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System No. U0002-0708201914412200
Title (in Chinese) 利用伺服控制探討單隻拍翼機之轉翼效應
Title (in English) WING ROTATION EFFECT ON AN ORNITHOPTER USING SERVO CONTROL
Other Title
Institution 淡江大學
Department (in Chinese) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
Department (in English) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
Other Division
Other Division Name
Other Department/Institution
Academic Year 107
Semester 2
PublicationYear 108
Author's name (in Chinese) 潘明希
Author's name(in English) Nikhil Panchal
Student ID 606375011
Degree 碩士
Language English
Other Language
Date of Oral Defense 2019-06-21
Pagination 73page
Committee Member advisor - Yang Lung Jieh
co-chair - Prof Yuan Lung Lo
co-chair - Prof Yuh-Chung Hu
Keyword (inChinese) 拍翼機
伺服控制
轉翼
Keyword (in English) Ornithopter
servo control
wing rotation
Other Keywords
Subject
Abstract (in Chinese)
本論文針對拍翼式微飛行器(FWMAV)或拍翼機,藉由結合延遲失速與機翼旋轉,展現較進階的空氣動力特性。本論文之伺服馬達建構具有兩組伺服系統的拍翼,一組用於拍撲,另一組則用於使機翼旋轉。伺服馬達組裝時使用的組件由CAD軟體設計,並以3D列印機進行製作,使用的列印材質為HIPS和ASA-PRO。機身採碳纖維桿製作以盡可能減少重量。並使用Arduino微處理晶片控制伺服馬達,方便隨時改寫控制指令以符合測試需要。拍翼機整體重量為121克,翼展達到96cm。 
	拍翼式微飛行器維持飛行所需升力與轉翼有極密切的關係。為驗證新型拍翼的性能,分別進行了2m尺寸的大風洞測試與繫繩懸吊飛行測試。測試結果顯示,有轉翼的升力比無轉翼的情形高出40%。此地使用脈衝寬度調變(PWM) 驅動之等效電壓值為2V ~ 8V,對應之拍翼頻率為1.4Hz ~ 2.7Hz。
Abstract (in English)
This thesis presents the upgraded aerodynamic execution of flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) or ornithopter results from a cooperation of the  delayed stall and wing rotation (or rotational circulation). Utilizing servo innovation to structure a flapping wing with two pair of servos. One pair is used for flapping and the other pair for wing rotation. Also, components used in the assembly of the servo-driven FWMAV are designed in CAD software and made by a 3D printer using materials like HIPS and ASA-PRO. Carbon fiber rods are used as fuselage in order to keep total weight as light as possible. Arduino microcontroller is used for control which makes FWMAV more customizable according to the need. The total weigh of the ornithopter is 121 g and the wing span is 96 cm.
The lift enhancement required to keep FWMAVs in the air has a strong relationship with wing rotation. For verifying the performance of the new FWMAV, the lift measurement in a wind tunnel with 2m test section size and a tethered flight test are both done. Total aerodynamic lift increment in case of the ornithopter with wing rotation was observed to be 40% when the results are compared to the ornithopter without wing rotation. The equivalent voltage of the pulse width modulation (PWM) driving is ranged as 2V, 5V, and 8V, and the corresponding flapping frequency is 1.4Hz, 1.6Hz, and 2.7Hz.
Other Abstract
Table of Content (with Page Number)
Contents
Acknowledgement	VI
Contents	VII
List of Figure	IX
List of Table	XII
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION	1
1.1	Flapping wings and wing rotation	1
1.2	Literature Review	2
CHAPTER 2: SERVO – DRIVEN FLAPPING	7
2.1	Servo introduction	7
2.2	Importance of Servo Torque	8
2.3	Servo Flapping Mechanism	9
2.4	Wing Rotation	13
2.5	Advance and delayed wing rotation	15
2.6	3D printed parts	16
CHAPTER 3: FLIGHT CONTROL OF SERVO – DRIVEN FLAPPING	18
3.1	Arduino Flight System	18
3.2	Control Analogy	20
3.3	Tethered Flight	25
3.4	Wing Rotation servo ornithopter Tethered Flight	27
3.5	Wind Tunnel Testing	29
CHAPTER 4: WIND TUNNEL TESTING	32
4.1	Wind Tunnel Data Analysis	32
4.2	Wing Stress Analysis	44
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION	47
REFERENCES	49
APPENDIX A	53
A.1 3D Printing	53
A.2 Basic code for servo	54
A.3 Basic Servo knob code	55
A.4 Two servo flapping code	56
A.5 Wing rotation servo ornithopter Arduino code	60
APPENDIX B	64
B.1 Cut-off fft	64
B.2 FFT	66
APPENDIX C	67
C.1 With wing Rotation wind tunnel data	67
C.2 Without wing rotation wind tunnel data	70
Publication	73

List of Figure
Figure 1.1 Three axis wing rotation robotic fly apparatus 	3
Figure 1.2 Close-up view of robotic fly with force sensor and gear box 	4
Figure 1.3 Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster wing rotation 	4
Figure 1.4 RoboBee on the tip of a finger .	5

Figure 2.1 Cross section of digital servo	7
Figure 2.2 Flapping wing servo	8
Figure 2.3 Wing rotation flapping mechanism	10
Figure 2.4 The 1st version of the main servo mount.	10
Figure 2.5 Servo ornithopter servo mount, fuselage and tail.	11
Figure 2.6 Main flapping servo mount	11
Figure 2.7 Front view of servo ornithopter	12
Figure 2.8 Isometric view of servo ornithopter	12
Figure 2.9 Top view of servo ornithopter	12
Figure 2.10 Front view of main flapping servo	14
Figure 2.11 Side view of wing rotation servo	14
Figure 2.12 Animation of the servo mechanism capable of wing	15
Figure 2.13 Servo mount CAD design	16
Figure 2.14 3D printed servo mount	16
Figure 2.15 Design of 3D printed tail part with servo	17
Figure 2.16 fixed tail 3D printed part	17
Figure 2.17 3D printed wing rotation servo parts	17

Figure 3.1 Connection diagram for one servo control	19
Figure 3.2 DEVO 10 channel transmitter for 2.4 GHz signal transmission	20
Figure 3.3 Basic servo control through Arduino Uno	21
Figure 3.4 Required components for servo ornithopter	22
Figure 3.5 Flow chart for flapping and wing rotation motion	24
Figure 3.6 Cruising trajectory of servo ornithopter tethered 	25
Figure 3.7  Servo ornithopter circular trajectory cursing (a), (b) and (c)	26
Figure 3.8 With wing rotation servo ornithopter tethered flight	27
Figure 3.9 Tethered flight of servo ornithopter with wing rotation 	28
Figure 3.10 Movable platform for experiment setup	30
Figure 3.11 Six-axis force sensor and servo ornithopter in wind tunnel	30
Figure 3.12 High-speed camera setup	31
Figure 3.13 Image from high speed camera	31

Figure 4.1 Lift signal form 20 cm wingspan MAV 	32
Figure 4.2 Lift signal (time domain) from servo ornithopter	33
Figure 4.3 Flapping lift (frequency domain) of the servo 	33
Figure 4.4 Double peak waveform in servo ornithopter with wing rotation	33
Figure 4.5 CL vs. Re 20 cm wingspan MAV 	34
Figure 4.6 Lift signal (time domain) from servo ornithopter	34
Figure 4.7 Flapping lift (frequency domain) of the servo	35
Figure 4.8 Thrust waveform of servo ornithopter with wing rotation	35
Figure 4.9 Thrust waveform servo ornithopter without wing rotation	35
Figure 4.10 Lift and thrust waveforms of servo ornithopter with wing rotation	36
Figure 4.11 Lift and thrust waveforms of servo ornithopter	36
Figure 4.12 CL vs. Re at 2V without wing rotation	37
Figure 4.13 CL vs. Re at 5V without wing rotation	37
Figure 4.14 CL vs. Re at 8V without wing rotation	38
Figure 4.15 CL vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation	39
Figure 4.16 CL vs. Re at 5V with wing rotation	39
Figure 4.17 CL vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation	40
Figure 4.18 CT vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation	41
Figure 4.19 CT vs. Re at 5V with wing rotation	41
Figure 4.20 CT vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation	42
Figure 4.21 CT vs. Re at 2V without wing rotation	43
Figure 4.22 CT vs. Re at 5V without wing rotation	43
Figure 4.23 CT vs. Re at 8V without wing rotation	44
Figure 4.24 Vertical deflection of different wings [45]	45
Figure 4.25 Vertical deflection of wings in servo ornithopter	46

Figure C.1 Lift vs. voltage at 1.5 m/s with rotation	67
Figure C.2 Lift vs. voltage at 1.7 m/s with rotation	67
Figure C.3 Lift vs. voltage at 2 m/s with rotation	68
Figure C.4 Lift vs. voltage at 2.25 m/s with rotation	68
Figure C.5 Lift vs. voltage at 2.5 m/s with rotation	69
Figure C.6 Lift vs. voltage at 2.7 m/s with rotation	69
Figure C.7 Lift vs. voltage at 1.5 m/s without rotation	70
Figure C.8 Lift vs. voltage at 1.7 m/s without rotation	70
Figure C.9 Lift vs. voltage at 2 m/s without rotation	71
Figure C.10 Lift vs. voltage at 2.25 m/s without rotation	71
Figure C.11 Lift vs. voltage at 2.5 m/s without rotation	72
Figure C.12 Lift vs. voltage at 1.5 m/s without rotation	72
List of Table
Table 2.1 Specification of wing rotation servo ornithopter	13
Table 2.2 Flapping angle, frequency and voltage	14

Table 3.1 Specification of Atmega328p 	18
Table 3.2 Connection pins	20
Table 3.3 Connections for servo	21
Table 3.4 Connection for servo ornithopter for wing rotation	23
Table 3.5 Specification of servo ornithopter without wing rotation	25
Table 3.6 Specification of wind tunnel	29

Table 4.1 Wing deflection	45
Table 4.2 Different material and parameters for the flapping wings	46
References
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