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System No. U0002-0808202123085400
Title (in Chinese) 機械化學磨削加工單晶碳化矽之研究
Title (in English) Study on Mechanical Chemical Grinding of Single Crystal Silicon Carbide
Other Title
Institution 淡江大學
Department (in Chinese) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
Department (in English) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
Other Division
Other Division Name
Other Department/Institution
Academic Year 109
Semester 2
PublicationYear 110
Author's name (in Chinese) 戴敬耘
Author's name(in English) Ching-Yun Tai
Student ID 608370341
Degree 碩士
Language Traditional Chinese
Other Language
Date of Oral Defense 2021-07-19
Pagination 110page
Committee Member advisor - Choung-Lii Chao
co-chair - 謝榮哲
co-chair - 周文成
Keyword (inChinese) 4H單晶碳化矽
機械化學磨削
表面粗糙度
氧化石墨烯
Keyword (in English) 4H-Single Crystal Silicon Carbide
Mechanical Chemical Grinding
Surface- Roughness
Graphene Oxide
Other Keywords
Subject
Abstract (in Chinese)
單晶碳化矽晶圓(Silicon Carbide,SiC)擁有寬能隙、高崩潰電壓及高熱傳導率之材料特性,且具有極高的硬度與抗化學之材料性質,隨著近年市場對於高功率元件之需求大幅提升,對能經濟有效量產高精度SiC晶圓的期望也日益殷切。但因SiC為超硬材料,必須克服加工後表面殘留之表面與次表面破壞,加工難度高,所花費之時間冗長導致成本增加。故本研究使用機械化學磨削(MCG)對其進行平面磨削,以添加氧化鈰、氧化石墨烯與不同粒徑鑽石之自製砂輪用不同加工參數分別對4H-單晶碳化矽之矽面與碳面進行加工,並探討其對材料移除率、磨削比、表面微結構及粗糙度(Ra)之影響。研究結果顯示在一般精密平磨機床上使用鑽石粒徑3-6μm以及0-1μm砂輪便可將4H單晶碳化矽的矽面加工到2nm和1nm之Ra;而碳面最則為3nm和2nm之Ra。
Abstract (in English)
Single crystal silicon carbide (SiC) has the material characteristics of wide energy gap, high breakdown voltage, high thermal conductivity, high hardness and good chemical resistance. As the market demands for high power devices continuously picking up, the expectation for cost-effective way of mass production precision SiC wafers is also growing sharply. However, SiC is normally categorized as difficult to machine material for its extreme hardness and brittleness. Scattered surface micro-cracks/micro-chipping together with deep-penetrated sub-surface cracks are often the consequence if the machining process of SiC is not properly handled. As a result, the precision machining of SiC is typically lengthy and costly. A mechanical chemical grinding (MCG) process was used in this study to suppress the mechanical damage might be introduced during grinding operation. Grinding wheels with various additives such as cerium oxide, graphene oxide and diamond powder of different grit sizes were designed and produced to grind 4H-SiC under different machining conditions. The machined surface was examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and confocal microscope and the obtained surface microstructure and surface roughness (Ra) were correlated to the wheel composition, machining parameters, material removal rate and grinding ratio. The results show that surface roughness (Ra) of 1 nm on Si-face and 2 nm on C-face of 4H-SiC can be achieved using the MCG wheel developed in this research on a typical precision surface grinding machine.
Other Abstract
Table of Content (with Page Number)
致謝	II
目錄	VII
表目錄	XII
第一章、	緒論	14
1-1前言	14
1-2研究動機	15
1-3研究目的	16
第二章、	文獻回顧及理論基礎	18
2-1單晶碳化矽基本材料特性介紹	18
2-2精密磨削加工材料移除機制	23
2-2-1碳化矽磨削	25
2-2-2機械化學拋光	26
2-2-3化學機械拋光	27
2-2-4 GO(Graphene Oxide)化學機械拋光	28
2-2-5 GO(Graphene Oxide)基本特性及製作方式	30
2-2-6 MCG(Mechanical Chemical Grinding)化學機械磨削	32
2-2-7 MCG(Mechanical Chemical Grinding)化學機械磨削專利	33
2-3磨削加工參數之討論與基本磨削機制補充	34
2-3-1砂輪之組成	35
2-3-2砂輪磨耗	35
2-3-3砂輪之修整	36
2-3-4砂輪磨料種類	37
2-3-5結合劑種類	38
2-3-6 氧化鈰磨料反應機制	39
2-3-7硬脆材料加工機制	41
第三章、	實驗方法及設備	44
3-1研究流程圖	44
3-2 研究設計	45
3-3 實驗設備	45
3-3-1砂輪製作所需之材料及設備	45
3-3-2實驗加工設備與材料	51
3-3-3量測分析儀器	56
3-4實驗步驟	61
3-4-1砂輪製作	61
3-4-2磨削實驗	64
第四章、	結果與討論	73
4-1立式磨床平面磨削單晶碳化矽之初步結果與討論	73
4-1-1單晶碳化矽試片表面觀察結果	75
4-1-2 MCG G-type、C-type砂輪表面觀察結果	86
4-1-3實際磨削深度比較、G-type砂輪G-ratio	91
4-2 MCG磨削單晶碳化矽結果比較	94
4-2-1不同轉速磨削實驗比較	95
4-2-2切深與表面粗糙度比較	96
4-2-3碳、矽面磨削實驗比較	98
4-2-4不同粒徑之機械磨料最佳表面粗糙度	99
4-2-5 G-type、C-type砂輪磨削實驗比較	100
第五章、	結論	102
第六章、	未來展望	104
參考文獻	105

圖目錄
圖2- 1晶體排列圖(3C 2H 4H 6H)【6】	19
圖2- 2單晶碳化矽結構 【6】	19
圖2- 3 4H-SiC堆疊圖ABCB 【7】	20
圖2- 4 6H-SiC堆疊圖ABCACB 【7】	21
圖2- 5 4H-SiC與6H-SiC晶體結構【9】	21
圖2- 6 4H-SiC晶體結晶面【9】	22
圖2- 7摩擦、犁切及切削三階段【11】	25
圖2- 8 (左)為同時吸附在PU上之SiO2與GO、(右)GO層狀結構導致CMP期間的潤滑效果【22】	29
圖2- 9氧化石墨烯結構示意圖【26】	31
圖2- 10三種不同碳化矽材料的相對豐度(Relative abundance)變化量比較【30】	34
圖2- 11鑽石磨粒磨耗情形【33】	36
圖2- 12砂輪修銳前後之表面形貌【34】	37
圖2- 13 SAGW磨削矽晶圓之移除機制【38】	41
圖2- 14延、脆性模式與表面粗糙度(Rz)比較【39】	43

圖3- 1研究流程圖	44
圖3- 2氧化鈰粉末	46
圖3- 3 939P酚醛樹脂	47
圖3- 4 551DU40發泡劑	48
圖3- 5氧化石墨烯	49
圖3- 6練太郎脫泡攪拌機	49
圖3- 7 60目孔徑250之篩網	50
圖3- 8大金Daifree GA-7500脫模劑	50
圖3- 9 SKD11基材之模具	51
圖3- 10真空熱壓成型機	51
圖3- 11 EQUIP TOP1224CNC精密加工機	52
圖3- 12 EQUIP TOP1224CNC精密加工機內部	52
圖3- 13 KGB-2010動平衡校正儀	54
圖3- 14動平衡校正過程	54
圖3- 15動平衡校正值	54
圖3- 16 4H-SiC試片	55
圖3- 17雷射共軛焦顯微鏡	57
圖3- 18 OLYMPUS-BX51M光學金相顯微鏡	59
圖3- 19 FlexSEM 1000可變真空掃描式電子顯微鏡	60
圖3- 20砂輪製作流程圖	62
圖3- 21磨削實驗流程圖	65
圖3- 22安裝砂條於台金上	65
圖3- 23組裝上機圖	66
圖3- 24砂輪動平衡校正值	67
圖3- 25千分表量測試片表面	68
圖3- 26千分表量測試片表面細節圖	68
圖3- 27立式磨床示意圖	71
圖3- 28砂輪磨削乾測與濕側示意圖	71
圖3- 29磨削實驗加工示意圖	72
圖3- 30實驗加工示意(試片)圖	72

圖4- 1量測表面粗糙度(Ra)之示意圖	75
圖4- 2試片裂紋圖(5μm/pass、500mm/min、2000rpm)	76
圖4- 3試片破裂圖	77
圖4- 4乾式磨削試片量測共軛焦3D示意圖(磨削碳面)	78
圖4- 5 濕式磨削試片量測共軛焦3D示意圖(磨削碳面)	79
圖4- 6 2500RPM乾、濕實際磨削深度變化圖	81
圖4- 7 3000RPM乾、濕實際磨削深度變化圖	84
圖4- 8 10000倍之SEM圖	85
圖4- 9添加氧化石墨烯之粒徑大小	89
圖4- 10 SEM之EDS元素分析圖	89
圖4- 11 SEM之EDS元素分析比例圖	90
圖4- 12 鑽石粉末粒徑大小	90
圖4- 13添加氧化石墨烯之3-6μmMCG砂輪磨耗3D圖	91
圖4- 14砂輪磨耗量與磨削深度之比較	92
圖4- 15 Si-Surface乾、濕磨轉速與Ra之比較圖	96
圖4- 16 C-Surface乾濕磨轉速與Ra之比較圖	96
圖4- 17 以相同切深觀察乾、濕式磨削對表面粗糙度之影響(矽面)	97
圖4- 18 以相同切深觀察乾、濕式磨削對表面粗糙度之影響(碳面)	98
圖4- 19 Si-Surface之有無添加氧化石墨烯與Ra之比較	100
圖4- 20 有添加氧化石墨烯之砂輪表面3D圖	101
圖4- 21 C-Surface之有無添加氧化石墨烯與Ra之比較	101

表目錄
表2- 1半導體材料之特性比較表【5】	18
表2- 2單晶矽與單晶碳化矽材料機械性質	23

表3- 1氧化鈰粉末之材料性質	46
表3- 2鑽石粉末粒徑大小	46
表3- 3 939P酚醛樹脂材料性質	47
表3- 4 551DU40材料性質	48
表3- 5氧化石墨烯粒徑大小	48
表3- 6 EQUIP TOP1224CNC精密加工機規格表	53
表3- 7 4H-SiC單晶碳化矽之材料性質	55
表3- 8 OLYMPUS OLS4100規格	58
表3- 9 FlexSEM 1000規格表	61
表3- 10加工參數設計表	70

表4- 1砂輪配方表(有添加氧化石墨烯)G-Type	73
表4- 2砂輪配方表(無添加氧化石墨烯)C-Type	74
表4- 3表面粗糙度粗量測	75
表4- 4磨削後試片殘留之沾黏物與表面裂紋(5μm/pass、500mm/min、2000rpm)	77
表4- 5乾式磨削2500RPM(第二刀)實際深度	80
表4- 6濕式磨削2500RPM(第二刀)實際深度	80
表4- 7 乾式磨削3000RPM(第三刀)實際深度	82
表4- 8 濕式磨削3000RPM(第三刀)實際深度	83
表4- 9 3000RPM磨削矽晶圓之式片磨削深度	85
表4- 10本次研究使用之砂輪	86
表4- 11砂輪齒片表面情形	87
表4- 12砂輪表面(a) 3-6μm G-type砂輪表面(b) 3-6μm C-type砂輪表面	88
表4- 13 2500RPM、3000RPM砂輪磨耗之平均高度	92
表4- 14 2500RPM與3000RPM之砂輪磨耗與試片磨削截面積	93
表4- 15 2500RPM與3000RPM之MCG砂輪磨削比	94
表4- 16 磨削結果表面線粗糙度與面粗糙度總表	95
表4- 17兩種不同粒徑之G-type、C-type砂輪磨削後之最佳Ra	99
表4- 18 0-1μm C-type分別於(a)矽面、(b)碳面之最佳表面粗糙度	99
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