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System No. U0002-0607202116172200
Title (in Chinese) 印尼、馬來西亞與菲律賓三國鄰接區的恐怖主義、海盜、綁架與相關非傳統安全威脅的綜合治理方案
Title (in English) Terrorism, Piracy, Kidnapping and Related Non-Traditional Security Threats in the INDOMALPHI’s Tri-Border Area: A Multidisciplinary, Integrated Approach
Other Title
Institution 淡江大學
Department (in Chinese) 國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
Department (in English) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
Other Division
Other Division Name
Other Department/Institution
Academic Year 109
Semester 2
PublicationYear 110
Author's name (in Chinese) 安立馗
Author's name(in English) Enrico Cau
Student ID 804335023
Degree 博士
Language English
Other Language
Date of Oral Defense 2021-06-24
Pagination 324page
Committee Member advisor - Wang Gao-Cheng
co-chair - Lin Juo-Yu
co-chair - Li Da-Zhong
co-chair - Liu Fu-Kuo
co-chair - Zhang Chung-Yong
Keyword (inChinese) 東南亞

Keyword (in English) Southeast Asia
Tri-Border Region (TBA)
Non-Traditional Security
Security Studies
Maritime threats
Other Keywords
Abstract (in Chinese)
位於印尼、馬來西亞和菲律賓 (INDOMALPHI) 交匯點的戰略位置,並作為印度洋和太平洋之間的交叉點,三邊區 (TBA) 長期以來一直以歷史、地理和社會經濟的獨特組合為特徵、政治和文化因素導致該地區變成了非人為和人為的非傳統安全 (NTS) 威脅的熔爐,這些威脅由不同的非國家暴力行為者 (NSVA) 實施,其影響超越了當地層面並承擔跨國特徵。該地區作為恐怖分子、海盜和綁架者的物流樞紐、中轉站和避風港發揮著至關重要的作用,這些構成了十年來阻礙該地區安全、穩定和發展的核心威脅三位一體。迄今為止,為阻止該地區的此類核心威脅三元組和其他 NTS 威脅而採取的安全方法已證明無法為長期穩定提供可行的安全框架。 該研究通過調查三個主要研究問題,為分析和解決 INDOMALPHI-TBA 中的核心威脅三元組和相關 NTS 威脅提供了一種新方法。該地區的安全現狀、安全生態系統的現狀和不足、其不足以及可能的解決方案。該研究廣泛側重於對 INDOMALPHI-TBA 的地緣政治、威脅和安全性質的分析,以全面了解 TBA 的威脅和安全格局。 這一目標是通過使用約翰杜威實用主義分析模型的修改版本作為理論視角,並通過解構-重構轉型方法實現的,提供地緣政治、威脅和安全方法的重新概念化視角,提供對該地區的全新、創新視角以及它的威脅。 由此產生的場景將 TBA 確定為一個由犯罪和恐怖之間的混雜產生的多元化治理系統,其中各種性質的威脅和權力通過合作和競爭無縫相互作用,產生自動催化、自我延續的過程,其中核心威脅三合會只是多重威脅中的一個。威脅和乾預因素的集群,其影響影響所有地緣政治層,遠遠超出 TBA 的狹窄地理邊界。 威脅分析確定了五個主要的威脅集群和相互交互的相關變量,導致威脅週期的延續,其中原因和後果承擔可互換的角色。 對安全形勢的分析認為,當前的安全方法以過度使用強制性軍事力量、分散的方法和缺乏合作為特徵,不適合緩解固有的整體性和跨國性挑戰。分析進一步確定了三個宏觀領域的缺陷:地緣政治法律、物質和概念。 特別是,傳統分析經常忽略的概念方面在威脅和解決方案的重新概念化中起著至關重要的作用。由此產生的解決方案是一個整體的、綜合的和多維的理論與實踐 3 階段方法,其總體目標是安全生產、更好的治理和發展,以實現長期區域穩定。
Abstract (in English)
Strategically situated at the intersection between Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines (INDOMALPHI), and acting as a crossing point between the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Tri-Border Area (TBA) has long been characterized by a unique combination of historical, geographic, socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have contributed to turn the region into a crucible of non-human made and human-made non-traditional security (NTS) threats carried out by different Non-State Violent Actors (NSVAs, whose implications transcend the local dimension and assume transnational traits. The region plays a crucial role as a logistic hub, transit point and a safe haven for terrorists, pirates and kidnappers. This core threat triad is but the most prominent of a set of clusters of threats that have, for decades, hindered the security, stability and development of the region. The security approaches adopted to stem such core threat triad and other NTS threats in the region have to date proved unable to provide a viable security framework for long-term stability.
The study offers a new approach to the analysis of causes and solutions for the mitigation of the core threat triad and associated NTS threats in the INDOMALPHI-TBA by investigating three main research questions. The current status of security in the region, the status and the shortcomings of the security ecosystem, its shortcomings, and the potential solutions. The study broadly focuses on the analysis of geopolitics, threats and the nature of security across the INDOMALPHI-TBA to gain a holistic understanding of its threats and security landscape.
Such goal is achieved by using a modified version of John Dewey’s Pragmatist model of analysis as a theoretical lens, and through a transformative approach providing a reconceptualized perspective of geopolitics, threats and security methods, offering a fresh, innovative perspective on the region and of its threats.
The resulting scenario identifies the TBA as a diversely governed system resulting from a conflation between crime and terror where threats and powers of various nature interact seamlessly through cooperation and competition, generating autocatalytic, self-perpetuating processes where the core threat triad is but one of multiple clusters of threats and intervening factors whose effects affect all geopolitical layers, reaching well beyond the narrow geographical boundaries of the TBA.
The analysis of threats identifies five major clusters of threats and related variables that interact with each other, contributing to the perpetuation of a threat cycle, where causes and consequences assume interchangeable roles once the process becomes autocatalytic.
The analysis of the security landscape argues that current security methods, characterized by an excessive use of coercive, military force, fragmented approaches and lack of cooperation are ill suited for the mitigation of a challenge that is inherently holistic and transnational. The analysis further identifies three macroareas of shortcomings: geopolitical-legal, material and conceptual.
In particular, the conceptual aspect, often overlooked by traditional analysis, plays a crucial role in the reconceptualization of threats and solutions. The resulting solution is a holistic, integrated and multidimensional theory-cum-praxis 3-stage approach revolving on a combination of narratives and actions aimed at producing a mindset and environmental transformation whose overarching goals are the production of security, better governance and development for long term regional stability.
Other Abstract
Table of Content (with Page Number)
List of Tables and Figures	X
Abbreviations	XII
Chapter I – Introduction	1
1.1	- Research Background and Research Questions	1
1.1.1 - Relevance of the Study.	10
1.1.2 – Research Questions	11
1.2 – Literature Review	11
1.2.1 – The lack of an Asian School of IRs and Why it Matters for the Security of ASEAN and the INDOMALPHI-TBA.	12 – The Debate on IR in Southeast Asia	15
1.2.2 - The Elephant in the Room: The Shortcomings of Western IR Theory and the Absence of Non-Western Theory in Asia.	26
1.2.3 - The State of Security Theory in the Sea: Between Western-Centrism and the Lack of a Real Regional Security Model.	28 –The Copenhagen School and the Others	29 - The New Wave of Security Scholars	34 – The Status of Security Analysis in the INDOMALPHI-TBA: A Tale of Coercion and Contingency	39 - The Insecurity Industry	46 - Understanding ASEAN’s Role and Process in the Security Ecosystem of the SEA Region: Ambiguity and Aversion to Metrics	48
1.3 – Research Approach and Research Method	51
1.3.1 – Understanding Variables: Dependent, Independent, Intervening Variables and the Threat Cycle.	52
1.3.2 - Research Approach and Research Method: Pragmatism as a Theoretical Lens	56
1.3.3 – Research Method	63
1.4 – Research Framework and Study Layout	64
Chapter II – A Historical Background of the INDOMALPHI-TBA: Pre-colonialism, Colonialism, Post-colonialism and the Rise of Islamism	68
2.1 – The Three Major Stages in the History of INDOMALPHI-TBA and the Relationship Between Colonialism and Islam	69
2.2 - Patterns of Islamization in the INDOMALPHI: The Colonial and the Postcolonial Eras	75
2.2.1 - Indonesia	81 - Indonesia Under Sukarno and the Era of Guided Democracy	82 - Suharto and the New Order	84 - The Fall of Suharto and the Democratization of Indonesia	86 - The Rise of Political Islam and the First Terrorist Groups in Indonesia	87 - Jemaah Islamiyah: Origins, Role and Evolution	89
2.2.2 - Malaysia	92
2.2.3 - Philippines	96
3.1 – Understanding How Threats Shaped in the INDOMALPHI-TBA	105
Figure 3.1. Mapping of the main terrorist and insurgent groups in the INDOMALPHI: Source: Author	108
3.1.1 – The Status of Terrorism in the Philippines: A Prime of Dynamics and Main Groups	109 - Mindanao and the TBA After the BARMM: Between Opportunities and Uncertainties	112 – Quick Profiles of the Main Terrorist Groups in the INDOMALPHI-TBA	115
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)	115
Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF)	117
Maute Group	119
Jemaah Islamiyah Philippines (JIP)	120
Ansar Khalifa Philippines (AKP)	122
Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) – National Democratic Front (NDF) - New People’s Army (NPA)	123
3.1.2 - The Status of Terrorism in Indonesia and Malaysia: A Primer	128
3.1.3 – Maritime threats: Piracy, Kidnapping for Ransom and the Land-Sea Nexus	134
3.1.4 - Transnational Nature of Threats and the Land-Sea Nexus in the INDOMALPHI-TBA.	139
3.1.5 - The Role of Islam in Terrorism and Radicalization: Myth and Reality	142
3.1.6 – Associated Crimes and Emerging Threats	146
3.2 – Causes	149
3.2.1 - Socioeconomic, Historical Grievances and Local Power Politics as Driving Causes of Instability	149
3.2.2 – Climate Change, Natural Disasters, Pandemics	150
3.2.3 – Intervening Factors as Modifiers, Enablers Catalyzers and Multipliers	151 – Clannism, Dynastic Power, Elites, Kinships; the Nexus Between Politics, Terrorism, Crime and Corruption	152 – The Overlooked Role of Narratives	153
3.3 - Understanding the Threat Cycle: Terrorism and Related Threats as Part of a System.	158
Chapter IV – The Security Ecosystems of ASEAN and INDOMALPHI-TBA.	166
4.1 – Origins and Evolution of ASEAN’s Security Ecosystem: A Primer	166
4.2 – Security Ecosystems in the INDOMALPHI-TBA: The Weight of History, Interests, Contingencies and Constraints	175
4.3 – The Security Ecosystem in the INDOMALPHI-TBA.	184
4.3.1 - 3 Different Legal and Operational Cultures in Counterterrorism And Deradicalization	184
The Indonesian Model	185
The Malaysian Model	190
The Philippines Model	192
4.3.2 – Cooperation Between INDOMALPHI Countries	193
4.3.3 – The INDOMALPHI and the Others: Security Cooperation with Foreign Countries	198
Indonesia	202
Malaysia	207
The Philippines	211
Chapter V – Challenges and ways forward: Towards an integrated, multidisciplinary approach for the security of the INDOMALPHI-TBA.	224
5.1 – Three Macrogroups of Issues	224
5.2 - A New Security Model for the INDOMALPHI-TBA: A Three-Staged Process to Change Temperature in the Water.	228
5.2.1 - Introducing the Model	229
5.2.2 – Identifying and Operationalizing the Mainstays: The Whos, the Whats and the Hows	231
The Whos: Determining and Addressing Power Sources and Power Dynamics	232
The Whats: Core Measures and Prioritization Rationale	235
The Hows: Operationalizing a Multi-Stage Process of Theory Cum Praxis	238
Stage I - Transformation	240
Stage II – Expansion-Consolidation	244
Stage III – Refinement-Consolidation	246
5.3 – The Role of Key Factors	247
5.3.1 – The Role of the Communities.	247
5.3.2 – The Role of Political and Business Elites.	249
5.3.3 – The Role of Academe Educators, Analysts and the Others	250
5.3.4 - The Role of the Military	252
5.3.5 – The Role of Cooperation and Integration	253
5.3.6- The Role of Socio-Economic Measures	254
5.3.7 – The Role of Corruption	255
5.3.8 - The Role of Extremism Prevention and Counter-Terrorism Measures.	257
5.3.9 - The Role of Material Capabilities	259 - What capabilities?	259 – Funding Procurement.	261
5.4 – Assessing Progresses and Results	264
Chapter VI – Conclusions.	267
6.1 – Genesis of The Study	267
Reconceptualizing Geopolitics	268
Reconceptualizing Threats	268
Reconceptualizing the Security Landscape	269
6.2 – Finding Solutions	270
Future Research in the Area of Political Analysis: Investigating the Strategic Relevance of the TBA in the Context of Great Power Competition.	272
Annex 1. Amitav Acharya’s Modified Model of Security Framework of Analysis	275
Bibliography	278

List of Tables and Figures

Figure 1.1. The Tri-Border Area	1
Figure 1.2. Representation of the reconceptualized geopolitical layers. Source: Author	6
Figure 1.3. Philosophy-to-Praxis Pyramid	13
Figure 1.4. Variables, threat clusters and the dynamics of the threat cycle.	53
Figure 1.5. Dewey’s classic model of inquiry (Source: Morgan, David L. "Pragmatism as a Paradigm for Social Research.")	61
Figure 1.6. Modified model of inquiry by D. Morgan (Source: Anil Kaushik. "Computer-based collaborative concept mapping: Motivating Indian secondary students to learn science." Massey University, 2017.	61
Figure 1.7. Modified model of analysis based on Morgan’s Pragmatist model (Source: Author)	63
Figure 1.8. Research framework	66
Figure 2.1. Spheres of interest in Southeast Asia during the high colonial age, 1870-1914	  77
Figure 3.1. Mapping of the main terrorist and insurgent groups in the INDOMALPHI: Source: Author	107
Figure 3.2. Structure of Daulah Islamiyah in the Philippines (as of June 2020. Source: Author.)	123
Figure 3.3. The land-based cycle feeding maritime security threats in the Sulu and Celebes Seas. (Source: STABLE SEAS: Sulu and Celebes Seas - Executive Summary, February 2019)	138
Figure 3.4. Network of strategic chokepoints in the SEA region. Source: Stable Seas – Sulu and Celebes Seas	140
Figure 3.5. The cycle of terror arbitrage and geopolitical hierarchy of the INDOMALPHI countries in the threat cycle. Source: Author	147
Figure 3.6. Sources and effects of narratives on three major macrogroups in the security ecosystem of the INDOMALPHI-TBA. Source: Author	156
Figure 3.7. Distances between INDOMALPHI capitals and the TBA. Source: Stable Seas – Sulu and Celebes Seas.	161
Figure 3.8. The Threat Cycle. Source: Author	164
Figure 3.9. Behavioral dynamics of the threat cycle in the INDOMALPHI-TBA. Source: Author	165
Figure 4.1. Diagram of the Main Structure of ASEAN’s Security Ecosystem Source: Author from various sources	175
Figure 5.1. Graphic representation of the strategic stalemate. Source: Author	229
Figure 5.2. Actionable vs non-actionable areas in the initial approach to the resolution of the Strategic Stalemate	231
Figure 5.3. Representation of power dynamics, power layers and power stakeholders across the INDOMALPHI and the TBA proper. Source: Author	235
Figure 5.4. Schematics of the 3-Stage Process and its overarching goals	239
Figure 5.5. Philosophy-to-Praxis Pyramid and its basic dynamics	252
Figure 5.6. The Theory-to-Praxis Cycle. Source: Author	263
Figure 5.7. Modified Dewey’s pragmatist model adopted for performance assessment.	265

Table 3.1. Key properties of systems according to systems theory	159
Table 4.1. Regulations on counterterrorism in Indonesia	188
Table 4.2. Number and location of incidents reported in Asia during 2007-2020.	196
Table 4.3. Philippine Defense Cooperation with Indo-Pacific partners	221
Table 5.1. Overview of the three macroareas of shortcomings and the major areas affected.	225
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Journal articles
"Autocatalytic Models of Counter-Terrorism in East and Southeast Asia: An International Comparative Analysis of China, Indonesia, and Thailand." The George Washington International Law Review 50, no. 3 (2018), 465. https://search.proquest.com/openview/8908173a601c433aeee0697b126fc1d9/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=44595. 
"Malaysia’s political crisis." Strategic Comments 26, no. 2 (2020), vii-ix. doi:10.1080/13567888.2020.1756352. 
Abbott, Jason P., Sophie Gregorios-Pippas. "Islamization in Malaysia: processes an dynamics." Contemporary Politics 16, no. 2 (2010), 135-151. doi:10.1080/13569771003783851. 
Abd. Rahman, Saodah, Abu S. Nurallah. "Islamic Awakening and Its Role in Islamic Solidarity in Malaysia." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 29, no. 1 (2018), 98-125. doi:10.35632/ajiss.v29i1.329. 
Acharya, A., B. Buzan. "Conclusion: On the possibility of a non-Western IR theory in Asia." International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 7, no. 3 (2007), 437. doi:10.1093/irap/lcm017. 
Acharya, Amitav, Arabinda Acharya. "The Myth of the Second Front: Localizing the ‘War on Terror’ in Southeast Asia." The Washington Quarterly 30, no. 4 (2007), 75-90. doi:10.1162/wash.2007.30.4.75. 
Acharya, Amitav. "Amitav Acharya On The Relevance Of Regions, Asean, and Western Ir’s False Universalisms." https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/155103/Theory%20Talk42_Acharya.pdf. Last modified August 10, 2011. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/155103/Theory%20Talk42_Acharya.pdf.
Acharya, Amitav. "Theoretical Perspectives on International Relations in Asia." Conference session presented at Conference on International Relations in Asia: The New Regional System, George Washington University, September 27, 2007. 
Paper unpublished
Allès, Delphine. "Premises, Policies and Multilateral Whitewashing of Broad Security Doctrines: A Southeast Asia-Based Critique of “Non-traditional” Security." ERIS – European Review of International Studies 6, no. 1-2019 (2019), 5-26. doi:10.3224/eris.v6i1.01. 
	Ba, Alice D. "Regional Security in East Asia: ASEAN's Value Added and Limitations." Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 29, no. 3 (2010), 115-130. doi:10.1177/186810341002900306. 
	Baysal, Basar. "Coercion by fear: Securitization of Iraq prior to the 2003 war." International Journal: Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis 74, no. 3 (2019), 363-386. doi:10.1177/0020702019875967. 
	Beeson, Mark, Iyanatul Islam. "Neoliberalism and East Asia: Resisting the Washington Consensus." Rivalry and Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific, 2019, 131-150. doi:10.1142/9789811203107_0007. 
	Benda, Harry J. "The Structure of Southeast Asian History: Some Preliminary Observations." Journal of Southeast Asian History 3, no. 1 (1962), 106-138. doi:10.1017/s0217781100000582. 
Bishop, Brian. "Causal layered analysis as a policy methodology." Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice 4, no. 2 (2013). doi:10.7728/0402201302. 
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Buzan, Barry. "Security architecture in Asia: the interplay of regional and global levels." The Pacific Review 16, no. 2 (2003), 143-173. doi:10.1080/0951274032000069660. 
Buzan, Barry. "The English School: A neglected approach to International Security Studies." Security Dialogue 46, no. 2 (2015), 126-143. doi:10.1177/0967010614555944. 
Buzan, Barry. "The English School: an underexploited resource in IR." Review of International Studies 27, no. 03 (2001), 25. doi:10.1017/s0260210501004715. 
Capie, David. "Between a hegemon and a hard place: the ‘war on terror’ and Southeast Asian–US relations." The Pacific Review 17, no. 2 (2004), 223-248. doi:10.1080/0951274042000219833. 
Case, William. "Stress testing leadership in Malaysia: the 1MDB scandal and Najib Tun Razak." The Pacific Review 30, no. 5 (2017), 633-654. doi:10.1080/09512748.2017.1282538. 
Chang, Gordon C. "The “War on Terror” Narrative: Discourse and Intertextuality in the Construction and Contestation of Sociopolitical Reality - By Adam Hodges." Presidential Studies Quarterly 42, no. 2 (2012), 409-411. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2012.03975.x. 
Chong, A. "Southeast Asia: theory between modernization and tradition." International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 7, no. 3 (2007), 391-425. doi:10.1093/irap/lcm016. 
Connors, Michael K. "War on error and the Southern fire: How terrorism analysts get it wrong." Critical Asian Studies 38, no. 1 (2006), 151-175. doi:10.1080/14672710600556528. 
Croissant, Aurel, and Daniel Barlow. "Following the Money Trail: Terrorist Financing and Government Responses in Southeast Asia1." Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no. 2 (2007), 131-156. doi:10.1080/10576100600959721. 
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Eaton, Sarah, and Richard Stubbs. "Is ASEAN powerful? Neo-realist versus constructivist approaches to power in Southeast Asia1." The Pacific Review 19, no. 2 (2006), 135-155. doi:10.1080/09512740500473148. 
Eduardo F, Ugarte. "‘In a Wilderness of Mirrors’: The Use and Abuse of the ‘Abu Sayyaf’ Label in the Philippines." South East Asia Research 18, no. 3 (2010), 373-413. doi:10.5367/sear.2010.0002. 
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Gerstl, Alfred. "The Depoliticisation and ‘Aseanisation’ of Counter-Terrorism Policies in South-East Asia: A Weak Trigger for a Fragmented Version of Human Security." SSRN Electronic Journal, 2010, 49. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1618968. 
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Goh, Evelyn. "Great Powers and Hierarchical Order in Southeast Asia: Analyzing Regional Security Strategies." International Security 32, no. 3 (2008), 113-157. doi:10.1162/isec.2008.32.3.113. 
Gueorguiev, Dimitar, Kai Ostwald, and Paul Schuler. "Rematch: Islamic politics, mobilisation, and the Indonesian presidential election." Political Science 70, no. 3 (2018), 240-252. doi:10.1080/00323187.2019.1584733. 
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Hamidi, Ahmad Z. "Malaysia’s Policy on Counter Terrorism and Deradicalisation Strategy." Journal of Public Security and Safety 6, no. 2 (2016), 3. http://eprints.usm.my/44217/1/AHMAD%20NAZZAN%20ABDULLAH.pdf. 
Hamilton-Hart, Natasha. "Terrorism in Southeast Asia: expert analysis, myopia and fantasy." The Pacific Review 18, no. 3 (2005), 303-325. doi:10.1080/09512740500188845. 
Haripin, Muhamad, Chaula R. Anindya, and Adhi Priamarizki. "The politics of counter-terrorism in post-authoritarian states: Indonesia’s experience, 1998–2018." Defense & Security Analysis 36, no. 3 (2020), 275-299. doi:10.1080/14751798.2020.1790807. 
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Henkin, Samuel, Marcus A. Boyd, and Adam Martin. "Southeast Asia after the Caliphate: Identifying Spatial Trends in Terrorism and Radicalization in Malaysia." Statistics, Politics and Policy 0, no. 0 (August 2020). doi:10.1515/spp-2020-0001. 
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Ilyana Ramli, Shahriza, Nur Zafifa Kamarunzaman, and Irlisuhayu Mohd Ramli. "Malaysia’s New Economic Policy: Issues and Debate." American Journal of Economics 3, no. 2 (2013), 108-112. DOI: 10.5923/j.economics.20130302.0. 
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Kamaruddin, Mohd N., Noor N. Noordin, and Abd R. Rahman. "Terrorist deradicalisation programme in Malaysia: A case study." Journal of Media and Information Warfare 25-49 10 (December 2017), 25-49. doi:10.4324/9780429298523-6. 
Kapahi, Anushka, and Gabrielle Tañada. "The Bangsamoro Identity Struggle and the Bangsamoro Basic Law as the Path to Peace." Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses - International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research 10, no. 7 (July 2018). https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/26458484.
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Katsumata, Hiro. "ASEAN’s Cooperative Security Enterprise." 2009. doi:10.1057/9780230277038. 
Kaushik, Vibha, and Christine A. Walsh. "Pragmatism as a Research Paradigm and Its Implications for Social Work Research." Social Sciences 8, no. 9 (2019), 12. doi:10.3390/socsci8090255.
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Khong, Yuen F. "The elusiveness of regional order: Leifer, the English school and Southeast Asia." The Pacific Review 18, no. 1 (2005), 23-41. doi:10.1080/09512740500047058.
Khong, Yuen F. "The elusiveness of regional order: Leifer, the English school and Southeast Asia." The Pacific Review 18, no. 1 (2005), 33. doi:10.1080/09512740500047058.
Khoo, Nicholas. "Constructing Southeast Asian security: the pitfalls of imagining a security community and the temptations of orthodoxy." Cambridge Review of International Affairs 17, no. 1 (2004), 137-153. doi:10.1080/0955757042000203696.
Kielsgard, Mark D., and Tam J. Julian. "Stopping Terrorism at its Source: Conceptual Flaws of the Deterrence-Based Counterterrorism Regime and Committing to a Preemptive Causal Mode." 26, no. 5 (May 2018). https://brooklynworks.brooklaw.edu/jlp/vol26/iss2/2. 
Kielsgard, Mark, Hey Juan, and Julian Tam. "Autocatalytic Models of Counter-Terrorism in East and Southeast Asia: An International Comparative Analysis of China, Indonesia, and Thailand." The George Washington International Law Review 50, no. 3 (2018), 461-522. https://scholars.cityu.edu.hk/en/publications/autocatalytic-models-of-counterterrorism-in-east-and-southeast-asia(04304d8e-39ff-49ca-af62-17698d0ed9cb).html. 
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Oak, Gillian S. "Jemaah Islamiyah's Fifth Phase: The Many Faces of a Terrorist Group." Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 33, no. 11 (2010), 989-1018. doi:10.1080/1057610x.2010.514697.
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Storey, Ian. "The Triborder Sea Area: Maritime Southeast Asia’s Ungoverned Space." Terrorism Monitor Volume: 5 Issue: 19. Last modified October 27, 2007. https://jamestown.org/program/the-triborder-sea-area-maritime-southeast-asias-ungoverned-space/#.VY0PmfAw_EU.
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Suratman, Yosua P. "The Effectiveness of De-Radicalization Program in Southeast Asia: Does It Work? The Case of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore." JAS (Journal of ASEAN Studies) 5, no. 2 (2018), 135. doi:10.21512/jas.v5i2.4302. 
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Tan, See S., Hitoshi Nasu. "Asean And The Development Of Counter-Terrorism Law And Policy In Southeast Asia." Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy in Southeast Asia 39, no. 3 (2016). http://www.unswlawjournal.unsw.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/39-3-3.pdf. 
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Reports and Studies
"Australia's relationship with Malaysia. Camberra: Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Foreign Affairs Sub-Committee, 2007. https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Completed_Inquiries/jfadt/malaysia/report.
"BTI 2020 Philippines Country Report." BTI Blog. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://www.bti-project.org/en/reports/country-report-PHL-2020.html.
"Chapter Four: The siege of Marawi: significance and implications." In Asia-Pacific Regional Security Assessment 2018. International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS), 2019. 
"Global Data." Fragile States Index | The Fund for Peace. Accessed January 25, 2021. https://fragilestatesindex.org/data/.
Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Outlook - WHAT DRIVES INNOVATION IN ASIA? Special Topic: The Impact of the Coronavirus Outbreak—An Update. Metro Manila - Philippines: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK - ADB, n.d. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/575626/ado2020.pdf.
Aslam, Mohd Mizan Bin Mohammad. "Deradicalization Programs for SOSMA, POTA, and POCA Detainees in Malaysia." Middle East Institute. Last modified June 23, 2020. https://www.mei.edu/publications/deradicalization-programs-sosma-pota-and-poca-detainees-malaysia.
Bateman, Sam. "Piracy in Asia: A Situation Report." Policy Forum. Last modified December 10, 2019. https://www.policyforum.net/piracy-in-asia-a-situation-report/.
Borrelli, Marguerite. "ASEAN Counter-terrorism Weaknesses." Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses - International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research - RSIS 9, no. 9 (September 2017), 14-20. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26351552.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Ae7048b52493ac219287e97885c73a974. 
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. "2009 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) - Country Reports - Moldova Through Singapore." U.S. Department of State. Accessed November 28, 2020. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2009/vol1/116523.htm.
Canding, Sesinando. Insurgency a Formidable Threat to Philippine Security - Research Report. Air War College - Air University, 1988. https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a318226.pdf.
Central Intelligence Agency - Declassified Report. The Pattern of Communist Movements in Southeast Asia. Central Intelligence Agency - CIA, 1955. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP62-00865R000200250005-0.pdf.
Combating Piracy at Sea, Maritime Piracy, Sea Piracy | ReCAAP Information Sharing Centre. Accessed July 31, 2020. https://www.recaap.org/.
Conflict Alert 2020 - Enduring Wars. Philippines: International Alert Philippines, 2021. https://conflictalert.info/download/21798/.
Council on Foreign Relations. "Indonesia's Struggle Against Terrorism." Council of Councils - Council on Foreign Relations. Last modified 2014. https://www.cfr.org/councilofcouncils/global_memos/p32772.
Cragin, Kim, and Peter Chalk. Terrorism & Development: Using Social and Economic Development to Inhibit a Resurgence of Terrorism. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 2003. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1630.pdf.
Cronin, Conor. "Southeast Asia from Scott Circle: The Overlooked Gap in the Southeast Asia Maritime Security Initiative." Center for Strategic and International Studies |. Last modified April 28, 2016. https://www.csis.org/analysis/southeast-asia-scott-circle-overlooked-gap-southeast-asia-maritime-security-initiative#commentary.
Dev Kar, and Brian LeBlanc. "Illicit Financial Flows to and from the Philippines: A Study in Dynamic Simulation, 1960-2011 « Global Financial Integrity." Global Financial Integrity. Last modified October 8, 2014. https://gfintegrity.org/report/country-case-study-philippines/.
Douglas, Jeremy, Angela Me, Inshik Sim, Shawn Kelley, Magali Lapouge, Akara Umapornsakula. Transnational Organized Crime in Southeast Asia: Evolution, Growth and Impact. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2019. https://www.unodc.org/documents/southeastasiaandpacific/Publications/2019/SEA_TOCTA_2019_web.pdf.
Ercan, Nesrin. "IMB Report: Sea Kidnappings Rise in 2016 Despite Plummeting Global Piracy." Home. Last modified January 10, 2017. https://icc-ccs.org/index.php/news/1218-imb-report-sea-kidnappings-rise-in-2016-despite-plummeting-global-piracy.
Ginkel, Michael Van. A Pathway To Policy Change: Improving Philippine Fisheries, Blue Economy, And Maritime Law Enforcement In The Sulu And Celebes Seas. STABLE SEAS, 2020. https://www.stableseas.org/sites/default/files/pathway-poloicy-change-sulu-celebes-seas.pdf.
Global Terrorism Index 2020. Institute for Economics & Peace, 2020. https://www.visionofhumanity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/GTI-2020-web-1.pdf.
Harold, Scott, Gregory Poling, Et al. The Thickening Web of Asian Security Cooperation - Deepening Defense Ties Among U.S. Allies and Partners in the Indo-Pacific. Rand Corporation, 2019. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3125.html.
Hofmeister, Wilhelm, and Patrick Rueppel. Maritime Security and Piracy - Common Challenges and Responses from Europe and Asia. Singapore: Konrad-Adenauer Stiftung and European Union, 2014. https://www.kas.de/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=00ca482c-6ebf-8d25-4ac9-cee4c44df207&groupId=252038.
Idris, Iffat. Youth vulnerability to violent extremist groups in the Indo-Pacific. Applied Knowledge Services, 2018. https://gsdrc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/1438-Youth-Vulnerability-to-Violent-Extremist-Groups-in-the-Indo-Pacific.pdf.
INTERPOL. ASEAN cyberthreat assessment 2020 - key insights from the ASEAN cybercrime operations desk. n.d. https://www.interpol.int/en/Crimes/Cybercrime/Cybercrime-operations/ASEAN-Cybercrime-Operations-Desk.
Martin, Eugene, Astrid S. Tuminez. toward peace in the Southern Philippines: A Summary and Assessment of the USIP Philippine Facilitation project, 2003–2007. Washington: United States Institute of Peace - USIP, 2008. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/47978/sr202.pdf.
Nordqvist, Pernilla, and Florian Krampe. "Climate Change and Violent Conflict: Sparse Evidence From South Asia and South East Asia." SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security 201842018 (April 2018). 
Operation Pacific Eagle Philippines - Lead Inspector General Report To The United States Congress Operation Pacific Eagle–Philippines - April 1, 2020‒June 30, 2020. Department of Defense of the United States, 2020. https://www.stateoig.gov/system/files/ope-p_q3_june2020.pdf.
Parreño, Al A. Report on the Philippine Extrajudicial Killings (2001 –August2010)*. The Asia Foundation, 2011. http://forum-asia.org/2010/37530361-FULL-Report-on-the-Philippine-EJKs-2001-2010.pdf.
Porous Peace In Mindanao’s Free Trade Area. International Alert, 2014. https://www.international-alert.org/sites/default/files/Philippines_PolicyBriefBorderTrade_EN_2014.pdf.
Quintos, Mary Fides A. Finding Solutions For Maritime Security Challenges In The Tri-Border Area. Philippines: Center for International Relations and Strategic Studies (CIRSS) of the Foreign Service Institute (FSI), 2017. http://www.fsi.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Vol-IV-No-27-Finding-Solutions-to-Challenges-in-Tri-Border-Area-Quintos.pdf.
Rabasa, Angel, and Peter Chalk. Non-Traditional Threats and Maritime Domain Awareness in the Tri-Border Area of Southeast Asia: The Coast Watch System of the Philippines. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2012. 
Rabasa, Angel, and Peter Chalk. Non-Traditional Threats and Maritime Domain Awareness in the Tri-Border Area of Southeast Asia - The Coast Watch System of the Philippines. Santa Monica, CA: RAND - National Defense Research Institute, 2012. https://www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/OP372.html.
Rabasa, Angel, Peter Chalk, William Rosenau, and Leanne Piggot. "The Evolving Terrorist Threat to Southeast Asia." RAND Corporation. Last modified 2009. https://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG846.html.
Rabasa, Angel, Steven Boraz, Peter Chalk, Kim Cragin, and Theodore W. Karasik. Ungoverned Territories -Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 2007. 
Rabasa, Angel, Theodore W. Karasik, Jennifer D. P. Moroney, Kevin A. O’Brien, John E. Peters, Kim Cragin, Peter Chalk, and Steven Boraz. "Ungoverned Territories: Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks." RAND Corporation. Last modified 2007. 
ReCAAP Annual Report - Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships in Asia. Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia - ReCAAP, 2020. https://www.recaap.org/resources/ck/files/reports/annual/ReCAAP%20ISC%20Annual%20Report%202020%20v1(1).pdf.
ReCAAP. Guidance on Abduction of Crew in the Sulu-Celebes Seas and Waters off Eastern Sabah. Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia - RECAAP, 2020. https://safety4sea.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/ReCAAP-ISC-Guidance-on-Abduction-of-Crew-in-the-Sulu-Celebes-Seas-and-Waters-off-Eastern-Sabah-2019_07.pdf.
Rhoades, Ashley L., and Todd C. Helmus. Countering Violent Extremism in the Philippines - A Snapshot of Current Challenges and Responses. Santa Monica - California: RAND Corporation, 2020. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA233-2.html.
Rhoades, Ashley L., Todd C. Helmus. Countering Violent Extremism in the Philippines: A Snapshot of Current Challenges and Responses. Rand Corporation, 2020. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RRA200/RRA233-2/RAND_RRA233-2.pdf.
Seah, Sharon, Hoang Thi Ha, Melinda Martinus, and Pham Thi Phuong Thao. The State of Southeast Asia - Survey Report. Singapore: ASEAN Studies Centre at ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute, 2021. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/The-State-of-SEA-2021-v2.pdf.
Sim, Inshik, Shawn Kelley, Magali Lapouge, and Akara Umapornsakula. Transnational Organized Crime in Southeast Asia: Evolution, Growth and Impact. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2019. https://www.unodc.org/documents/southeastasiaandpacific//Publications/2019/SEA_TOCTA_2019_web.pdf.
Simon, Sheldon W. The Economic Crisis and Southeast Asian Security: Changing Priorities. the National Bureau of Asian Research, 1998. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/144374/vol9no5.pdf.
Southeast Asia Regional Centre For Counter-Terrorism - Searcct. Malaysia: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2017. https://www.searcct.gov.my/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Prospectus2017.pdf.
Srinivasan, Ancha, and Robert Dobias. Climate Change in Southeast Asia. Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2019. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/27474/climate-change-sea.pdf.
Stable Seas. Accessed January 28, 2021. https://www.stableseas.org/.
Storey, Ian. Trilateral Security Cooperation in the Sulu-Celebes Seas: A Work in Progress. SINGAPORE: YUSOF ISHAK INSTITUTE, 2018. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/ISEAS_Perspective_2018_48@50.pdf.
Swain, Richard, and Booz Allen Hamilton. Case Study - Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines. U.S. Army Counterinsurgency Center, 2010. https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a532988.pdf.
Temby, Quinton. Terrorism in Indonesia After Islamic State. Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute, 2020. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/TRS3_20.pdf.
The anti-Salafi campaign in Aceh - IPAC Report N. 32. Indonesia: Institute for Policy Analysis and Conflict (IPAC), 2016. 
The Star/Asia News Network. "Abu Sayyaf Subleader Idang Susukan Spotted with Nur Misuari in Davao City." INQUIRER.net. Last modified August 13, 2020. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/190238/abu-sayyaf-subleader-idang-susukan-spotted-with-nur-misuari-in-davao-city.
Trade in the Sulu Archipelago: Informal Economies Amidst Maritime Security Challenges. San Francisco: The Asia Foundation, n.d. https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Trade-in-the-Sulu-Archipelago-Informal-Economies-Amidst-Maritime-Security-Challenges.pdf.
Worldwatch List 2020. Norway: OpenDoors, 2020. https://www.opendoorsusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/2020_World_Watch_List.pdf.

Dissertations and Conference Material
Kaushik, Anil. "Computer-based collaborative concept mapping: Motivating Indian secondary students to learn science." PhD diss., Massey University, 2017. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322925426. 
Mr Chiang Chie FooSenior Advisor Ministry of Defence. "Insights on the ADMM and the ADMM-Plus: The Road to Realisation, and What Lies Ahead." Paper presented at Goh Keng Swee Command and Staff College Seminar 2014, Singapore, October 9, 2014. 
Ness, Marielle. Bayond the Caliphate: Islamic State Activity Outside the Group's Defined Wilayat - Southeast Asia. Combating Terrorism Center - West Point, 2018. https://ctc.usma.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Beyond-the-Caliphate-SE-Asia-Final.pdf.
Non-Traditional Security in Asia: The Dynamics of Securitization - An IDSS Workshop held from the 2-4 September 2004 at Traders Hotel, Singapore. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), 2004. https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/nts/2439-non-traditional-security-in-as/.
Salem, Allan A. J. "Nexus of crime and terrorism: the case of the Abu Sayyaf Group." PhD diss., Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate Schoo, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/51611.
Saroda Mitrasing, Ingrid. "The Age of Aceh and The Evolution of Kingship 1599 – 1641." PhD diss., Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen, 2011.

News Articles and Web Sources
"A Long Row to Hoe: A Critical Assessment of ASEAN Cooperation on Counter- Terrorism." Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia. Accessed December 16, 2018. https://kyotoreview.org/issue-11/a-long-row-to-hoe-a-critical-assessment-of-asean-cooperation-on-counter-terrorism/.
"Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)." Counter Extremism Project. Last modified July 22, 2020. https://www.counterextremism.com/threat/abu-sayyaf-group-asg.
	"Acting U.S. Defense Secretary Turns Over Php1.4 Billion in Military Equipment to Strengthen Security Cooperation." U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. Last modified December 8, 2020. https://ph.usembassy.gov/acting-us-defense-secretary-turns-over-php1-4-billion-in-military-equipment-to-strengthen-security-cooperation/.
"Almost Half of AFP's 2018 Budget to Be Spent in Fight Vs Communists." BusinessMirror. Last modified June 25, 2018. https://businessmirror.com.ph/almost-half-of-afps-2018-budget-to-be-spent-in-fight-vs-communists/.
"ASEAN Counter-terrorism Weaknesses." ASEAN Counter-terrorism Weaknesses | Theindependentbd.com. Accessed December 16, 2018. http://www.theindependentbd.com/arcprint/details/119314/2017-10-18.
"ASEAN Summit: Leaders Pledge Co-operation on Terrorism, Trade and South China Sea Dispute." SBS News. Accessed December 10, 2018. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/asean-summit-leaders-pledge-co-operation-on-terrorism-trade-and-south-china-sea-dispute.
"BenarNews." BenarNews. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.benarnews.org/english/.
"Communist Party of the Philippines–New People's Army." Stanford University. Accessed December 1, 2020. https://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/print_view/149.
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