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系統識別號 U0002-3107201416044700
中文論文名稱 應用二氧化矽奈米顆粒沉積於蒸發器之沸騰熱傳實驗研究
英文論文名稱 Experimental Investigations of Boiling Heat Transfer in an Evaporator Using Silica Nanoparticle Coatings
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 黃俊賢
研究生英文姓名 Chun-Hsien Huang
學號 899370075
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-10
論文頁數 109頁
口試委員 指導教授-康尚文
委員-楊錫杭
委員-陳育堂
委員-康尚文
委員-楊龍杰
委員-林玉興
中文關鍵字 二氧化矽奈米顆粒  沸騰熱傳  蒸發器  熱性能  沉積結構 
英文關鍵字 Silica nanoparticle  Boiling heat transfer  Evaporator  Thermal performance  Coating structures 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文以將二氧化矽奈米顆粒製作沉積層進行沸騰熱傳研究,以分析沸騰過程中奈米顆粒結構對熱傳性能及汽泡生成與成長的影響。文中將二氧化矽顆粒以物理溶膠沉積於蒸發底板上方,二氧化矽顆粒分別為多孔性奈米顆粒(MCM-41)、無孔奈米顆粒(SiO2-S)及微米顆粒(SiO2-L)。MCM-41及SiO2-S結構具有良好的親水性,其接觸角皆為10°以內且液滴迅速擴散,並比較TEOS溶膠結構、平板結構及二氧化矽顆粒的熱傳性能,
分別以水位調節虹吸熱管與迴路式虹吸熱管蒸發器於一大氣壓與負壓情況下進行實驗研究,工作流體為純水,分別探討其沸騰熱傳由自然對流熱傳、核沸騰、薄膜蒸發到燒乾及池沸騰狀態的熱傳性能與汽泡生成情形。
實驗結果顯示,二氧化矽奈米顆粒結構具有較大的熱通量,其因具有良好的表面親水濕潤性,在一大氣壓及過熱度為20 oC時,SiO2-S結構的最大熱通量為677 kW/cm2,是平板結構的2.4倍。在負壓及過熱度為30 oC時,SiO2-S結構熱通量為2391 kW/cm2是平板結構的4倍。最大熱通量及最小蒸發熱阻依序為SiO2-S、SiO2-L、MCM-41、TEOS及平板結構。因此奈米顆粒沉積層結構具有良好的熱傳性能,但MCM-41顆粒的熱性能較差於SiO2-S及SiO2-L顆粒,是因為顆粒本身較難以沉積於加熱表面上方所導致。
英文摘要 This study investigated the effects of silica nanoparticle structures on boiling heat transfer at evaporator. The experiment reveals the effect of thermal performance and bubble growth by nanoparticle structures. The nanoparticle coated structures were used in heating surface of evaporator, and the particles are mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSM-41), silica nanoparticle (SiO2-S) and silica mircoparticle (SiO2-L), respectively. Comparison of TEOS sol and plat structures are thermal performance with silica particles. The MCM-41 and SiO2-S coated structures contact angle were less than 10 and droplets expanding very fast.
The experimental method of using level adjustable thermosyphon (LAT) and two phase loop thermosyphon (TPLT) are researched of boiling heat transfer in atmospheric pressure and sub-atmospheric pressure, respectively. The working fluid is DI water. During a cycle of experiment, the primary heat transfer mechanisms of LAT is sequentially from natural convection, nucleate boiling, thin-film evaporation and dryout in atmospheric pressure, as LAT and TPLT were experimental investigated in pool boiling.
The experimental results show that silica nanoparticle structures have a higher heat flux, because they have better surface wettability of hydrophilic. In the atmospheric pressure and surface superheat is 20 oC, the SiO2-S structure heat flux is 677 kW/cm2. SiO2-S structure heat flux is 2.4 times of plat structure. In the sub-atmospheric pressure and surface superheat is 30oC, the SiO2-S structure heat flux is 2391 kW/cm2. SiO2-S structure heat flux is four times of plat structure. The maximum heat flux and minimum thermal resistance in turn were SiO2-S, SiO2-L, MCM-41, TEOS and plat structures. Therefore, nanoparticles coated structures has better thermal performance. The thermal performance of MCM-41 is poor than SiO2-S and SiO2-L, because it is difficult to coated on the heating surface.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
符號說明 X

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.2.1 蒸發器熱傳性能研究 3
1.2.2 沸騰增強結構 6
1.2.3 奈米顆粒流體與沉積 8
1.3 研究動機與目的 12
第二章 理論分析 13
2.1 成核理論 13
2.1.1 成核址 13
2.1.2 過熱度 15
2.1.3 接觸角 15
2.1.4 汽泡脫離 17
2.2 沸騰理論 18
2.2.1 參數影響 18
2.2.2 池沸騰 20
2.2.3 薄膜蒸發 23
第三章 多孔性二氧化矽奈米顆粒之沸騰熱傳 25
3.1 多孔性二氧化矽奈米顆粒簡介 25
3.2 多孔性二氧化矽奈米顆粒製程介紹與製作 26
3.3 熱傳性能實驗架設 29
3.3.1 實驗設置 29
3.3.2 實驗參數 38
3.3.3 誤差分析 42
3.4 結果討論 42
3.4.1蒸發底板表面結構之熱傳性能分析 43
3.4.2 蒸發底板表面結構之汽泡生成與成長情形 48
3.4.3 二氧化矽顆粒沉積層實驗前後改變 54
3.4.3 蒸發底板表面結構之池沸騰熱傳性能分析 57
第四章 二氧化矽奈米顆粒應用於迴路式虹吸熱管之沸騰熱傳 59
4.1迴路式虹吸熱管簡介 59
4.2熱傳性能實驗架設 60
4.2.1 實驗設置 61
4.2.2 實驗參數 66
4.2.3 誤差分析 68
4.3 結果與討論 68
4.3.1 蒸發底板表面結構於迴路式虹吸熱管之熱傳性能 69
4.3.2 二氧化矽沉積層實驗前後改變 75
第五章 總結 78

參考文獻 80

論文著述目錄 86

附錄 A多孔性二氧化矽奈米顆粒製作材料 87
附錄 B 蒸發底板沉積層於一大氣壓下之汽泡生成與成長過程 89
附錄 C迴路式虹吸熱管之飽和溫度量測值與飽和壓力換算關係 106


圖目錄
圖1.1 加熱表面溫度與汽泡生成關係 5
圖1.2 燒結結構內部薄膜蒸發預測示意及熱通量與熱阻關係 7
圖1.3 不同接觸角對加熱表面生成蒸汽汽泡尺寸及比例 11
圖2.1 成核過程 14
圖2.2 液珠與固體表面接觸角關係 16
圖2.3 表面濕潤性對汽泡接觸角影響 (a)無濕潤 (b)部分濕潤 (c)完全濕潤 17
圖2.4 各種不同增強沸騰表面結構 19
圖2.5 池沸騰機制 21
圖2.6 池沸騰區域加熱表面的蒸汽結構 22
圖2.7 池沸騰曲線 23
圖2.8 薄膜蒸發液面示意圖 24
圖3.1 多孔性材料MCM-41之M41S製作過程 27
圖3.2 多孔洞結構二氧化矽奈米顆粒MCM-41 28
圖3.3 多孔洞結構二氧化矽奈米顆粒MCM-41 (a)SEM (b)TEM (c)外觀示意圖 28
圖3.4水位調節示意圖 31
圖3.5水位調節虹吸熱管 31
圖3.6 水位調節虹吸熱管示意圖 33
圖3.7 溶膠凝膠法製程與產物 34
圖3.8 四種蒸發底板表面結構SEM (a)平板(b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 36
圖3.9 水位調節虹吸熱管溫度量測配置 38
圖3.10 二氧化矽奈米顆粒 40
圖3.11 銅質蒸發底板表面結構 (a)平板 (b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 40
圖3.12 蒸發底板表面結構接觸角與液滴擴散 (a)平板 (b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 41
圖3.13 沸騰熱傳之蒸發過程 43
圖3.14 四種結構之蒸發底板表面溫度 (a)50W (b)100W (c)150W (d)200W 45
圖3.15 四種結構之表面過熱度 (a)50W (b)100W (c)150W (d)200W 46
圖3.16 四種結構之蒸發熱阻 (a)50W (b)100W (c)150W (d)200W 47
圖3.17 平板結構汽泡生成與成長情形 50
圖3.18 MCM-41結構汽泡生成與成長情形 51
圖3.19 SiO2-S結構汽泡生成與成長情形 52
圖3.20 SiO2-L結構汽泡生成與成長情形 53
圖3.21 蒸發底板實驗前後對照 (a)平板 (b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 55
圖3.22 蒸發底板於實驗後之表面結構接觸角 (a)平板 (b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 56
圖3.23 五種結構之表面過熱度與熱通量關係 58
圖3.24 五種結構之實際輸入功率與蒸發熱阻關係 58
圖4.1 迴路式虹吸熱管示意圖 63
圖4.2 迴路式虹吸熱管 64
圖4.3 迴路式虹吸熱管 64
圖4.4 迴路式虹吸熱管溫度配置 65
圖4.5蒸發底板表面結構 (a)平板 (b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 66
圖4.6蒸發底板表面結構接觸角與液滴擴散(a)平板(b)TEOS(b)MCM-41(c)SiO2-S(d)SiO2-L 67
圖4.7 平板結構之迴路式虹吸熱管溫度分布 70
圖4.8 TEOS結構之迴路式虹吸熱管溫度分布 70
圖4.9 MCM-41結構之迴路式虹吸熱管溫度分布 71
圖4.10 SiO2-S結構之迴路式虹吸熱管溫度分布 71
圖4.11 SiO2-L結構之迴路式虹吸熱管溫度分布 72
圖4.12 五種結構之迴路式虹吸熱管內部壓力 72
圖4.13 五種結構實際輸入功率關係 73
圖4.14 五種結構之表面過熱度關係 73
圖4.15 五種結構之蒸發熱阻關係 74
圖4.16 五種結構之熱通量與過熱度關係 74
圖4.17 蒸發底板沉積層實驗前後對照 (a)平板 (b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 76
圖4.18 蒸發底板於實驗後之表面結構接觸角 (a)平板 (b)MCM-41 (c)SiO2-S (d)SiO2-L 77
附圖A.1 透明矽酸鈉混合溶液 88
附圖A.2透明界面活性劑混合溶液(MCM-41) 88
附圖A.3 MCM-41凝絮物混合溶液 (a)沉澱前 (b)沉澱後 88
附圖B.1 平板結構汽泡生成於輸入功率50W 90
附圖B.2 平板結構汽泡生成於輸入功率100W 91
附圖B.3 平板結構汽泡生成於輸入功率150W 92
附圖B.4 平板結構汽泡生成於輸入功率200W 93
附圖B.5 MCM-41結構汽泡生成於輸入功率50W 94
附圖B.6 MCM-41結構汽泡生成於輸入功率100W 95
附圖B.7 MCM-41結構汽泡生成於輸入功率150W 96
附圖B.8 MCM-41結構汽泡生成於輸入功率200W 97
附圖B.9 SiO2-S結構汽泡生成於輸入功率50W 98
附圖B.10 SiO2-S結構汽泡生成於輸入功率100W 99
附圖B.11 SiO2-S結構汽泡生成於輸入功率150W 100
附圖B.12 SiO2-S結構汽泡生成於輸入功率200W 101
附圖B.13 SiO2-L結構汽泡生成於輸入功率50W 102
附圖B.14 SiO2-L結構汽泡生成於輸入功率100W 103
附圖B.15 SiO2-L結構汽泡生成於輸入功率150W 104
附圖B.16 SiO2-L結構汽泡生成於輸入功率200W 105
附圖C.1 平板結構飽和溫度量測與壓力換算關係 107
附圖C.2 TEOS結構飽和溫度量測與壓力換算關係 107
附圖C.3 MCM-41結構飽和溫度量測與壓力換算關係 108
附圖C.4 SiO2-S結構飽和溫度量測與壓力換算關係 108
附圖C.5 SiO2-L結構飽和溫度量測與壓力換算關係 109




表目錄
表1.1 各類熱管應用不同類種類奈米流體之性能研究(2003-2011) 10
表3.1 實驗條件參數 39
表3.2 蒸發底板表面結構於池沸騰與薄膜蒸發之表面過熱度 48
表3.3 蒸發底板二氧化矽奈米顆粒沉積層比較 56
表4.1 實驗條件參數 66
表4.2 蒸發底板二氧化矽奈米顆粒沉積層比較 77
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