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中文論文名稱 英文雙詞片語之教學與學習–一種認知教學法
英文論文名稱 Teaching and Learning of English Binomials- A Cognitive Approach
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 曾詠懿
研究生英文姓名 Yung-Yi Tseng
學號 697110111
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-21
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡映雪
委員-范瑞玲
委員-張雅慧
中文關鍵字 概念隱喻和借喻  認知方法  語意跟音韻動因  英文雙詞片語 
英文關鍵字 conceptual metaphors and metonymies  cognitive approach  semantic and phonological motivations  English Binomials 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 許多研究發現,教導特定英語片語下的概念隱喻和借喻能幫助學生正確的理解並解釋這些片語(例如:Boers, 2000; Berendi, Csabi & Kovecses, 2008; Hu & Fong, 2010)。這種教授第二外語字彙的方式就是廣為人知的認知方法。這種方法也被運用到一些研究裡;這些研究顯示,清楚地指出第二外語組塊(L2 chunks)下的語意跟音韻動因,例如;類象次序(iconic ordering)跟音韻重複(phonological repetition),學習者對這些詞彙的記憶會有相當程度的加深(例如: Boers & Lindstromberg, 2008; Lindstromberg & Boers, 2008a, 2008b)。
本研究即是探討兩種認知方法對於母語為中文的成人學習者在外語環境下學習英文雙詞片語的成效;第一種方法運用概念隱喻和借喻,另一種方法則是將概念隱喻和借喻跟語意或聲韻動因作了結合。為了探討這兩種認知方法的成效,此研究分為兩個階段–預試跟主實驗。兩實驗各徵求了三組受試者,第一組為控制組,第二組為實驗組A,第三組為實驗組B。控制組採用一種非認知的方式,用翻譯跟提供英文雙詞片語的中文對應詞來教學;實驗組A採用了認知方法,運用目標片語下的概念隱喻和借喻,而實驗組B也採用了認知方法,將英文雙詞片語裡的概念隱喻和借喻與語意或聲韻線索都提出來教導參與者。
兩階段的研究結果發現,單獨就從平均數來看,點出概念隱喻和借喻的方式在預試跟主實驗裡對於英文雙詞片語的短期記憶有較好的成效。然而,預試結果顯示,結合語意或音韻動因的方法,對於加強學習者對英文雙詞片語的長期記憶比其它兩種方法更為有效。但此優勢在主實驗裡並未顯現。總而言之,認知與非認知方法對於受試者學習英文雙詞片語都有幫助。從這些實驗所產生的統計結果發現,尚無法定論哪種教學方法是比較好的。或許有其它干擾因素相互影響這些教學方法。在檢視了學的最好跟最差的英文雙詞片語後發現,干擾因素有可能是這些英文雙詞片語的熟悉度跟透明度以及組成這些片語的字之出現頻率。此研究似乎實驗組B所採用的方法未必能幫助學習高度熟悉且透明的片語。需要進一步的研究來探討這些因素才能確立認知方法的成效。
英文摘要 Numerous empirical studies have shown that raising the awareness of conceptual metaphors and metonymies (CMs) underlying particular idioms in English is indeed helpful for learners to understand and interpret them correctly (e.g., Boers, 2000; Berendi, Csabi & Kovecses, 2008; Hu & Fong, 2010). Such an approach in instructing L2/FL vocabulary has come to be known as a “cognitive approach.” It was also applied to some empirical studies that show when explicitly raising the awareness of the semantic or phonological motivations such as iconic ordering and phonological repetition underlying L2 chunks, learner’s retention to them could be considerably enhanced (e.g., Boers & Lindstromberg, 2008; Lindstromberg & Boers, 2008a, 2008b).
This study is to investigate the efficacy of two cognitive approaches, one with CMs, while the other with CMs and clues of semantic and phonological motivations on adult Mandarin speakers learning English binomials in a foreign language environment. For this investigation, this study was divided into two stages: the pilot and the main study. Both studies recruited subjects for a Control Group (CG), Experimental Group A (EGA), and Experimental Group B (EGB). CG adopted a non-cognitive approach, receiving the translation and Chinese equivalents of the target English binomial chunks, and EGA adopted a cognitive approach, incorporating the conceptual metaphors and metonymies of the target chunks, while EGB also employed a cognitive approach involving a treatment of the CMs and semantic and phonological clues underlying the binomials.
Results from both studies suggest that, from mean scores alone, CM approach seemed to be better in both pilot and main study for immediate recall, while results of long-term retention in the pilot study show that approach with semantic and phonological clues had an edge over the other two. However, this edge could not be replicated in the main study. To conclude, it seems that both cognitive and non-cognitive approaches benefited the recruited subjects in learning English binomials. Statistical results yielded from the experiments show that it is far from conclusive to suggest which approach is superior. It is suspected that there could be other confounding factors interacting with these approaches. After examining the best learned and worst learned English chunks, the factors could be familiarity, transparency of the chunks and the frequency of the words that constitute the chunks. It appears that retention of highly familiar and transparent chunks do not necessarily benefit from the approach employed in the EGB in this study. Further research is required to investigate these factors in establishing the efficacy of any cognitive approach.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgements i
Abstract vii
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vii

Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study 3
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Organization of the Thesis 6
Chapter Two Literature Review 8
2.1 The definition and terminology of formulaic sequences 8
2.2 Conceptual Metaphor and Metonymy 9
2.3 Previous Research on the Efficacy of Cognitive Instruction involving Awareness-raising of Conceptual Metaphors and Metonymies to Teach Figurative Idioms 12
2.4 Semantic and Phonological Motivations Underlying Chunks 16
2.5 Previous Research on the Mnemonic Benefits of the Phonological Motivation 19
Chapter Three Methodology 22
3.1 Participants 22
3.2 Procedure 23
3.2.1 Materials 23
3.2.2 Procedure for the Pilot Study 25
3.2.3 Procedure for the Main Study 26
3.3 Treatment for the Main Study 28
3.3.1 The Control Lesson- A Non-cognitive Approach 29
3.3.2 The Experimental lesson: Cognitive Instruction Approach 30
3.3.3 The Experimental Lesson: Cognitive Instruction Approach with Awareness of Semantic or Phonological Motivation 32
3.4 Data Collection and Analysis 34
3.4.1 Pre-test, Post-test, and Delayed Post-test 34
3.4.2 Think Aloud Protocols 34
3.4.3 Data Analysis: the Coding Scheme of the Verbal Protocols and the Inter-Rater Reliability 35
3.4.4 Statistical Tools 38
Chapter Four Results and Discussion 39
4.1 Results and Discussion of the Pilot Study 40
4.2 Main Study: Results and Discussion of Research Question 1 and Question 2 41
4.3 Main study: Results and discussion of Research Question 3 49
4.4 Learnability, Transparency, and Frequency Effect 59
4.5 Summary 60
Chapter Five Conclusion 62
5.1 Summary of the study 62
5.2 Implications and limitations of the study 63
5.3 Recommendation for future research 65
References 67
Appendices 72

List of Tables
Table 3.1 chronological Arrangement of Activity Sessions................................................. 28
Table 3.2 A teaching sample for the CG Group ................................................................... 30
Table 3.3 A Sample of Activities used in the CG Group ..................................................... 30
Table 3.4 A Teaching Sample for the EGA Group ............................................................... 31
Table 3.5 A Sample of activities used in the EGA Group ................................................... 32
Table 3.6 A Sample of Teaching Materials for the EGB Group ......................................... 33
Table 3.7 A Sample of Activities for the EGB Group .......................................................... 33
Table 3.8 Examples of Categorization of Participants’ Verbal Interpretations to
Binomial Chunks .................................................................................................... 37
Table 4.1 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Scores of the Progress from Pre-test to
Post-test of Comprehension Test in the Pilot Study ............................................ 41
Table 4.2 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Scores of the Regression from Post-test to
Delayed Post-test of Comprehension Test in the Pilot Study ............................. 41
Table 4.3 The Mean Scores of the Pre-test, Immediate Post-test and Delayed Post-test of
Each Group ............................................................................................................. 43
Table 4.4 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Score of the Progress from the Pre-test to
Immediate Post-test within Each Group .............................................................. 43
Table 4.5 One-way ANOVA of the Mean Scores of the Improvement from the Pre-test to
Immediate Post-test of the Three Groups ............................................................ 43
Table 4.6 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Score of the Regression from the Immediate
Post-test to Delayed Post-test within Each Group .............................................. 45
Table 4.7 One-way ANOVA of the Mean Scores of the Regression from the Immediate
Post-test to Delayed Post-test of the Three Groups............................................. 45
Table 4.8 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Score of the Progress from the Pre-test to
Delayed Post-test within Each Group .................................................................. 47
Table 4.9 One-way ANOVA of the Mean Scores of the Improvement from the Pre-test to
Delayed Post-test of the Three Groups................................................................. 47
Table 4.10 LSD Test of Multiple Comparisons among Groups ......................................... 47
Table 4.11 The Attempts Participants Used in the Pre-test and Post-test in the EGA
Group (N=25) ......................................................................................................... 50
Table 4.12 Paired Sample T-test of the EGA Group’s Increase from the Pre-test to
Post-test on Attempts that Match Each Categorization ..................................... 51
Table 4.13 The Attempts Participants Used in the Pre-test and Post-test in the CG
Group (N=30) ......................................................................................................... 52
Table 4.14 Paired Sample T-test of the CG Group’s Increase from the Pre-test to
Post-test on Attempts that Match Each Categorization ..................................... 52
Table 4.15 The Attempts Participants Used in the Pre-test and Post-test in the EGB
Group (N=29) ......................................................................................................... 55
Table 4.16 Paired Sample T-test of the EGB Group’s Increase from the Pre-test to
Post-test on Attempts that Match Each Categorization ..................................... 56
Table 4.17 Attempts that Match Underlying CMs or Semantic/Phonological Motivations
................................................................................................................................ 57
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