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系統識別號 U0002-3107201415540000
中文論文名稱 D*Lite為根據之機器人互動
英文論文名稱 Robotic Interactions According to D*Lite
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 潘星佑
研究生英文姓名 Sing-You Pan
學號 601370355
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-02
論文頁數 87頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊智旭
委員-楊智旭
委員-孫崇訓
中文關鍵字 社會學  人-機器人互動  機器人導航  路徑規劃 
英文關鍵字 Sociology  Human Robot Interaction(HRI)  Guiding Robot  Path Planning 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 現今能提供自主移動之智能體(Intelligent Agent)以幫助人類維持社會功能者,其技術日益完善,然從社會學角度檢驗此一個智能體之發展,闡述其間之聯結尚付諸闕如。本研究以社會學之觀點提出了社會中互動需求與機器人導航之關聯性,再擴大社會需求面之討論,就其功能學派找到一個立論基礎,定義出人-機器人或機器人-機器人互動的方式與種類。從人類的服務需求,關聯到互動之不同、關聯到機器人之行為及如何提供服務,再關聯到機器人導航之議題,最後關聯到其核心的動態路徑規則。本研究假設安養院為社會環境之案例,說明年長者在安養院之中確實可將機器人導入提供照護與互動之服務,藉以回顧證明人機互動與路徑規劃系統之間的關聯性。
英文摘要 People can get easily helps from intelligently autonomous mobile agents nowadays. The services from the agents maintain social function as a part of human-robot interaction(HRI). As the technical developments improve increasingly, there is still lacks of clarification of the social functions which the mobile agents can achieve, and relationship-discovery between the humanbings and the agents subject to the HRI. From sociological aspect, this paper seeks the sociological relevance created by this kind of HRI, and evaluates the corresponding social value by taking significant examples.
Starting from a causality analysis between the soscial needs which the humanbeings desire and the accessible services which the agents can provide, this paper confirms first the value of navigating an agent to finish the service, and recognizes the navigation as one part of the interaction during the service. The core technique of this kind of robotic interaction monitors the dynamic changes of enviroment, provides an adquate route plan to reach the goal service, and reacts properly the environemntal changes during approaching the goal.
This paper expands the discussions of social needs, and gains its fundations of this research in sructural functionalism. Cases of human-robot and robot-robot interactions are analyzed and classifiied based on the functionalism. The services corresponding to humanbeings' needs differ from case to case but the navigating interactions preceeding the the services are consistently matching to a topic of dynamic path planning. A dynamic path replanner is thus the core thechnique to accomplish such kinds of social works. A case of nursing home was taken as an example for the study. Sinaorios of the nursing home were explored and implemented by a down-scaled simulation with the D* lite path replanner. The simulation confirms significantly the social value of the service of a mobile angent with its ability in path planning.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要I
英文摘要II
目錄IV
圖目錄VIII
表目錄XI
第一章 緒論1
1-1、前言1
1-2、研究動機與目的2
1-3、相關文獻3
第二章 人-機器人互動與社會需求5
2-1、社會學蘊義5
2-1-1、功能在不同領域之定義5
2-1-2、社會學之功能學派理論7
2-2、人-機器人互動在社會學中的價值8
2-2-1、移動之服務與互動8
2-2-2、人-機器人互動元素9
2-2-3、人-機器人互動種類12
2-2-4、年長者互動需求例15
2-2-5、安養院所提供功能案例17
第三章 路徑規劃在人-機器人社會的重要性21
3-1、路徑規劃在人-機器人互動中的角色21
3-2、路徑規劃種類22
3-3、互動分析與環境路徑規劃結合23
第四章 路徑規劃29
4-1、人-機或機-機互動之路徑規劃需求29
4-2、各種路徑規劃簡介.29
4-3、基於D* Lite之互動型路徑規劃31
4-3-1、拓樸地圖32
4-3-2、VD與廣義VORONOI結構劃分(GVD)34
4-4、D* Lite演算法37
第五章 研究設備與方法40
5-1、研究設備與場景40
5-2、模擬案列說明44
5-3、模擬方法45
5-3-1、影像擷取46
5-3-2、影像處理47
5-3-2-1、顏色辨識48
5-3-2-2、影像二值化與膨脹侵蝕效果49
5-3-2-3、找尋特徵點圓心49
5-3-3、人-機互動路徑規劃51
5-3-3-1、路徑初規劃51
5-3-3-2、路徑即時再規劃54
5-3-4、機器人驅動馬達控制57
5-3-5、人機界面與導航圖像57
第六章 實驗與討論59
6-1、模擬技術部份59
6-1-1、環境特徵點顏色辨識之檢討59
6-1-2、路徑規劃實例61
6-2、路徑規劃靜態模擬實驗67
6-3、路徑規劃動態模擬實驗69
6-3-1、單點障礙移動再規劃實驗69
6-3-2、區塊障礙移動再規劃實驗72
6-3-3、單點與區塊障礙移動再規劃實驗74
6-4、多終點模擬實驗76
6-5、實驗結果與討論80
第七章 結論與討論82
7-1、結論82
7-2、討論82
參考文獻84

圖目錄
圖1-1 可提供服務的機器人各種場合考慮2
圖2-1 機器人攙扶年長者之移動服務示意圖9
圖3-1 安養院人-機互動路徑規劃需求圖22
圖4-1 網路連通拓樸地圖示意圖33
圖4-2 環境資訊地圖與特徵地圖34
圖4-3 VORONOI結構劃分35
圖4-4 一般與廣義之VORONOI 結構劃分37
圖5-1 場地實際場景圖41
圖5-2 NXT機器人42
圖5-3 WebCam實體圖43
圖5-4 USB藍芽Dongle43
圖5-5 安養院環境模擬圖44
圖5-6 系統流程圖46
圖5-7 WebCam擷取之範例場景圖47
圖5-8 顏色辨識流程圖48
圖5-9 辨識場地中紅色目標點48
圖5-10 膨脹侵蝕比較圖49
圖5-11 連通元件標記法50
圖5-12 特徵點圓心50
圖5-13 實地規劃出D* Lite路徑51
圖5-14 廣義Voronoi結構劃分之拓樸地圖52
圖5-15 實驗拓樸地圖定義53
圖5-16 初規劃之D* Lite最短路徑54
圖5-17 環境變動前後拓樸地圖之比較55
圖5-18 因應環境變動後產生新的路徑56
圖5-19 Matlab GUI介面圖58
圖6-1 場地複雜度示意圖60
圖6-2 D* Lite初規劃步驟局部解析61
圖6-3 終點向相鄰節點拓展62
圖6-4 編號24節點之rhs程序63
圖6-5 編號24節點向外拓展程序63
圖6-6 編號53、54節點之rhs程序64
圖6-7 新生成拓樸地圖65
圖6-8 地圖資訊比對(a)舊地圖(b)新地圖65
圖6-9 地圖局部更新66
圖6-10 機器人靜態規劃圖69
圖6-11 動態單點障礙移動71
圖6-12 動態區塊障礙移動74
圖6-13 單點與區塊障礙移動76
圖6-14 多終點實驗情境79
圖6-15 再規劃未達終點實例81

表目錄
表3-1 環境互動分析表24
表4-1 路徑規劃分析表30
表5-1 Voronoi節點資料型態52
表6-1 特徵點複雜度運算速度60

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