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System No. U0002-0608201911305600
Title (in Chinese) 提高拍翼升力之單向閥門製作
Title (in English) Fabrication of Check Valves on Flapping Wings for Lift Enhancement
Other Title
Institution 淡江大學
Department (in Chinese) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
Department (in English) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
Other Division
Other Division Name
Other Department/Institution
Academic Year 107
Semester 2
PublicationYear 108
Author's name (in Chinese) 王偉丞
Author's name(in English) Wei-Chen Wang
Student ID 606370053
Degree 碩士
Language English
Other Language
Date of Oral Defense 2019-06-21
Pagination 81page
Committee Member advisor - Lung-Jieh Yang
co-chair - 胡毓忠
co-chair - 羅元隆
Keyword (inChinese) 單向閥門
自然頻率
PET翼模設計
Keyword (in English) Check Valves
Natural frequency
Wing design
Other Keywords
Subject
Abstract (in Chinese)
本篇論文提供一個新型的翼膜設計概念,即針對舊式的PET翼膜安裝單向閥門(check valve),使其在拍翼機進行拍翼的過程中,藉由單向閥門於拍翼上行程時開啟閥門,而下行程時關閉閥門的開合控制降低翼膜所需承受的空氣阻力,而達到提升拍翼升力的目的。文章中也會提及各式的加工技巧以及軟體操作概念輔助,進行諸如機構設計以及結構、自然頻率分析等,所使用的軟體包括Solidworks和ANSYS,其中Solidworks主要輔助機構以及單向閥門結構設計,而ANSYS軟體則是用於單向閥門在拍翼運動中之自然頻率模擬量測,藉由頻率響應之計算與分析來確保閥門的設計在翼膜上運作之實用性以及可靠性,本論文最終所設計之單向閥門,經過自然頻率分析所得到之結果為17.86Hz,以低通濾波的概念來說明,其成功達到所期望之高於拍翼頻率(14Hz)的範圍,從而認定此單向閥門之設計是可行的。此外本論文也提及到運用傳統加工的方式如切割機的運作,輔助製作單向閥門。
    風洞實驗在本篇論文中的主要目的是比較翼膜在有無安裝單向閥門間之升力差異,以便做進一步的單向閥門設計與校正。本研究最終目的為研發出能夠藉由降低拍翼阻力來達到提升平均拍翼升力之單向閥門,並以20cm翼展之「金探子」PET拍翼膜為例,在加裝半徑7.43mm之三樑式單向閥門後,在3.7V電壓,傾斜角30度,自由流速3.0m/s下,輸出平均升力25.5gf,高於無安裝單向閥門拍翼平均升力86%。
Abstract (in English)
This thesis provides the new concept, which is related to the wing membrane where some check valves were attached on the wing membrane, which acts as an actuator. The opening and closing of check valves will help in reducing the air resistance of the wing during the upstroke, which can improve in the overall lift during the flapping. This article also demonstrates the various processing technique and software processing like mechanism design, flow field analysis, and more. The software which made in use was Solidworks and ANSYS where Solidworks was used primarily for design and development of various structure like check valve structure design, and more and ANSYS was used for the analysis of natural frequency on the wing membrane during to flapping process in order to facilitate the availability of check valves design on the wing membrane. The result of natural frequency comes to 17.86Hz, which is in anticipation of the range that higher than flapping frequency (14Hz) by frequency response analysis. As the conception of low-pass filter, it is easy to quantify the effect of check valves on flapping. In this study, it also mentions the traditional processing methods like the operation of cutting machine-auxiliary production of check valve.
The wind tunnel experiment was conducted where the comparison was made with and without the check valves. Furthermore, wing design calibration has also been conducted. The final objective for this experiment was to develop a check valve that can increase the overall lift by reducing the wind resistance during the upstroke. For the current study, Evans mechanism was used with 20cm wingspan of PET as the wing membrane the check valve with three beams of radius 7.43mm was used which get active during the downstroke. At 3.7V with 30 inclined angle at 30(m/s) wind velocity the average output of lift was 25.5(gf) which is 86% higher than the valve less model.
Other Abstract
Table of Content (with Page Number)
CONTENT
Chapter 1  Introduction	1
1-1  Research background	1
1-2  Literature review	2
Chapter 2  Motivation and Procedure of Design	7
2-1  The production of NACA wing model	7
2-2  The final result of NACA wing made by parylene coating	9
Chapter 3  Check Valve Design for Flapping Wings	12
3-1  Conception design of check valve wing	12
3-2  The evolution of check valves	16
3-2-1  A new design of check valve with 3 beams	18
3-2-2  A derivation of specification for check valves	29
3-3  Calculation of check valve efficiency	21
3-4  Natural frequency simulation of check valves	24
3-5  Wind tunnel experiment of a flapping wing with check valves	26
3-6  Improvement of check valves in new dimension	30
3-7  Wind tunnel experiment of check valves in dimension	32
Chapter 4  Results and Discussion	35
4-1  Observation on check valve by high-speed camera	35
4-2  Flight testing of FWMAV with check valves	36
Chapter 5  Conclusion and Future Work	40
REFERENCES	43
APPENDIX A	48
APPENDIX B	54
APPENDIX C	62
APPENDIX D	66
Publication List	81


 
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 (a)Initiator, (b)Eagle II  4
Figure 1.2 Golden Snitch  5
Figure 1.3 FWMAV with voice coil motor  6
Figure 2.1 3D Printer LPD Plus technology  8
Figure 2.2 Parameter of aerofoil  11
Figure 3.1 The function of check valve in flapping motion 13
Figure 3.2 The check valve made by cutting machine  14
Figure 3.3 The first type of check valve design by AutoCAD  14
Figure 3.4 The second type of check valve design by AutoCAD  14
Figure 3.5 The process of making wing with check valve  15
Figure 3.6 The wing with check valve before doing HCL melting  16
Figure 3.7 The production of wing with 30 check valves 16
Figure 3.8 The fluid field simulation from COMSOL software  17
Figure 3.9 The proper arrangement of hole on the wing surface  18
Figure 3.10 Illustration of check valve  20
Figure 3.11 The dimension of check valve in new design  20
Figure 3.12 The check valve made by cutting machine  21
Figure 3.13 The FWMAV fix with check valve 21
Figure 3.14 The Bode plot of frequency  23
Figure 3.15 The check valve made by cutting machine  25
Figure 3.16 The stress distribution on check valves  26
Figure 3.17 The 6-Component load cell of wind tunnel 27
Figure 3.18 Wind tunnel in Tamkang University  27
Figure 3.19 The experiment data of lift force testing with original wing  29
Figure 3.20 The weight comparison  30
Figure 3.21 The dimensions of new check valve in 7.43mm radius  31
Figure 3.22 The substance of check valve in new design  31
Figure 3.23 The arrangement of new check valve  32
Figure 3.24 The data of lift force testing in new check valve 33
Figure 3.25 The graph of lift coefficient vs. Reynolds number in different voltage  34
Figure 4.1 The motion of check valves in flapping sequence  36
Figure 4.2 Weight distribution . 38
Figure 5.1 Flight testing  42
Figure A.1 The NACA wing mode design by SolidWork software  48
Figure A.2 PDMS liquid pouring in NACA wing mode  48
Figure A.3 The PDMS film release from silicon wafer 49
Figure A.4 The NACA0012 wing model made by PDMS  49
Figure A.5 The prototype of NACA wing design  50
Figure A.6 NACA wing making layer-by-layer in AutoCad software  50
Figure A.7 Coating layer arrangement on the PET wing surface  51
Figure A.8 The PET wing was wrapped by aluminium foil  51
Figure A.9 The Graphtec cutting plotter CE5000-60  52
Figure A.10 The MEMS process of wing with check valves  52
Figure A.11 The LH 300- parylene coating machine  53
Figure A.12 The staples were removed by HCL etching  53
Figure A.13 Evans mechanism in new design  56
Figure A.14 Stress contour of modified Evans mechanism  57
Figure A.15 Displacement plot of modified Evans mechanism  57
Figure A.16 Polycarbonate mechanism assembly  58
Figure A.17 Visijet SL Flex mechanism assembly  59
Figure A.18 Visijet M2R-Wt mechanism assembly 59
Figure A.19 Low speed sub sonic wind tunnel in Vel Tech University, India 61
Figure A.20 Test section of wind tunnel in Vel Tech University, India  61
Figure A.21 The raw data of lift force  62
Figure A.22 The raw data of lift force  63
Figure A.23 Flapping lift (frequency domain) of FWMAV with check valves . 63
Figure A.24 Lift signal (time domain) from FWMAV with check valves  63
Figure A.25 Lift force with inclined angle 20°, 3.0V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)
 66
Figure A.26 Lift force with inclined angle 20°, 3.4V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)67
Figure A.27 Lift force with inclined angle 20°, 3.7V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)68
Figure A.28 Lift force with inclined angle 30°, 3.0V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d) 69
Figure A.29 Lift force with inclined angle 30°, 3.4V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)70
Figure A.30 Lift force with inclined angle 30°, 3.7V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d) 71
Figure A.31 Lift force with inclined angle 50°, 3.0V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c)72
Figure A.32 Lift force with inclined angle 50°, 3.4V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 73
Figure A.33 Lift force with inclined angle 50°, 3.7V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 74
Figure A.34 Lift force with inclined angle 60°, 3.0V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 75
Figure A.35 Lift force with inclined angle 60°, 3.4V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 76
Figure A.36 Lift force with inclined angle 60°, 3.7V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 77
Figure A.37 Lift force with inclined angle 70°, 3.0V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c)78
Figure A.38 Lift force with inclined angle 70°, 3.4V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 79
Figure A.39 Lift force with inclined angle 70°, 3.7V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 80


LIST OF TABLE
Table 3.1 Material selection for check valve 25
Table 4.1 Weight distribution  37
Table 4.2 The specification and pixel of high speed camera 38
Table 4.3 The comparison with check valve in different types and normal wing ....... 39
Table A.1 Evans mechanism assembly  55
Table A.2 The material property of Evans mechanism under 3D printing  60
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