淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-3105201200563400
中文論文名稱 聯調局長胡佛與美國反共運動之發展
英文論文名稱 J. Edgar Hoover and Anti-Communism in the United States
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of The Americas
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 王熙康
研究生英文姓名 Hsi-Kang Wang
學號 896250023
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-05-25
論文頁數 217頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-劉興漢
委員-趙國材
委員-柯大衛
委員-王高成
中文關鍵字 反共運動  顛覆活動  國家安全  聯邦調查局 
英文關鍵字 Anti-communism  Subversive Activities  National Security  Federal Bureau of Investigation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 身為一個聯邦調查局現代化締造者,胡佛(J. Edgar Hoover)公職身涯絕對是一傳奇故事。胡佛擔任局長近四十八年,沒有任何人士能如同他一般久任聯邦調查局長乙職。許多人士批評胡佛是透過監視、滲透、黑函及闖空門等非法手段獲取政治人物隱私,在擁有這些敏感資料情況下迫使政治人物與其合作。假設胡佛行為如此卑鄙,我們如何解釋他將聯邦調查局改造成一現代化與強而有力之執法機構?尤其,美國政治制度能讓單一人士影響乃至操縱總統,以及許多國會議員之思維與決策?此一現象似乎不太可能發生,其中必定有其他形成胡佛能久任局長之因素存在。
事實上,早期聯邦調查局係一貪腐、無秩序與無效率之執法機構。在胡佛改革下,該局現已成為打擊重大犯罪、護衛美國本土安全之重要執法機關。更重要的是,胡佛致力打擊美國內共產顛覆活動,確保美國免於遭受共產勢力威脅。當一九一七年俄國革命發生時,美國內對共產主義一無所知,只有胡佛對其進行深入研究,強調共產主義係違反民主自由之政治思潮,美國人民若不留心共黨滲透與顛覆作為,則美國政治制度與生活方式均將消失殆盡。特別是,胡佛在論述共產主義對美國之威脅時,常將宗教與道德意涵相連結。共產主義主張無神論,因此不信仰上帝,同時也缺乏道德正當性。胡佛若未將宗教因素引入對共產主義之批判當中,亦恐無法激起美國社會之共鳴與支持。
本文試圖藉由研究聯邦調查局檔案,以及胡佛所撰文章與演說等相關資料,試圖回答以下問題:胡佛與美國反共運動之關聯為何?在胡佛掌握下之聯邦調查局,如何藉推動清除國內共黨顛覆勢力而維護美國家安全?胡佛哪些侵害個人自由之不當作法引發爭議?綜合研究發現,胡佛之所以能成為最具影響力之聯邦調查局長,其中涉及到胡佛改革聯邦調查局與打擊重大犯罪所累積起來之社會聲望、聯邦政府的權力擴張、總統要求胡佛進行政治監視任務,以及彰顯總統個人維護國家安全之決心等因素,絕非胡佛對總統進行政治要脅之片面推論可得到解答。
尤其重要者,胡佛終其一身不斷對大眾強調共產主義對美國與世界之威脅,塑造自己成為反共鬥士。如果沒有胡佛極力倡導反共運動,難保共產主義不會在美國落地生根,進而影響美國家安全。當然,胡佛係一為達目的不擇手段之人物,經常採取逾越法律之作法打擊犯罪與保衛美國家安全,導致聯邦調查局因濫權而侵害個人自由,這就是何以自由派人士常對胡佛進行嚴厲批判之主因。胡佛之作為亦反映出,政府如何在強調保障國家安全與維護公民自由間求取平衡,是必須認真省思之課題。
英文摘要 J. Edgar Hoover, founder of modern day Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), was definitely a legendary figure. Reining the FBI for 48 years, he is by far the longest serving director of this crime-fighting agency. His critics accused him of resorting to unlawful techniques of surveillance, penetration, blackmailing and breaking-in to amass secret files on political leaders which could be later used to threaten those who refused to cater to his needs. Nevertheless, depicting Hoover as a despicable person failed to take into account his contributions to transforming the FBI into a well-established and powerful law enforcement agency. Besides, it did not stand to reason that the U.S. political system in Hoover’s time would allow anyone to manipulate the thinking and policy-making of the Presidents and members of Congress. There had to be other factors contributing to Hoover’s success.
The FBI in the early days was a corrupt, disordered, and inefficient agency. It was under Hoover’s push for reform did the FBI eventually become the guarantor of domestic security by fighting heavy crimes. More importantly, Hoover was credited for fighting with communist subversion and successfully preventing the U.S. from communist threat. He was one of few Americans who seriously studied the Russia’s revolution of 1917 and warned of the putative threats to democracy and freedom posed by Russian Communism. As a high-profile anti-Communist, Hoover often sought to exploit the atheistic nature of Communism, portraying it as unreligious and unethical, thus unacceptable to faith-based American public. Hoover’s discourse about the lack of moral legitimacy of Communism facilitated his push for an anti-communism campaign in the U.S.
This dissertation seeks to answer the following questions. What motivated Hoover to fight Communism? How did Hoover use the FBI to clean up the alleged Communist subversion in the U.S.? What approaches he resorted to that were deemed controversial? Through FBI documents and Hoover's writings and speeches, I argue that Hoover became the most influential FBI director due to following reasons: a successful FBI reform, the expansion of federal power, secret surveillance entrusted by Presidents, and a manifestation of Presidents’ determination to ensure national security. The inference that Hoover used secret files to blackmail the Presidents he served may not be the proper explanation.
More importantly, Hoover appealed to the public about the danger and threat of Communism to the United States and the world throughout his life. It is safe to say that Communism might have taken root in the US in the absence of Hoover’s efforts and dedication. However, Hoover’s concern about Communist subversion led him to overstep his jurisdictional bounds in his pursuit of eliminating that perceived threat. Liberal critics often charged him of abusing power, infringing upon personal freedom, and violating human rights, overshadowing his legacy as a strong defender of national security. In the end, what Hoover did revealed a hard lesson for any government that seeks to find a delicate balance between national security and personal freedom.
論文目次 目次

第一章 緒論................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的.................................1
第二節 研究方法.......................................9
第三節 研究素材與限制................................18
第四節 研究架構......................................21

第二章 研究背景─聯邦調查局簡介...........................25
第一節 成立經過......................................25
第二節 組織與工作概況................................29
第三節 內部行事風格與問題............................34

第三章 胡佛與美反共運動及聯調局改革淵源...................41
第一節 成長環境與所受影響............................41
第二節 胡佛與美反共運動之關係........................48
第三節 聯調局現代化里程碑............................59

第四章 胡佛與聯調局擴權─維安與政治監控...................73
第一節 經濟大蕭條對美社經秩序之衝擊..................73
第二節 打擊犯罪與聯調局威望.........................80
第三節 政治監視任務之擴張...........................94

第五章 冷戰─胡佛反共事業的高峰.........................113
第一節 冷戰與美國內外環境氛圍......................113
第二節 國家安全與共黨威脅之關聯....................123
第三節 反共與維護國家安全之聖戰....................135
第六章 美社會變遷對胡佛反共使命之衝擊...................151
第一節 新時代下反共氛圍之轉變......................151
第二節 對社會運動與共黨陰謀之解讀..................163
第三節 反共圖騰的殞落..............................175

第七章 結論.............................................189

參考書目................................................197
參考文獻 參考書目

一、中文資料
(一)專書
1.王雲五主編,羅志淵編輯,雲五社會科學大辭典第三冊:政治學。台北:台灣商務印書館,一九七一年。
2.包宗和等合著,國際關係辭典。台北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司,二○○九年。
3.杜維運,史學方法論。台北:三民書局,二○○八年。
4.林嘉誠、朱浤源編著,政治學辭典。台北:五南圖書出版公司,一九九○年。
5.何思因主編,美國。台北:政治大學國際關係研究中心,一九九二年。
6.南方朔,憤怒之愛:六○年代美國學生運動。台北:久大文化股份有限公司,一九九一年。
7.陸潤康,美國憲法論。台北:世界書局,二○○一年。
8.陳靜瑜,美國史。台北:三民書局,二○○七年。
9.張殿清,情報與反情報。台北:時英出版社,二○○一年。
10.彭滂沱,打造美國總統:從羅斯福到柯林頓的決策領導。台北:時報文化出版企業股份有限公司,二○○七年。
11.程國強,美國史:1607-1900。台北:華欣文化事業出版社,一九 八六年。
12.______,美國史:1901-1985。台北:華欣文化事業出版社,一九八八年。
13.關中,意識形態與美國外交政策。台北:臺灣商務印書館股份有限公司,二○○五年。
(二)譯著
1.Cantor, Norman and Schneider, Richard,史學導論,涂永清譯。台北:水牛出版社,一九八六年。
2.Greenstein, Fred I. and Polsby, Nelson W.主編,政治科學大學第五卷,彭懷恩等譯。台北:幼獅文化事業公司,一九八三年。
3.Heywood, Andrew,政治的意識形態,陳思賢譯。台北:五南圖書出版有限公司,二○○九年。
4.Hoover, J. Edgar,美國共產黨,王富國譯。台北:正中書局,一九七二年。
5.Huntington, Samuel P.,誰是美國人-族群融合的問題與國家認同的危機,高德源、劉純佑、石吉雄譯。台北:左岸文化,二○○八年。
6.Laver, Harry S.與Matthews, Jeffrey J.主編,章昌文譯,指揮的藝術:從華盛頓到鮑威爾的軍事領導統禦。台北:國防部史政編譯室,二○一一年。
7.Odom, William E.,趙復生譯,情報改革。台北:國防部史政編譯室,二○○五年。
8.Shafer, Robert Jones,史學方法論,趙干城、鮑世奮譯。台北:五南圖書出版公司,一九九○年。
9.Spanier, John W.,當代美國外交史,方海鶯譯。台北:桂冠版社,一九八六年。
10.Weiner, Tim,CIA:罪與罰的六十年,杜默譯,林添貴審訂。台北:時報文化出版企業股份有限公司,二○○八年。
(三)期刊
1.林廷輝,「美國國家安全顧問與國務卿於外交決策制定過程中之競爭關係」。通識研究集刊,第五期,二○○四年六月,頁一○一至一二八。
2.林盟峰,「美國秘勤局簡介」。刑事雙月刊,第三七期,二○一○年七月,頁五九至六一。
3.吳重禮,「美國『分立性政府』與『一致性政府』體制運作之比較與評析」。政治科學論叢,第九期,一九九八年六月,頁六一至九○。
4.孫同勛,「美國史家對進步主義運動的解釋之演變」。華岡文科學報,第廿二期,一九九八年三月,頁一九一至二一四。
5.陳迪暉,「古典社會學家對資本主義社會的分析與比較:以Marx、Weber、Durkheim及Simmel為例」。通識研究集刊,第五期,二○○四年六月,頁一二九至一五六。
6.郭俊巖,「西方理性化的發展與限制:從韋伯觀點的探討」。靜宜人文社會學報,第三卷第一期,二○○九年一月,頁七九至九八。
7.趙世鋒,「世界上最大的秘密社團-共濟會」,世界文化,第九期,二○○六年三月,頁四九至五○。
(四)學位論文
1.陳碧霞,美國聯邦調查局組織與功能之研究。淡江文理學院美 國研究所碩士論文,一九七九年。
2.陳建興,美國聯邦調查局組織功能之研究。國立台灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文,二○○一年
(五)雜誌
李本京,「胡佛傳奇:FBI因他而偉大」,新新聞。第一三一一期,二○一二年四月十九至廿五日,頁七六至七八。
(六)網際網路
1.中央日報網路報,http://www.cdnews.com.tw/cdnews_site/
2.中國時報,http://news.chinatimes.com/
二、英文部分
(一)Official Publications and Documents
1. An Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress, Washington, D.C.: Office of the Director of National Intelligence, 2009.
2. Hoover, J. Edgar, "Testimony of J. Edgar Hoover," Committee on Un-American Activities: House of Representatives, 8th Congress, First Secession, Washington, D.C.: Committee on Un-American Activities, March 26, 1947.
3. Houge, Henry B., “Nomination and Confirmation of the FBI Director: Process and Recent History.” CRS Report for Congress, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, updated March 17, 2005.
4. Letter from J. Edgar Hoover to Harry Vaughan. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, January 11, 1946.
5. Letter from J. Edgar Hoover to Robert F. Kennedy. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, January 10, 1961.
6. Letter from J. Edgar Hoover to Marvin Watson. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, July 15, 1966.
7. Letter from J. Edgar Hoover to Marvin Watson. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, June 4, 1965.
8. Masse, Todd and Krouse, William, “The FBI: Past, Present, and Future.” CRS Report for Congress, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, October 2, 2003.
9. Memorandum: Telephone Call from Mr. Hoover to Mr. Quinn. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, December 30, 1935.
10. Memorandum, RE: Director's Telephone Call from New York City. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, January 16, 1936.
11. Memorandum for J. Edgar Hoover, from Stephen Early, Secretary to the President. Washington, D.C.: The White House, May 21, 1940.
12. Memorandum for Mr. Rosen. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, October 18, 1943.
13. Memorandum for Mr. Rosen. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, February 24, 1944.
14. Memorandum from L. B. Nicholas to Mr. Tolson. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, May 15, 1954.
15. Memorandum from the Director, FBI to the Attorney General. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, May 8, 1958.
16. Memorandum from Nicholas Katzenbach to J. Edgar Hoover. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Attorney General, September 3, 1965.
17. Memorandum from J. Edgar Hoover to the Attorney General. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, March 11, 1968.
18. Memorandum from G. C. Moore to William C. Sullivan. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, May 10, 1968.
19. Memorandum from FBI Headquarters to Legal Attachés in London and Tokyo. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, November 10, 1969.
20. Memorandum from A. A. Staffeld to Mr. Gale. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, November 13, 1969.
21. Personal and Confidential Letter to the Director. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, June 11, 1954.
22. Pretexts and Cover Techniques. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, May 1956.
23. Record of Telephone Call or Visitor. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, October 19, 1943.
24. The FBI: A Centennial History, 1908-2008. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, August 2008.
25. Today’s FBI: Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010.
26. Unusual Investigative Techniques. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, August 1961.
27. US. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 1968.
(二)Original Writings and Speeches
1. Hoover, J. Edgar, “The Work of the Bureau of Investigation,” The American Journal of Police Science, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Mar. - Apr. 1931), pp. 101-107.
2. _______________, “The National Division of Identification and Information,” The American Journal of Police Science, Vol. 2, No. 3 (May-Jun. 1931), pp. 241-251.
3. _______________, “Criminal Identification,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 146 (Nov. 1929), pp. 205-213.
4. _______________, “The Basis of Sound Law Enforcement,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 291 (Jan. 1954), pp. 39-45.
5. _______________, “The United States Bureau of Investigation in Relation to Law Enforcement,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1931-1951), Vol. 23, No. 3 (Sep.-Oct. 1932), pp. 439-453.
6. ________________, "The Basis of Sound Enforcement," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 291 (January 1954), pp. 39-45.
7. _______________, “International Exchange of Fingerprints,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1931-1951), Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sep.-Oct. 1933), pp. 664-668.
8. _______________, “The Adventure of Scientific Crime Control,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 3, No.18 (December 1, 1937), pp. 559-562.
9. ______________, “Fifty Years of Crime,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 5, No. 16 (June 1, 1939), pp. 505-509.
10. _______________, “Problems of Law Enforcement,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 6, No.1 (December 15, 1939), pp. 54-57.
11. _______________, “The Test of Citizenship,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 6, No. 14 (May 1, 1940), pp. 440-443.
12. _______________, “A Nation's Call to Duty,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 8, No. 18 (July 1, 1942), pp. 554-556.
13. _______________, “The Battle on the Home Front,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 9, No. 23 (September 15, 1943), pp. 734-736.
14. _______________, “The Reconversion of Law Enforcement,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 12, No. 8 (February 1, 1946), pp. 253-256.
15. _______________, “Our 'Achilles' Hill',” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 13, No. 1 (October 15, 1946), pp. 10-11.
16. _______________,"A Comment on the Article ‘Loyalty among Government Employees,’" The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 58, No. 3 (February 1949), pp. 401, 401-411.
17. _______________, "Our Common Task: When Crime Occurs, There Has Been A Failure Somewhere," Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 22, No. 2 (November 1, 1955), pp. 41-44.
18. _______________, “The Challenges of Crime Control,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 22, No. 18 (July 1, 1956), pp. 572-576.
19. _______________, “The Twin Enemies of Freedom,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 23, No. 4 (December 1, 1956), pp. 104-107.
20. _______________, “The American Ideal,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 23, No. 11 (March 15, 1957), pp. 327-328.
21. ______________, “The Perpetuation of Our American Heritage,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 23, No. 24 (October 1, 1957), pp. 747-750.
22. _______________, “Citizenship,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 25, No. 21 (August 15, 1959), pp. 656-658.
23. _______________, “America-Freedom's Champions,” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 27, No. 7 (January 15, 1961), pp. 197-200.
24. _______________, “An American's Challenge: Communism and Crime” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 29, No. 4 (December 1, 1962), pp. 98-100.
25. _______________, “The Faith of Freedom: The Crime Problem," Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 32, No. 3 (November 15, 1965),” Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 32, No. 3 (November 15, 1965), pp. 98-100.
26. _______________, " Violence: The Communist Party," Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 35, No. 2 (November 1, 1968), pp. 42-48.
(三)Books
1. Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2th ed. New York: Longman, 1999.
2. Andrew, Christopher, For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush, New York: Harper Perennial, 1996.
3. Aron, Raymond, Politics and History, New York: Free Press, 1978.
4. Bagby, Wesley M., America’s International Relations since World War I, UK: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1999.
5. Bennett, W. Lance, News: The Politics of Illusion, 5th ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2003.
6. Beschloss, Michael R. ed., Taking Charge: The Johnson White House Tapes, 1963-1964, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.
7. Breuer, William B., J. Edgar Hoover and His G-Men (CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
8. Brinkley, Alan, American History: A Survey, 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995.
9. Charles, Douglas M., J. Edgar Hoover and the Anti-interventionists: FBI Political Surveillance and the Rise of the Domestic Security State, 1939-1945, Columbus: The Ohio State University, 2007.
10. Crabb, Jr., Cecil V., The Doctrines of American Foreign Policy: Their Meaning, Role and Future, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.
11. Eisenhower, Dwight D., Mandate for Change, 1953-1956: The White House Years, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1963.
12. Gentry, Curt, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and The Secrets, New York: W•W•Norton & Company, 1991.
13. Greenstein, Fred I. ed., Leadership in the Modern Presidency, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988.
14. Hack, Richard, Puppetmaster: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover, CA: Phoenix Books and Audio Inc., 2007.
15. Halperin, Morton H., Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1974.
16. Hoover, Herbert, The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover: The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920-1933, New York: The Macmilian Company, 1951.
17.Hudson, Valerie M., Foreign Policy Analysis: Classic and Contemporary Theory, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.
18.Huntington, Samuel P., American Politics: The Promise of Disharmony, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981.
19. Kessler, Ronald, The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.
20. Jackson, Brian A. ed., The Challenge of Domestic Intelligence in a Free Society, CA: Rand Corporation, 2009.
21. Kiel, R. Andrew, J. Edgar Hoover: The Father of the Cold War, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc., 2000.
22. Lowenthal, Mark M., Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy, 4th ed., Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.
23. Mann, James, About face: A History of America’s Curious Relationship with China, from Nixon to Clinton, New York: Vintage Books, 2000.
24. Neustadt, Richard E., Presidential Power and Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan, New York: The Free Press, 1990.
25. Nixon, Richard, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, Vol. 1, New York: Warner Books, 1978.
26. _____________, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, Vol. 2, New York: Warner Books, 1978.
27. Powers, Richard G., G-Men: Hoover's FBI in American Popular Culture, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983.
28. _______________, Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover, New York: Free Press, 1987.
29. _______________, Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
30. _______________, Broken: The Troubled Past and Uncertain Future of the FBI, New York: Free Press, 2004.
31. Scott, Gregory M. and Garrison, Stephen M., The Political Science Student Writer’s Manual, 4th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.
32. Taylor, Jr., William J., and Michael J. Mazarr, American National Security, 5th ed., Baltimoore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
33. Halberstam, David, The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War, London: Pan Books, 2009.
34. Theoharis, Athan George ed., From the Secret Files of J. Edgar Hoover, Paperback ed. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, Inc., 1993.
35. ____________________ ed., The FBI : A Comprehensive Reference Guide, Phoenix, Arizona: The Oryx Press, 1999.
36. Truman, Harry S., Memoirs By Harry S. Truman, Vol. 2: Years of Trial and Hope , New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1956.
37. Viotti, Paul R. ed., American Foreign Policy and National Security: A Documentary Record, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2005.
38. Zegart, Amy B., Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS and NSC, California: Stanford University Press, 1999.
39. _____________, Spying Blind: The CIA, the FBI and the Origins of 9/11, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2007.
(四)Articles
1. Allison, Graham, “Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 63, No. 3. (September 1969), pp. 689-718.
2. Alwood, Edward, “Watching the Watchdogs: FBI Spying on Journalists in the 1940s,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 84, No. 1 (Spring 2007), pp. 137-150.
3. Baker, Newman F., "J. Edgar Hoover," Journal of Criminal and Criminology, Vol. 28, No. 5 (Jan.-Feb. 1938), pp. 627-629.
4. Belknap, Michal R., “Secrets of the Boss's Power: Two Views of J. Edgar Hoover,” Law & Social Inquiry, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Autumn 1989), pp. 823-838.
5. Beshears, Laura, “Honorable Style in Dishonorable Times: American Gangsters of the 1920s and 1930s,” Journal of American Culture (September 2010), Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 197-206.
6. Carlson, Peter, “J. Edgar Hoover Lectures Martin Luther King,” American History, Vol. 45, No. 1 (April 2010), pp. 74-76.
7. Carr, Robert K., "The Un-American Activities Committee," The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Spring 1951), pp. 598-633.
8. Charles, Douglas M., “Franklin D. Roosevelt, J. Edgar Hoover, and FBI Political Surveillance,” USA Today Magazine, Vol. 128, No. 2652 (September 1999), pp. 74-76.
9. Coben, Stanley, “J. Edgar Hoover,” Journal of Social History, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Spring 2001), pp. 703-706.
10. Cunninghm, David, “The Pattering of Repression: FBI Counterintelligence and the New Left,” Social Forces, Vol. 82, No. 1 (September 2003), pp. 209-240.
11. Emerson, Thomas I. and David M. Helfeld, "Loyalty among Government Employees," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 58, No. 1 (December 1948), pp. 1-142.
12. Fox Jr., John F., “Unique unto Itself: The Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation 1908 to 1945,” Journal of Governmental Information, Vol. 30, No. 4 (2004), pp. 470-481.
13. Freeman, Joshua B., “Gee, Man! I Wanna be a G-Man,” Nation, Vol. 238, No. 1 (January 14 1984), pp. 25-27.
14. Griffith, Robert, “The Political Context of McCarthyism,” The Review of Politics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 1971), pp. 24-35.
15. Jordan, Steven, “Review of J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets,” Tennessee Bar Journal, Vol. 40, No. 6 (June 2004), pp. 34-35.
16. Kimmel, Jr., Thomas K. and J. A. Williams, “Why Did the Attack on Pearl Harbor Occur? An Intelligence Failure? FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover Thought He Knew,” The Intelligencer Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Winter/Spring 2009), pp. 53-59.
17. Lightman, Robert and Ronald D. Cohen, “Harvey Matusow, the FBI, and the Justice Department: Becoming a Government Informer-Witness in the McCarthy Era,” American Communist History, Vol. 1, No. 1 (June 2002), pp. 43-68.
18. Maurer, David, “J. Edgar Hoover: Fighting Crime, Threatening Presidents, and Intimidating Just about Everyone,” Biography Magazine, Vol. 7 No. 9 (September 2003), pp. 76-96.
19. O’ Reilly, Kenneth, “A New Deal for the FBI: The Roosevelt Administration, Crime Control, and National Security,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 3 (December 1982), pp. 638-658.
20. _______________, "The FBI and the Politics of the Riots, 1964-1968," The Journal of American History, Vol. 75, No. 1 (June 1988), pp. 91-114.
21. Potter, Claire Bond, " Queer Hoover: Sex, Lies, and Political History," Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 15, No. 3 (September 2006), pp. 355-381.
22. Powers, Richard G., “One G-Man’s Family: Popular Entertainment Formulas and J. Edgar Hoover’s F.B.I.,” American Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Autumn 1978), pp. 471-492.
23. Price, David H., “Spying on Radical Scholars,” Radical History Review, No. 79 (Winter 2001), pp. 22-24.
24. Rintz, William A., "The Failure of the China White Paper," Constructing the Past, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2010), pp. 76-84.
25. Steele, Rochard W., “Franklin D. Roosevelt and His Foreign Policy Critics,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Spring 1979), pp. 15-32.
26. Stern, Sheldon M., “Presidential Tape and Historical Interpretation,” Reviews in American History, Vol. 32, No. 4 (December 2004), pp. 580-590.
27. Theoharis, Athan G., “The FBI’s Stretching of Presidential Directives, 1936-1953,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 91, No. 4 (Winter 1976-1977), pp. 649-672.
28. ___________________, “Dissent and the State: Unleashing the FBI, 1917-1985,” The History Teacher, Vol. 24, No. 1 (November 1990), pp. 41-52.
29. Toledano, Ralph De, “A Look at the Files,” National Review, Vol. 43 No. 22 (December 2, 1991), pp. 47-50.
30. Underhill, Stephen, “J. Edgar Hoover, ‘Speech before the House Committee on UN-American Activities,’” Voices of Democracy, Vol. 3 (January 2008), pp. 139-161.
31. Webb, G. Gregg, “New Insights into J. Edgar Hoover’s Role,” Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 48, No. 1 (2004), pp. 45-58.
32. Wiener, Jon, "J. Edgar Hoover, Author," The Nation, Vol. 286, No. 22 (June 9, 2008), pp. 6-8.
33. Williams, David, “The Bureau of Investigation and Its Critics, 1919-1921,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 68, No. 3 (December 1981), pp. 560-579.
34. Time, December 22, 1975, pp. 26-31, 33.
(五)Internet Resources
1. ABC News, at http://abcnews.go.com/
2. ACLU, at http://www.aclum.org/
3. Answers, at http://www.answers.com/
4. American Institute in Taiwan, at http://www.ait.org.tw/
5. Church Committee, at http://www.aarclibrary.org/ publib/conten
ts/contents_church.htm
6. Discovery Diplomacy, at http://diplomacy.state.gov/discover
diplomacy/
7. Department of Justice, at http://www.justice.gov/
8. DocumentsTalk.com, at http://www.documentstalk.com/
9. Enotes, at http://www.enotes.com/
10. Encyclopedia of Britannica, at http://www.britannica.com/
11. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, at http://digital.
library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/index.html
12. Federal Bureau of Investigation, at http://vault.fbi.gov/
13. Freedom of Information Act, at http://www.foia.gov/about.html
14. Fox News, at http://www.foxnews.com/
15. Miller Center: University of Virginia, at http://millercenter.org/
16. Global Intelligence Forum, at http://globalintelligenceforum.com/
index.html
17. House of Representatives, at http://www.house.gov/
18. Jewish Virtual Library, at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.
org/index.html
19. Library of Congress, at http://www.loc.gov/index.html
20. Maxims News Network, at http://www.maximsnews.com/
21. MSNBC, at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/
22. National Geodetic Survey, at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/
23. NAACP, at http://www.naacp.org/
24. OAH Distinguished Lectureship Program, at http://lectures.oah.org/
25. Secret Service History, United States Secret Service, at http://
www. Sercretservice.gov/history.shtml
26. Spiegel & McDiarmid, at http://www.spiegelmcd.com/
27. Socialist Party of America , at http://slp.org/facts.htm
28. Spartacus Educational, at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.
co.uk/index.html
29. The American Legion, at http://www.legion.org/
30. The John Birch Society, at http://www.jbs.org/
31. The Supreme Court Historical Society, at http://www.
supremecourthistory.org/
32. Teaching American History, at http://teachingamericanhistory.org/
33. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, at http://www.uscis.
gov/portal/site/uscis
34. Washington Post, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/
35. World War I Document Archive, at http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/
index.php/Main_Page
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2017-06-22公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-06-22起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信