戰略溝通面臨的挑戰................155
第四節 小結............................165 
第四章 戰略溝通的實踐與成效.............167
第一節 波灣戰爭中戰略溝通的運行成效..….….167
第二節  波灣戰爭中的公共事務與資訊作戰....191
第三節 波灣戰爭中的心理與資訊作戰........198
第四節 波灣戰爭中的民事工作與民事作戰....205
第五節  小結...........................209
第五章 國軍政治作戰與戰略溝通...........211
第一節 政治作戰之概念與意涵.............211
第二節 我國政治作戰(戰略溝通)機制架構...232
第三節 美軍戰略溝通與國軍政治作戰之差異..243
第四節 小結...........................255
第六章 結論...........................257
第一節 研究總結與心得啟示..............257
第二節 結論與建議.....................266

圖1-1  研究架構圖.................................25
圖2-1  拉斯偉爾的單向訊息溝通模式...................43
圖2-2  公共關係(公眾外交)雙向對稱/非對稱溝通模式.....83
圖3-1  美國戰略溝通機制概念........................95
圖3-2  美國國家戰略溝通機制體系....................106
圖3-3  國家階層戰略溝通與軍事階層戰略溝通...........107
圖3-4  美國公眾外交組織圖.........................111
圖3-5 美陸軍戰略溝通作業流..............................................122
圖3-6  美軍事階層戰略溝通協調架構.............................................124
圖3-7  美軍戰略溝通規劃.............................................127
圖4-1  美國國防部戰略溝通實踐體系示意圖...........180
圖5-1  國防部(戰略溝通)體制架構..................233
圖5-2  聯合作戰政戰中心(戰略溝通)機制編組與職責....234
圖5-3  我國戰略溝通機制示意圖....................237

表1-1 公關溝通的四種模式........................80
表2-1 卓越戰略溝通與傳統戰略溝通之比較...........85
表3-1 指揮官戰略溝通原則.......................126
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