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中文論文名稱 解構「天命樣態」: 雅列西《獨行俠與堂拓在天堂打架》與《濃煙訊號》中的正/附文關係
英文論文名稱 Deconstructing “Manifest Manners”: Ergon and Parergon in Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven and Smoke Signals
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 林雯華
研究生英文姓名 Wen-Hua Lin
學號 694010025
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-06-27
論文頁數 74頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳吉斯
委員-胡迪
委員-游錫熙
中文關鍵字 北美原住民  天命樣態  搗蛋鬼  傳統遺產  正/附文關係  生存 
英文關鍵字 Native Americans  manifest manners  trickster  traditional heritage  ergon and parergon  survivance 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文以雅列西《獨行俠與堂拓在天堂打架》與《濃煙訊號》為材料探討「天命樣態」對北美原住民精神性及傳統文化之衝擊,以及原住民如何運用其智慧在後現代社會中生存並發展。Derrida美學理論中「正/附文關係」強調其關連性以及相互依存性,本人運用此論述探討兩部正/附相關的作品中角色,性別,人種之相互關係
首章探討「天命樣態」,北美原著民口述傳統和搗蛋鬼之間的關聯。在雅列西《獨行俠與堂拓在天堂打架》與《濃煙訊號》反映出原住民部落重要的議題:身分認同的混淆、真實以模擬的不確定性、傳統精神的毀滅和復甦。本人討論原住民口述傳統如何解構西方主流的單一論點。第二章本人引用Meeker的『喜劇的生存法則』理論,來強調傳統文化的維持端賴三個重要的元素:部落搗蛋鬼、說故事者和喜劇生存法則。從這個觀點來看,本人提出自己的觀點:唯有具有「雙重意識」的人能超越階級制度中的對立性和衝突性,而在後現代社會中生存並且發展原住民獨特的精神性和珍貴資源。將此理論帶入對原住民部落和其祖先遺產原住民精神和文化意涵的探討,本人認為原住民部落的傳統精神和價值即是「平等互惠和愛」。 第三章運用Derrida美學理論中正/附文關係的論述,本人將此理論探討男性角色之相互依存性以及文本與電影中之正/附文關係,並進而提出新的觀點:即雙重意識的省思,以及運用電影中水與火的元素呼籲大眾對生態的重視。唯有重新體認並了解原住民部落的傳統精神,人類方能從從危機中獲得真正的救贖。最後本人認為高等意識實際上就是雙重意識,唯有具高等意識的人類能超越二元對立的階級性,並跳脫天命樣態的束縛,了解原住民部落中傳統意涵的真意。 最後,本人從文本和電影之間的互補性、Thomas和Victor之相互關聯性、以及女性在電影和文本中扮演的重要地位中探討並引發論文的結論,即了解並實踐原住民的古老智慧和精神價值—與萬物回歸和諧的存在狀態。唯有如此,人類才得以為永續生存。

英文摘要 This thesis confers on how Native Americans struggle against “manifest manners” by asserting their tribal wisdom in the postmodern society for developing their unique spirituality. It probes into the confrontation between manifest manners and Indigenous people’s spirituality as well as cultural legacy. I discuss how the oral narrative, trickster discourse are used to deconstruct the dualistic conception of gender and race, as revealed in Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven and Smoke Signals. I adopt Derrida’s aesthetic theory on “Ergon and Parergon,” which stresses on the interrelation and interdependency, to elaborate the interrelation between two protagonists, genders, and race. I take advantage of Meeker’s theory of “Comedy of Survival” to elaborate three survival strategies against “manifest manners”: trickster discourse, oral story-telling and comic attitude. From the perspective of “the comic way,” I argue that only people who have double consciousness can transcend the hierarchy and dualism, and survive in the postmodern world and cherish their ancestors’ valuable heritage. Subsequently, I explicate the interrelation between Alexie’s composite novel and its film adaptation. Only when people truly realize the wisdom and spirituality of ancestors can they live in peace with all other beings in a sustainable way.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Chapter One:Manifest Manners and Survivance 11

Chapter Two: Comic Way and Tragic Ego 26

Chapter Three:Ergon and Parergon 43

Conclusion 68

Works Cited 72
參考文獻 Adell, Sandra. Double-Consciousness/Double Bind: Theoretical Issues in Twentieth-Century Black Literature. California: U of California P, 1994.
Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. New York: Harper Perennial, 1994.
---. Smoke Signals. New York: Hyperion, 1998.
Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Trans. Sheila Faria Glaser. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1994.
Brill De Ramírez, Susan Berry. Contemporary American Indian Literature and the Oral Tradition. Tucson: U of Arizona P, 1999.
Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
Derrida, Jacques. The Truth in Painting. Trans. Geoff Bennington and Ian McLeod. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
Dunn, Maggie, and Ann Morris. The Composite Novel: The Short Story Cycle in Transition. New York: Twayne P, 1995.
Eliot, T.S. “Tradition and the Individual Talent.” The North Anthology of Theory and Criticism. London: New York, 2001. 1092-97.
Grassian, Daniel. Understanding Sherman Alexie. Columbia: U of South Carolina Press, 2005.
Harner, Michael. The Way of the Shaman. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980.
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Jencks, Charles. What is Post-Modernism? London: ACADEMY EDITIONS, 1996.
Jung, Carl. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Trans. R. F. C. Hull Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Keller, Catherine. “Toward a Patriarchal Postmodernity.” Spirituality and Society: Postmodern Vision. Ed. David Ray Griffin. New York: State U of New York P, 1988.
Lawson, Angelica Marine. “Resistance and Resilience in the Work of Four Native American Authors, 1-22.” Diss. U of Arizona, 2006.
Meeker, Joseph W. The Comedy of Survival. Tucson: U of Arizona Press, 1997.
Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Harper, 1989.
Nygren, Ase. “A World of Story-Smoke: A Conversation with Sherman Alexie.” MELUS, 30 (2005):1-22.
Oliver, Kelly. Witnessing: Beyond Recognition. London: U of Minnesota Press, 2001.
Sarris, Greg. Keeping Slug Woman Alive: A Holistic Approach to American Indian Texts.
Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.
Slethaug, Gordon E. “Hurricanes and Fires: Chaotics in Sherman Alexie’s Smoke Signals and The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven.” Literature Film Quarterly. 2003. FindArticles.com. 02 Mar.2007 .
Tompkins, Jane. West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns. New York: Oxford UP, 1993.
Tyler, Stephen A. “On Being Out of Words.” Cultural Anthology. Ed. George Marcus. Durham: Duke UP, 1986. 131-38.
Tylor, Edward Burnett. Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art, and Custom. Vol. 1. New York: Gorden, 1977.
Vizenor, Gerald. Manifest Manners: Narratives on Postmodern Survivance. London: U of Nebraska P, 1994.
---. Narrative Chance: Postmodern Discourse on Native American Indian Literatures. London: U of Oklahoma P, 1993.
---. “Trickster Discourse: Comic Holotropes and Language Games.” Narrative Chance: Postmodern Discourse on Native American Indian Literatures. London: U of Oklahoma P, 1993.
Yang, Sophia. “Apocalypse and Salvation in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony: the Wisdom of Native Americans.” Diss. Tamkang U, 2006.
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