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系統識別號 U0002-3107201311123900
中文論文名稱 以封閉式供應鏈觀點探討新產品上市對產品定價策略之影響
英文論文名稱 The Impact of New Products Issued on Product Pricing Strategy for Closed-loop Supply Chain Perspective
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 陳正一
研究生英文姓名 Cheng-Yi Chen
學號 600610249
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-20
論文頁數 68頁
口試委員 指導教授-羅惠瓊
委員-張東生
委員-高秀學
中文關鍵字 定價策略  供應鏈結構  供應鏈協調 
英文關鍵字 Pricing Strategy  Supply Chain Structure  Supply Chain Coordination 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來政府逐漸地重視環境保護及資源再利用等議題,且許多企業也積極地投入產品回收與再製造等相關作業,期能減少原料採購成本及增加產品之附加價值。因此,逆物流之管理與封閉式供應鏈之研究儼然成為當今重要之探討議題。
其中,二手產品之回收與再銷售即屬於逆物流之活動範疇。當市場上存在過多的二手產品與新款產品,即會影響廠商各種產品之銷售,並進一步地衝擊廠商之利潤。有鑑於此,廠商對各種產品之整合能力與定價策略即為影響企業獲利之重要因素。另一方面,供應鏈之結構亦是影響廠商利潤之重要因素。傳統供應鏈多屬於分散式架構,近年來,許多供應鏈轉而採行整合式架構以促進供應鏈協調、增加資訊分享、降低長鞭效應,期能提升整體供應鏈之績效。
有鑑於此,本研究同時探討多款產品之定價策略,亦即在市場同時存在原款、新款及二手產品之情況下,考量不同產品價格對產品銷售及廠商利潤之影響,以制定廠商利潤極大化之定價策略。另外,本研究分別建構分散式及整合式通路模型,用以評估不同情境之產品最適定價,分析整合式通路策略下整體供應鏈獲得效益之改善。
研究結果顯示,產品效用與銷售期間之變動會直接地影響產品定價與其利潤。其中,若原款產品效用越接近新款產品效用時,供應鏈總利潤有減少之趨勢。亦即新款產品缺乏創新下,可能影響顧客購買意願,進而衝擊廠商利潤。在第二期之環境下,二手產品效用的增加,將提高二手產品之價格,增加供應鏈總利潤。同樣地,提升原款產品效用將增進其產品價格,並且對供應鏈之績效產生顯著之正向效果。另一方面,相較於分散式通路,廠商採行整合式通路策略可以有效地降低產品價格,以增加顧客購買意願,提升供應鏈總利潤。
英文摘要 In recent years, the government put more attention on the issues of environmental protection and resource reuse. Many enterprises are also actively engaged in product recycling , remanufacturing, and other related operations, hoping to reduce the cost of raw materials procuring and increase products’ value-added. Therefore, the management of reverse logistics and the study of Closed-loop Supply Chain have become important research issues nowadays.
However, the recycling and reselling of used products belong to the scope of activities of reverse logistics. When there are too many used and new products on the market, the firm's sales of various products will be affected, and further impacts the firm's profits. In view of this, the manufacturer's ability to integrate a variety of products and pricing strategies is an important factor affecting corporate profits. On the other hand, the structure of the supply chain is also an important factor affecting the profits of manufacturers. Traditional supply chain are mostly decentralized channel architecture, in recent years, many supply chains transit to adopt centralized channel framework for supply chain coordination, increasing information sharing and reducing the bullwhip effect, hoping to enhance the overall supply chain performance.
Therefore, this study explores a variety of products’ pricing strategy in the same time, which means that in the situation of the original models, the new, original and used products all exist in the product market, considering different prices of various products have different impact on product sales and firm profit, developing the pricing strategy to maximize corporate profits. In addition, this study builds the model of decentralized channel and the model of centralized channel individually to assess the optimal price of products in different scenarios, analyzing the benefit of overall supply chain, and investigating whether it will be higher than before when taking centralized channel strategy.
The results reveal that utilities of various products and changes of sales periods will directly affect their product pricing and profits. Among them, if the original product’s utility is closer to the new product’s utility, the total supply chain profit is smaller. That means that when lacking innovation in new products, the customer purchase intention might be affected, impacting the profits of manufacturers. In the environment of the second period, increasing the utility of used products will let the price of used products higher, as well as the total supply chain profits. Likewise, increasing the utility of original products will let their price higher, and have significant positive effect to the supply chain’s performance. On the other hand, compared to the decentralized channel, firms which adopt centralized channel strategy can effectively reduce product prices in order to increase customer purchase intention, and improving total supply chain profit.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 研究範疇與限制 4
1.4 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1 產品之通路結構與市場結構 6
2.1.1 產品之通路結構 6
2.1.2 產品之市場結構 8
2.2 逆物流與封閉式供應鏈之結構 9
2.2.1 逆物流 9
2.2.2 封閉式供應鏈 11
2.3 賽局理論與寡占市場之競爭模型 12
2.3.1 賽局理論 12
2.3.2 寡占市場之競爭模型 13
2.4 通路協調 15
2.5 產品生命週期 17
2.5.1 產品生命週期之定義 17
2.5.2 產品生命週期對產品銷售之影響 20
2.6 二手產品對其他產品銷售之影響 22
2.7 新產品對其他產品銷售之影響 23
第三章 模型建構 25
3.1 模型之數學符號定義與說明 25
3.2 系統環境之描述 25
3.3 利潤模型之建立 29
3.3.1分散式模型建構 29
3.3.2整合式模型建構 30
3.4 最適策略之推導 33
3.4.1分散式模型之最適策略推導 33
3.4.2整合式模型之最適策略推導 37
3.4.3小結 39
第四章 數值分析 41
4.1模型之數值分析 41
4.1.1模型之參數設定與說明 41
4.1.2模型之數值結果與分析 42
4.2模型之敏感度分析 48
第五章 結論與未來發展 55
5.1 結論 55
5.2 未來研究之發展方向 57
參考文獻 59
英文文獻 59
中文文獻 63
附錄 64

表目錄
表2-1 市場結構 9
表2-2 產品生命週期各階段之特徵 19
表2-3 產品生命週期各階段之策略 19
表3-1 模型之數學符號定義與說明 25
表3-2 顧客之購買決策 28
表4-1 模型之參數設定 41
表4-2 分散式通路之最佳決策變數 43
表4-3 整合式通路之最佳決策變數 43
表4-4 分散式通路之最適產品定價 44
表4-5 整合式通路之最適產品定價 44
表4-6 分散式與整合式通路之利潤 45

圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖 5
圖2-1 通路長度架構圖 7
圖2-2 逆物流之作業流程圖 10
圖2-3 封閉式供應鏈架構圖 11
圖2-4 產品生命週期圖 18
圖3-1 分散式產品配銷通路圖 26
圖3-2 整合式產品配銷通路圖 27
圖4-1 產品最高知覺價值與總利潤之關係圖 48
圖4-2 產品最高知覺價值與分散式通路產品定價之關係圖 49
圖4-3 產品最高知覺價值與整合式通路產品定價之關係圖 49
圖4-4 第二期二手產品效用與總利潤之關係圖 50
圖4-5 第二期二手產品效用與分散式通路產品定價之關係圖 50
圖4-6 第二期二手產品效用與整合式通路產品定價之關係圖 51
圖4-7 第二期原款產品效用與總利潤之關係圖 52
圖4-8 第二期原款產品效用與分散式通路產品定價之關係圖 52
圖4-9 第二期原款產品效用與整合式通路產品定價之關係圖 53
圖4-10 第一期原款產品效用與總利潤之關係圖 53
圖4-11 第一期原款產品效用與分散式通路產品定價之關係圖 54
圖4-12 第一期原款產品效用與整合式通路產品定價之關係圖 54

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