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System No. U0002-0508201911365100
Title (in Chinese) 皺摺拍翼之微模造與氣動力分析
Title (in English) MICRO-MOLDING FABRICATION AND AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CORRUGATED FLAPPING WING
Other Title
Institution 淡江大學
Department (in Chinese) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
Department (in English) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
Other Division
Other Division Name
Other Department/Institution
Academic Year 107
Semester 2
PublicationYear 108
Author's name (in Chinese) 卡尼諾
Author's name(in English) Niroj Kapri
Student ID 606375029
Degree 碩士
Language English
Other Language
Date of Oral Defense 2019-06-21
Pagination 93page
Committee Member advisor - 楊龍杰
co-chair - 鄭元良
co-chair - 胡毓忠
Keyword (inChinese) 含有翅脈之翼膜
矽膠
聚對二甲苯
SU8光阻
Keyword (in English) Corrugated wing
PDMS
Parylene
SU8 resist
Other Keywords
Subject
Abstract (in Chinese)
本論文主要目的是研究含有翅脈之拍翼翼膜對拍翼機飛行的影響。翅膀富有脈絡在昆蟲界相當普遍,不同的翅脈紋路對於昆蟲在空中懸停以及飛行穩定度上有著不同的影響。合宜的翅脈結構有助於提升飛行性能。
本論文研究採用創新的微模造法,以蜻蜓翼為藍圖,製造20cm翼長之拍翼機翼膜。此模造翼膜的過程結合了3D列印技術以及矽膠(PDMS)固化成型技術,也就是利用3D列印的方式製造蜻蜓翼模具,並且導入矽膠漿液使其固化,最後以聚對二甲苯(Parylene)鍍膜的方式,製造出可媲美蜻蜓翼外型且厚度為40μm之翼膜。翼膜成品將分別裝載於單翼拍翼機(一對翅膀)以及雙翼拍翼機(兩對翅膀)上,並相互對照其成效。風洞實驗主要是為了擷取升力訊號,從風洞實驗的結果我們可以看出,含有蜻蜓翼脈之翼膜其升力係數明顯比平坦之翼膜高22% 。另外實驗中也運用高速攝影記錄拍翼機之動態行為,以精確了解拍翼機飛行過程。
除了3D列印加工法,本研究也採用新型的微機電(MEMS)加工技術。首先是運用非等向性蝕刻方式,在矽晶片上製造出蜻蜓翼模型之凹槽,搭配SU8光阻做為翼脈材料,以及聚對二甲苯為翼膜材料,使製造出的翼膜不只在構造上更趨近於蜻蜓昆蟲翼膜之原始型態,同時也具有較佳的機械剛度。此新型的微機電加工技術可依據不同拍翼膜尺寸、形狀以及厚度,而製造出多樣性的翼膜。
從以上結果可以看出,利用「SU8光阻-聚對二甲苯」複合型材料,能夠製造出無論是尺寸、重量以及脈絡分布等,皆相似於自然界昆蟲的翅膀。本論文方法使含有翅脈拍翼具有高於平坦翼膜25%的剛度,因此不需在機翼中心的翼後緣處固定於機身,未來可以與大自然中飛行者的機翼結構和拍翼運動相匹配,例如旋轉拍翼。
Abstract (in English)
This thesis deals with the study of the corrugated patterns on flapping wings. The corrugated wing design is generally seen in insects. Insect wings with the corrugated topological features give themselves excellent stability and high load-bearing capacity during flapping and hovering. It is believed that the appropriate corrugated structures on insect wings enhance the aerodynamic performance. 
We use the innovative fabrication process using the micro-molding methodology to fabricate the 20 cm flapping wing, which is composed of the corrugated wing inspired by the dragonfly wing. The mother mold is made firstly by a 3D printer according to natural flyers design, and secondly the demolded PDMS is served a the final molding material for corrugated wings. Parylene was selected as the wing material as it mechanical properties comparable to real insect wing. The thickness of the wing was selected as 40μm. The wing was being installed on two configurations. The first is mono wings, and the other is bi wings. Both were compared to the flat membrane wing with the same shape, size, and thickness. The lift signal was measured by the load cell in a wind tunnel. The tests show that the corrugated wing has 22% improvement in lift compared to the flat membrane wing. The dynamic characterization of the corrugated wings is done by using high-speed photography as well. 
Another methodology for fabrication of wing was developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) process. In this methodology, the anisotropic etching was done to form the V-grooves on a silicon wafer, and this etched silicon wafer acts as the mold for the corrugated wing. SU-8 and parylene membrane form an elegant structure, approaching the real wings not only in material conception but also in mechanical performance. Based on the insect wing, the sandwich microstructure was developed where Parylene was used as the membrane of the wing, and SU8 was used as the vein. The thickness of the wing can be varied in order to get different size, shape, and thickness of the artificial wing. 
We conclude that natural wings can be well mimicked in material understanding, size, weight, mass distribution venation, and wing rigidity using the “SU8-parylene” composite materials. This methodology gives the wing 25% larger stiffness than the flat membrane wing so that pinning at the wing trailing edge of the central-line fuselage is not necessary. It can matches with the natural flyers’ wing structure and motion, e.g., performing wing rotation or avian flapping in the future.
Other Abstract
Table of Content (with Page Number)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT	II
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:	III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT	V
TABLE OF CONTENTS	VI
LIST OF FIGURE	VIII
LIST OF TABLE	XI
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW	1
1.1	INTRODUCTION	1
1.2	MICRO AERIAL VEHICLE	2
1.3	VARIOUS MAVS CAME INTO PICTURE	3
1.4	INSECT WING	7
1.5	AEROELASTIC WING DYNAMICS	8
1.6	LITERATURE REVIEW	8
1.6.1	FLEXIBLE WING DESIGN	8
1.6.2	WING FABRICATION	10
1.7	RESEARCH MOTIVATION	14
1.8	THESIS OUTLOOK	14
CHAPTER 2: DRAGONFLY WING THEORITICAL BASICS AND SIMPLIFIED CORRUGATED WING FABRIGATION	16
2.1	DRAGONFLY	16
2.2	DRAGONFLY WING STRUCTURE AND CORRUGATIONS	17
2.3	THICKNESS EFFECT FOR CORRUGATED WING	19
2.4	3D PRINTING	20
2.5	DESIGN OF SIMPLE DRAGONFLY CORRUGATED WING	21
2.6	3D PRINTING OF A DRAGONFLY WING	24
2.7	MAKING PDMS MOLD FROM 3D PRINTED MASTER MOLD	24
CHAPTER 3: CORRUGATED WING AERODYNAMIC TESTING	28
3.1	MECHANISM	28
3.2	WING SETUP IN FWMAV	29
3.3	FLEXURAL STIFFNESS EFFECT ON CORRUGATED WING	30
3.4	WING BEAT CYCLE WITH CORRUGATED WING	32
3.4.1	EVANS MECHANISM	32
3.4.2	E-BIRD MECHANISM	32
3.5	TETHERING FLIGHT TEST	34
3.5.1	EVANS MECHANISM	35
3.5.2	E- BIRD MECHANISM	36
3.6	WIND TUNNEL TESTING	36
3.6.1	LIFT COMPARISON USING EVANS MECHANISM	38
3.6.2	LIFT COMPARISON USING E-BIRD MECHANISM	41
CHAPTER  4: CORRUGATED WING USING MEMS PROCESS	43
4.1	MATERIAL STUDY	43
4.1.1	MATERIAL OF NATURAL INSECT WINGS AND THEIR PROPERTIES	43
4.1.2	MATERIAL CHOICE CRITERIA FOR ARTIFICIAL INSECT WINGS	43
4.1.3	SU-8 AND PARYLENE-C: MATERIAL CANDIDATES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSECT WINGS	44
4.2	MICRO CT SCANNING	45
4.3	STRUCTURE DESIGN FOR ARTIFICIAL WING	46
4.4	VERIFICATION OF THE GROOVE ACCORDANCE TO THE CORRUGATION	48
4.5	FABRICATION PROCESS FOR ARTIFICIAL WING	49
4.6	CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMS WING	52
4.7	WING BEAT CYCLE FOR MEMS CORRUGATED WING	54
4.8	TETHERING FLIGHT TEST FOR MEMS WING	58
CHAPTER  5: CONCLUTION AND FUTURE WORK	60
5.1	SIMPLE CORRUGATED WING USING 3D PRINTED MOLD	60
5.2	CORRUGATED WING INSPIRED BY INSECT	60
5.3	FUTURE WORK	61
REFERENCES	63 
APPENDIX A	74
APPENDIX B	77
APPENDIX C	79
APPENDIX D	81
APPENDIX E	88
PUBLICATIONS	93

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1.1 Black Widow MAV	4
Figure 1.2 Different variation of the Delfly	4
Figure 1.3 Hybrid flapping-fixed wing MAV	6
Figure 1.4 Ornithopter by Petter Muren	6
Figure 1.5 Nano Hummingbird	7
Figure 1.6 Spanwise flexural stiffness of various insect species versus wingspan.	9
Figure 2.1 Dragonfly specimen	16
Figure 2.2 Time-averaged streamlines	18
Figure 2.3 Nano level pattern of dragonfly wing	18
Figure 2.4 An almost ball-shaped water droplet on wing membrane of a dragonfly	19
Figure 2.5The two-dimensional airfoils used in the numerical simulatio	19
Figure 2.6 Velocity magnitude for the airfoil at Re 5000 in COMSOL	20
Figure 2.7 Lift generated with different airfoil at Re 5000 in COMSOL	20
Figure 2.8 Layering of the melted material from the extrusion nozzle	21
Figure 2.9 Drawing of a dragonfly forewing	22
Figure 2.10 Mother mold design draft	23
Figure 2.11 3D designed wing using 3 profile structure	23
Figure 2.12 Isometric view of 3D dragonfly wing	23
Figure 2.13 Height variation in the wing	24
Figure 2.14 3D printed mold	24
Figure 2.15 Mold fabrication using PDMS	25
Figure 2.16 Mold fabrication using PDMS	25
Figure 2.17 LH 300 parylene Coater	26
Figure 2.18 Parylene-C deposition process	26
Figure 2.19 Parylene-C Based corrugated wing	27
Figure 3.1 Mechanism used	28
Figure 3.2 Setup for (a) Evans mechanisms. (b) E-Bird mechanisms	29
Figure 3.3 Vertical deflection of corrugated wing	31
Figure 3.4 Wing beat cycle for Evans mechanism	33
Figure 3.5 Wing beat cycle for E-bird mechanism	34
Figure 3.6 Control of flapping MAV	35
Figure 3.7  Evans mechanism tethering flight testing for cursing	35
Figure 3.8 Evans mechanism tethering flight test at high inclined angle	36
Figure 3.9 E- bird mechanism tethering flight at high inclined angle	36
Figure 3.10 Wind tunnel Testing Setup	37
Figure 3.11 Load-cell (Bertec Corp.).	38
Figure 3.12 Lift coefficient vs Reynolds number for Evans machanism	39
Figure 3.13 FFT using MATLAB for flat wing with Evans mechanism	39
Figure 3.14 Waveform flapping trend for flat wing with Evans mechanism	40
Figure 3.15 FFT using MATLAB for corrugated wing with Evans mechanism	40
Figure 3.16 Waveform flapping trend for corrugated wing with Evans mechanism	40
Figure 3.17 Lift coefficient vs Reynolds number  for E-Bird machanism	41
Figure 3.18 FFT using MATLAB for flat wing with E-bird mechanism	41
Figure 3.19 Waveform flapping trend for flat wing with E-bird mechanism	42
Figure 3.20 FFT using MATLAB for corrugated wing with E-bird mechanism	42
Figure 3.21 Waveform flapping trend for corrugated wing with E-bird mechanism	42
Figure 4.1Material property charts	44
Figure 4.2 Flow chart for Micro CT scan processing	46
Figure 4.3 Mask design for artificial wing	47
Figure 4.4 Compensation patter for the anisotropic etching of silicon wafer	48
Figure 4.5 Verification  of Anisotropic etching using silicon wafer (100)	49
Figure 4.6 Step by step process of MEMS fabrication of wing	50
Figure 4.7 TMAH etching setup	51
Figure 4.8 TMAH etched surface for corrugated wing artificial wing	51
Figure 4.9 Artificial corrugated cicada wing	52
Figure 4.10 Artificial corrugated dragonfly wing	52
Figure 4.11 The optical and SEM pictures for the fabricated wings (a)	53
Figure 4.12 Vertical deflection of MEMS wing	54
Figure 4.13 Wing setup for testing wing beat cycle	54
Figure 4.14 Wind beat frequency for MEMS wing at 2V	55
Figure 4.15 Wind beat frequency for MEMS wing at 2.5V	56
Figure 4.16 Wind beat frequency for MEMS wing at 3V	57
Figure 4.17 MAV setup with MEMS wing	58
Figure 4.18 MEMS wing tethering flight testing at low positive inclined angle	59
Figure 4.19 MEMS wing tethering flight testing at high inclined angle	59
Figure A-1CT Scan image after 3D reconstruction processing for forewing	76
Figure A-2 CT Scan image after 3D reconstruction processing for hindwing	76
Figure C-1 Lift vs wing speed for Evans mechanism	78
Figure C-2 Lift vs wind speed for E-bird 10 -70 inclined angle	78
Figure D-1 Silicon wafer of  orientation	81
Figure D-2 High temperature furnace for thermal oxidation	81
Figure D-3 Process flow positive and negative photoresist	82
Figure D-4 TMAH etching setup at 60 ℃ and 25%	85
Figure D-5 TMAH etching after 1 hour	85
Figure D-6 TMAH etching after 3 hour	86
Figure D-7 TMAH etching after 12 hour	86
Figure D-8 TMAH etching after 24 hour	87
Figure D-9 TMAH 25% etching rate at 60℃	87
Figure E-1 Flight trajectory	88
Figure E-2 Mesh formation for both corrugated and flat wing.	89
Figure E-3 The instant velocity contours around a corrugated airfoil	90
Figure E-4 Setup for finding lift	91
Figure E-5 Setup for drag	91
Figure E-6 Generation of lift and drag from corrugated wing	91
Figure E-7 Lift and drag trend and drag tend from corrugated wing	92
Figure E-8 Generation of lift and drag from flat wing	92
Figure E-9 Lift and drag trend and drag tend from corrugated wing	92

LIST OF TABLE
Table 1.1 Various artificial wings fabricated using different wing and material	11
Table 2.1 Wing parameter	27
Table 3.1 Parameters of the mechanism used	29
Table 3.2 Component weight distribution for Evans and E-bird  mechanism	30
Table 3. 3 Specification of wind tunnel	37
Table 4.1 Mechanical properties of natural insect and artificial insect candidature	45
Table 5.1 Comparison between different wing	62
Table D.1 Etching rate for TMAH	87
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