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系統識別號 U0002-3107201214484000
中文論文名稱 車載隨意網路中具公平性考量之媒介存取通訊協定
英文論文名稱 Fair-MAC: Fairness Enhanced MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 黃麟哲
研究生英文姓名 Lin-Che Huang
學號 699410485
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-29
論文頁數 54頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃連進
委員-黃連進
委員-張志勇
委員-蘇民揚
委員-翁仲銘
中文關鍵字 車載隨意網路  分時多工存取  道路基礎建設  公平性  頻寬利用率  媒體存取控制協定 
英文關鍵字 VANET  TDMA  Road Side Unit  Fairness  Bandwidth Utilization  MAC Protocol 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 車載通訊網路可增加道路安全性並提供車輛存取網際網路的豐富資源。基於成本考量,在路側系統無法全面覆蓋的環境中,車輛可透過多步傳輸的方式存取路側系統資源。然而,如何提昇其頻寬使用效能、維護資料存取的公平性以及避免封包衝撞,仍是急待解決的問題。本論文將針對道路環境下發展一車輛存取網路的MAC技術,我們所提出的方法主要是在TDMA及道路分段的環境下,以維持車輛存取網路之公平性為主旨及提昇頻寬利用率為目的,針對不同的道路片段間,其車輛數可能不同的情況,加以考慮,以分散式的方式,達到車輛間存取頻寬的公平性。
英文摘要 Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) technologies can improve traffic safety for drivers and provide comfort services for passengers. Since the hardware of Road Side Unit (RSU) is costly, in most previous researches, vehicles might exchange data with an RSU via multihop transmissions. However, the vehicle with a larger number of hops to the RSU has fewer opportunities and longer time to exchange its data with the RSU since the contentions and collisions increase with the number of hops. Moreover, for high bandwidth utilization, the fairness of vehicles may be sacrificed. This paper proposes a Fairness Enhanced MAC protocol, named Fair-MAC which considers a vehicular ad hoc network that accesses the Internet through fixed Internet Gateways along the road. The Fair-MAC aims to increase fairness, maintain bandwidth utilization, and avoid collision. The performance study reveals that the proposed MAC protocol not only avoids the collision problem but also improves the performance in terms of end-to-end throughput and fairness.
論文目次 圖目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
第一章、簡介 1
第二章、相關研究 4
第三章、網路環境與問題描述 10
3-1 網路環境與假設 10
3-2 問題描述 12
第四章、The Proposed Fair-MAC Protocol 15
4-1 Determining Active or Inactive State 19
4-2 Fair-MAC Protocol 22
第五章、模擬實驗 34
第六章、結論 46
參考文獻 47
附錄-英文論文 50

圖目錄
圖一:CVIA時槽分配示意圖 5
圖二:CVIA傳送封包示意圖 7
圖三:BUFE-MAC傳封包示意圖 8
圖四:時間平移造成碰撞之示意圖 17
圖五:S5借用S6的時間來傳輸資料時,S2車輛位置對於S4車輛接收封包干擾程度說明圖。 18
圖六:Fair-MAC平行傳輸示意圖 22
圖七:Fair-MAC時間平移示意圖 23
圖八:管理者 及 傳輸示意圖 27
圖九:S4的 車輛遭受S2的 干擾之示意圖 31
圖十:道路模擬場景示意圖 36
圖十一:Performance on Fairness Index for different Vehicle Density 37
圖十二:Performance on Fairness Index for different Vehicle Distribution 38
圖十三:Performance on Bandwidth Utilization for different Vehicle Density 39
圖十四:Performance on Bandwidth Utilization for different Vehicle Distribution 40
圖十五:Performance on Bandwidth Utilization for different Vehicle Density and Total Input Load Distribution 41
圖十六:Performance on Packet Collision Ratio for different Vehicle Density 42
圖十七:Performance on Network Throughputs for different Vehicle Density and Data Requirements Density 43
圖十八:Performance on Average Delay for different Segment Length and Total Input Load 44
圖十九:Performance on Average Delay for different Total Input Load 45

表目錄
表1:符號表 12
表2:實驗參數 34
參考文獻 [1]M. M. I. Taha and Y. M. Y. Hasan, “VANET-DSRC Protocol for Reliable Broadcasting of Life Safety Messages,” IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, Dec. 2007.
[2]Y. Zang, H.-J. Reumerman and H. Chen, “Wireless Local Danger Warning Using Inter-Vehicle Communications in Highway Scenarios,” The 14th European Wireless Conference, June 2008.
[3]T. Taleb, E. Sakhaee, A. Jamalipour, Kazuo Hashimoto, Nei Kato, and Yoshiaki Nemoto, “A Stable Routing Protocol to Support ITS Service in VANET Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (IEEE TVT), Vol. 56, No. 6, Part1, pp. 3337-3347, Nov. 2007.
[4]Luciano Bononi, and Marco Di Felice, “A Cross Layered MAC and Clustering Scheme for Efficient Broadcast in VANETs,” IEEE Internatonal Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (IEEE MASS), Oct. 2007.
[5]Shen Wan, Jian Tang, and Richard S. Wolff, “Reliable Routing for Roadside to Vehicle Communications in Rural Areas,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE ICC), May 2008.
[6]R. He, H. Rutagemwa, and X. Shen, “Differentiated Reliable Routing in Hybrid Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks,” IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE ICC), May 2008, pp. 2353-2358
[7]Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC),
http://www.leearmstrong.com/DSRC/DSRCHomeset.htm.
[8]G. Korkmaz, E. Ekici, and F. Ozguner, “A cross-layer multihop data delivery protocol with fairness guarantees for vehicular networks,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 865–875, May 2006.
[9]L.-L. Hung, C.-Y. Chang, C.-C. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, “BUFE-MAC: A Protocol With Bandwidth Utilization and Fairness Enhancements for Mesh-Backbone-Based VANETs,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2208–2211, Jun. 2012.
[10]D. Sormani, G. Turconi, P. Costa, D. Frey, M. Migliavacca, and L. Mottola, “Towards Lightweight Information Dissemination in Inter-Vehicular Networks,” ACM VANET, Sept. 2006.
[11]N. Wisitpongphan, O.K. Tonguz, J.S. Parikh, P. Mudalige, F. Bai, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast Storm Mitigation Techniques in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Dec. 2007.
[12]K. Yang, S. Ou, H.-H. Chen, and J. He, “A Multihop Peer-Communication Protocol with Fairness Guarantee for IEEE 802.16-Based Vehicular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 56, No. 6, Part 1, pp. 3358–3370, Nov. 2007.
[13]R.K. Jain, D.-M.W. Chiu, and W.R. Hawe, “A Quantitative Measure of Fairness and Discrimination for Resource Allocation in Shared Computer Systems,” DEC Research Report TR–301, Sept. 1984.
[14]The Network Simulator (ns2): http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/index.html
[15]D. Krajzewicz and M. Behrisch, SUMO – Simulation of Urban Mobility: http://sumo.sourceforge.net/
[16]F. K. Karnadi, Z. H. Mo, and K. C. Lan, “Rapid Generation of Realistic Mobility Models for VANET,” The 2007 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (IEEE WCNC), pp. 2506–2511, March 2007.
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