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系統識別號 U0002-3108201616403000
中文論文名稱 海上中繼站 海上難民邊緣地景在定義
英文論文名稱 RELAY STATION OF ADAMAN SEA
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 洪浩禹
研究生英文姓名 How-Yu Hung
學號 601360612
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2016-06-20
論文頁數 96頁
口試委員 指導教授-賴怡成
委員-宋立文
委員-黃奕智
中文關鍵字 海上難民  人道建築  邊緣地景  自給自足  海上中繼站 
英文關鍵字 Refugee at Sea  Adaptation  Humanitarian Architecture  Boundary 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 逃亡的難民被棄置在國際公海是現今國際議題,國際公海上也形成了難民滯留的邊緣地景,預估未來的20年海上難民的問題將無法解決。「海上中繼站」,從建築的角度來看,他是一種〝海上義築〞的發想概念,海上難民如何利用限有資源創造出一個新的生活空間來適應海上的極限環境。因此,本研究藉由整合海上難民救援機制,規劃設計公海上避難空間的可能性,並結合新型態的構築方式與自給自足的設計,重新建構新的海上難民過渡性居留空間:「海上中繼站」。

為達上述研究目的,本研究文獻回顧主要架構在亞歷山大的調適理論與人道建築理念與設計機制為基礎,並藉由三種面向的案例研究探索海上自給自足的可能性包括構築與難民、生產與難民、分享與難民,接著,再透過四個先期研究進行海上自給自足的設計實驗,包括 (1) 廢船材料與構築研究分析。(2) 難民原居住空間文化研究:。而 (3) 集水設備與水耕栽培農業整合與 (4) 廢棄油轉柴油系統研究皆是以未來「海上中繼站」如何達到供電供水,具有能源生產功能的研究分析。

最後,基地選在東南亞安達曼海峽的公海海域,進行「海上中繼站」的設計操作,架構在上述的先前研究,裡頭除了宿舍、教室與醫療站外,也有可以栽培蔬菜與水果等農產品的區域、水產養殖場、重工業工廠等等,而在最終提出了新的邊緣地景想法,從難民被棄置的海域、海上救援機制、海上中繼站,整理出一套有系統的規劃,在未來研究與發展上,將延續「海上中繼站」的細部規劃與數據計算來達到真實實踐更進一步的可能性。相關研究的討論與發現詳見本論文。
英文摘要 One of the most critical issues of international affairs today is the problem of abandoned refugees in international waters, which has formed a boundary landscape of stranded refugees in these waters. It is estimated that the problem of how to accommodate refugees at sea would be the most critical challenge in the next 20 years. From an architectural perspective, the “Sea Relief Station” is a “humanitarian architecture” concept and it responds to the the challenge of how refugees at sea use limited resources to create a self-sufficient living environment to adapt to the environment at sea. Therefore, by integrating refugee emergency responses at sea and the possibility of creating a shelter in international waters, as well as incorporating a new way of building and self-sufficient design, this study attempts to reconstruct a new kind of transition environment for refugees at sea.

To achieve the research purpose mentioned above, the literature reviews are based on the Adaptation Theory by Alexander (1963) and humanitarian architecture concept and design mechanisms. In addition, there were three approaches to the case studies to investigate the possibility of self-sufficiency at sea, including the aspects of building-refugees, production-refugees and sharing-refugees. Subsequently, four preliminary studies were conducted to examine this experimental design, including (1) analysis of abandoned vessel material and construction, (2) study of refugees’ original living environment culture, (3) Integration of water collection system and hydroponics cultivation, and (4) converting old oil to diesel fuel system. These are all important mechanisms for the “Sea Relief Station” about its building, construction, electricity and water supply, and energy production etc.

Finally, the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia was selected as the site location for our practical implementation of the design. The “Sea Relief Station” was constructed on container ships. Based on the zoning of the ship’s plans and sections, the station is able to accommodate at least 1000 dorm rooms, classrooms and medical stations inside, as well as zones for agricultural production of vegetables and fruits, aquafarms and heavy industrial factories etc. These “Sea Relief Stations” integrates refugee emergency responses at sea and the waters with stranded refugees to form a new kind of boundary landscape. Further studies will continue on self-sufficient energy calculation and the actual construction of the building. Please see the thesis for the more detailed research, findings and discussion.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究動機 2
1-1.1.落腳城市的啟發(公海上的邊緣地景): 3
1-1.2畏研吾小建築的啟發: 4
1-1.3. architecture without architect的啟發: 5
1-1.4.先期互動課程研究:海上科技、再生能源的啟發 6
1-2研究目的: 8
1-2.1整合海上難民救援機制,規劃公海上避難空間的可能性 9
1-2.2新型態的構築方式 9
1-2.3新型態的海上自給自足設計 10
1-3 研究步驟 11
第二章 文獻回顧 12
2-1海上難民邊緣地景 13
2.1-1海上難民起源與事故地點現況 13
2.1.2海上救援機制發展 19
2-2人道建築 22
2-2-1 人道建築的機制 22
2-2-2 人道建築的現況發展 24
2-3.調適理論 28
2-3-1 亞歷山大調適理論 29
2-4 小結 31


第三章 案例分析 33
3-1 構築與難民 34
3-2 生產與難民 37
3-3共享與難民 40
第四章 先期研究 43
4-1廢棄船廠、廢船材料與構築研究分析 44
4-1.1貨櫃船船體研究 45
4-1.2貨幣艙結構與研究模型 45
4-1.3分解船體鋼材與貨壁艙構築研究 52
4-2 羅興亞族空間文化研究 54
4-3 集水系統與水耕栽培研究 56
4-3.1雨水回收利用 56
4-3.2.垂直水耕栽培研究………………………………………………………………..….….56
4-4 廢棄油轉生質柴油系統研究 60
4-5 小結 62
第五章 設計實驗 63
5-1基地分析 64
5-1.1安達曼海上資源類型分析 66
5-1.2建構年代與分區策略 66


5-2設計操作 69
5-2.1海上中繼站結構系統與空間計畫 69
5-2.2廢棄船與集水系統整合 73
5-2.3廢棄船與集生質柴油系統整合 73
5-2.4海上中繼站臨時碼頭 78
5-2.5設計圖說 80
第六章 結論與建議 86
6-1 結論 87
6-2 建議 88
第七章 附錄 92

















圖目錄
第一章
【圖1-1】海上難民........................................................................................................... ...............................3
【圖1-2】戰爭下人口大遷移..........................................................................................................................4
【圖1-3】法蘭克福的茶室...............................................................................................................................5
【圖1-4】CASA UMBERALLA ......................................................................................................................5
【圖1-5】原始部落就地取材搭建建築.........................................................................................................6
【圖1-6】章魚仿生構築...................................................................................................................................7
【圖1-7】浮游避難所.......................................................................................................................................8
【圖1-8】研究步驟.........................................................................................................................................11
第二章
【圖2-1】八零年代至今難民人口數據.......................................................................................................14
【圖2-2】中東、東南亞地區為主要難民潮來源......................................................................................14
【圖2-3】敘利亞難民人數............................................................................................................................15
【圖2-4】難民年齡層人口............................................................................................................................15
【圖2-5】全球難民營收容人數....................................................................................................................16
【圖2-6】敘利亞海上難民事故地點.......................................................................................................,...16
【圖2-7】羅興亞人避難佈點.....................................................................................................................,..17
【圖2-8】難民營現況實景...........................................................................................................................,17
【圖2-9】羅興亞人海上逃亡路線...............................................................................................................18
【圖2-10】2012年羅興亞人棄置在海上的分布以及人數........................................................................18
【圖2-11】海上救難機制三大步驟.............................................................................................................19
【圖2-12】海上救難機制第一步驟............................................................................................................20
【圖2-13】救難艇海上搜救模式................................................................................................................21
【圖2-14】海上救難機制.............................................................................................................................22
【圖2-15】人道建築配套機制....................................................................................................................24
【圖2-16】Open Source Architecture機制...................................................................................................24
【圖2-17】Extreme Housing..........................................................................................................................25
【圖2-18】Smoke House................................................................................................................................26
【圖2-19】紙木屋..........................................................................................................................................28
【圖2-20】Mousgoum部落與其空間模式.................................................................................................29
【圖2-21】Hebrides........................................................................................................................................30
【圖2-22】印地安毛草屋.............................................................................................................................30
【圖2-23】村莊構成要素.............................................................................................................第三章
【圖3-1】勤和避難屋...................................................................................................................................35
【圖3-2】Baan Nong Bua School...................................................................................................................36
【圖3-3】Baan Nong Bua School結構爆炸圖.............................................................................................36
【圖3-4】Jellyfish Barge.................................................................................................................................37
【圖3-5】Jellyfish Barge 耕作流程..............................................................................................................38
【圖3-6】The house as a water container 結構組成....................................................................................39
【圖3-7】The house as a water container水系統..........................................................................................39
【圖3-8】Big Family.......................................................................................................................................40
【圖3-9】Big Family院落空間模式.........................................................................................................
【圖3-10】Refugee Republic...........................................................................................................................42
【圖3-11】Refugee Republic Map..................................................................................................................42
第四章
【圖4-1】吉大港(Chittagong) .......................................................................................................................44
【圖4-2】拆船廠現況....................................................................................................................................44
【圖4-3】半集裝箱船....................................................................................................................................45
【圖4-4】全集裝箱船....................................................................................................................................45
【圖4-5】貨櫃船組成....................................................................................................................................46
【圖4-6】貨櫃船船身結構...........................................................................................................................46
【圖4-7】貨櫃船船體內部............................................................................................. .............................47
【圖4-8】貨壁艙結構爆炸圖.......................................................................................................................48
【圖4-9】前期研究模型(一) .......................................................................................................................49
【圖4-10】前期研究模型(二) .....................................................................................................................50
【圖4-11】前期研究模型(三) .....................................................................................................................51
【圖4-12】拆船廠鋼材.................................................................................................................................52
【圖4-13】鋼材組成方式.............................................................................................................................52
【圖4-14】拆船廠為完全拆除鋼材............................................................................................................53
【圖4-15】羅興亞村落空間類型................................................................................................................55
【圖4-16】建物雨水利用模式....................................................................................................................57
【圖4-17】建築儲水模式.............................................................................................................................57
【圖4-18】雨水過濾過程.............................................................................................................................58
【圖4-19】植株育苗......................................................................................................................................59
【圖4-20】PVC栽培床.................................................................................................................................60
【圖4-21】養液循環系統.............................................................................................................................60
【圖4-22】生質柴油過程.............................................................................................................................62
第五章
【圖5-1】Andaman Sea..................................................................................................................................64
【圖5-2】安達曼海峽...................................................................................................................................65
【圖5-3】安達曼海上資源...........................................................................................................................66
【圖5-4】海上中繼站策略...........................................................................................................................67.
【圖5-5】安達曼海峽未來邊緣地景..........................................................................................................68
【圖5-6】海上中繼站結構...........................................................................................................................69
【圖5-7】海上中繼站設計過程...................................................................................................................70
【圖5-8】海上中繼站program.....................................................................................................................71
【圖5-9】海上中繼站草模...........................................................................................................................72
【圖5-10】海上水耕農場.............................................................................................................................74
【圖5-11】海上質柴油製作流程................................................................................................................76
【圖5-12】海上質柴油製作工廠................................................................................................................77
【圖5-13】海上碼頭空間配置......................................................................................................................79
【圖5-14】海上中繼站空間機能................................................................................................................80
【圖5-15】LEVEL-5.00平面配置圖...........................................................................................................80
【圖5-16】各層平面配置圖.........................................................................................................................81
【圖5-17】海上中繼站剖面圖.....................................................................................................................82
【圖5-18】海上中繼站示意圖.....................................................................................................................83
【圖5-19】海上中繼站內部空間圖.............................................................................................................84
【圖5-20】海上中繼站模型..........................................................................................................................85
第六章
【圖6-1】口試照片..........................................................................................................................................89


第七章
【圖7-1】基地介紹..........................................................................................................................................93
【圖7-2】設計過程草圖..................................................................................................................................94
【圖7-3】最終設計完成版..............................................................................................................................95

















參考文獻 參考文獻

中文書籍
1.《形式綜合論》
克里斯托佛亞歷山大 / 著,王蔚 張玉坤 / 譯,華中科技出版社,出版日期: 1971
2.《造船的技術與工藝》
池田良穗 / 著 ,張沛然 / 譯,晨星出版社,出版日期: 2014.
3.《落腳城市:最終的人口大遷徙與世界的未來》
道格•桑德斯 / 著,陳信宏 / 譯,麥田出版,出版日期: 2011.
4.《小建築》
隈研吾 / 著,五南出版社,出版日期:2014.
5.《船》
路易士、歐布林 / 著,王軼群譯,生活叢書出版社,出版日期: 民國66.
6.《圖解S造建築入門 : 一次精通鋼骨造建築的基本知識、設計、施工和應用 》
原口秀昭 / 著,陳曄亭 / 譯, 臉譜出版社,出版日期: 2013
7.《無農藥水耕栽培:在家就能收成的39種健康蔬菜》
河村祥子 / 著,謝孝薇 / 譯,教育之友出版社,出版日期:2013
8.《生質能源利用科學》
兔束保之 / 著,李錦楓 / 譯,揚智出版社,出版日期:2011
9.《水耕栽培的魅力 》
蔡尚光 / 著,淑罄出版社,出版日期:2013
參考論文
1.張志寬 ,私立淡江大學
《未來水世界》103年
2.鄭筱薇 ,私立淡江大學
《城市中微型農場住宅 》 102年

英文書籍
1.《Self-sufficient housing : the competition / 1st Advanced Architecture Contest》
Vicente GuallartMuller, Lucas CappelliWilly,ACTAR,2006
2.《Architecture without architects》
RudofskyBernard,University of New Mexico Press,1987
3.《Self sufficient city : envisioning the habitat of the future. Barcelona》
Lucas Cappelli,IaaC,2010
4.《Design like you give a damn》
Cameron Sinclair,Metropolis Books,2006
參考網站
1.水耕植物生產
http://www.acresusa.com/hydroponic-food-production
2.雨水利用技術
http://www.cpami.gov.tw/chinese/index.php?option=com
3.全球雨量統計
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/GlobalMaps/view.php?d1=TRMM_3B43M
4.鋼構組成說明
http://www.shyxgjg.com/zl1.html
5.生質柴油DIY系統
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AVLdpCtjgJY
6.全球難民分布
http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home
7.漁業養殖技術
http://blog.xuite.net/honrong302/hkblog/106245203
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