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系統識別號 U0002-3101200709465200
中文論文名稱 歐盟勞工流動之研究
英文論文名稱 Labour Mobility in the European Union: An Empirical Study
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 95
學期 1
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 陳世修
研究生英文姓名 Shih-Hsiu Chen
學號 692030090
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-01-10
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾秀珍
委員-郭建中
委員-黃志文
中文關鍵字 勞工流動  經濟整合  要素平價定理  歐洲聯盟 
英文關鍵字 Labour Mobility  Economic Integration  Factor-Price Equalization Theorem  European Union 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 在歐盟持續東擴的背景之下,「勞工流動」近年來已成為歐盟當局逐漸重視的議題,執委會並將2006年定為勞工流動年(European year of workers’ mobility)以期喚起歐洲公民行使人員自由移動權利的意識。自《羅馬條約》及《單一歐洲法》生效後,內部市場的法律架構已組建完成,會員國間的商品貿易因關稅障礙的移除而愈益頻繁,資本流通在歐元實施之後業已獲得大幅度的改善,但人員自由移動的部分至今仍維持在相當低的水準。理論上,人員自由移動的權利在獲得條約保障之後,歐洲的勞工應能自由地在會員國間進行移動及工作,但實際上只有少部分的勞工願意跨越國境至其他會員國內工作。
隨著歐洲人口、社會及經濟結構的快速變遷,部分西歐國家的勞動市場普遍面臨人口老化及出生率下降而出現勞工短缺的情況;在此同時,擁有年輕且充沛勞動力的中東歐國家卻正面臨高失業率問題。因此,若能善用歐盟內部的人力資源,藉由勞工跨區域、國家、產業及職業的移動協調東、西歐國家的勞動力配置,將能紓解歐洲因勞工短缺、高失業所造成經濟遲緩的壓力,更能增進歐洲公民的福祉。
本論文主要可分為三個部分:第二、三章敍述「勞工流動」的相關理論與其科際整合之性質,其中將以Heckscher-Ohiln的要素平價定理來說明「勞工流動」與「經濟整合」的關連,並以勞工流動之相關理論說明下勞工流動的實際情形及未來的挑戰;第四章為「經濟分析」,以德國與波蘭為例進行實證研究,並分析探討勞工流動對經濟整合的影響及變數間的相互關連;第五章則為「非經濟分析」,藉由則以先前的實證結果對勞工流動的相關政策進行評估與分析。
英文摘要 In today’s fast evolving global economy, Europe is facing the paradoxical situation: work is becoming more mobile but workers are not. Free movement of labour is one of the key pillars of the European Union, but even so Europeans still make little use of this opportunity. Only two percent of EU citizens currently live and work in a Member State different from their country of origin – a proportion that has hardly changed in the last 50 years.
Accompany with the fast growing structural change of demographic and social-economic environment in the west European countries, these countries start facing the challenge raise by lacking workforce. Following EU enlargement, labour mobility have become a subject of debate, which also been closely concerned by EU authorities and the member countries. 2006 therefore had been chosen as the European year of workers’ mobility to help European citizens realize their rights of moving.
This paper is attempted to find out: 1.how many labours commuting cross- borders between member countries? 2. what are the incentives and obstacles of labours commute between member countries? 3. what is the correlation between labour mobility and European economic integration? 4. what are the policies which help boosting the labour mobility in the EU?
論文目次 目  次
第一章 緒論....................1
第一節 研究動機與目的...............1
第二節 研究方法..................2
第三節 相關名詞界定............... 3
第四節 研究範圍與研究架構............ 4

第二章 勞工流動之理論發展.............7
第一節 經濟整合之概念及定義............7
第二節 歐洲經濟整合之理論發展...........12
一、 Heckscher-Ohlin 要素平價定理.........12
二、 Mundell最適貨幣區理論(OCA)........14
第三節 國際遷移理論................16
一、 新古典經濟學派................16
二、 當代勞工遷移理論...............17
第四節 勞工流動之科際整合性質...........19
一、 「勞工流動」不同層面的涵意..........19
二、 勞工流動法律層面的意義............20
三、 勞工流動經濟層面的意義............23

第三章 勞工流動之經濟分析.............25
第一節 勞工流動的條件. .............25
一、 EU-25 國勞工流動的程度 ...........25
二、 勞工流動的種類................28
三、 勞工流動的動機................31
四、 阻礙勞工流動的因素 .............34
第二節 歐洲勞動市場的挑戰.............40
一、 歐洲人口老化與勞動力短缺的問題........40
二、 歐洲勞動市場的僵固性問題...........45
三、 歐盟東擴之後造成的勞動市場衝擊........46

第四章 實證研究(以波蘭與德國為例)........55
第一節 實證研究架構................55
一、 文獻探討...................55
二、 研究對象...................57
三、 基本假設...................58
四、 實證理論與方法................59
五、 主要分析變數.................60
第二節 實證資料分析................61
一、 勞工流動與失率業...............64
二、 生產力與工資差異...............65
三、 勞工流動與工資差異..............68

第五章 勞工流動之政策分析.............73
第一節 歐盟勞工流動政策之權限及法律基礎......73
第二節 歐盟勞工流動相關政策............79
一、 歐盟勞工流動政策指導方針...........79
二、 2002年歐盟促進勞工流動的主要行動計劃.....80
三、 歐盟15國對新加入國開放勞動市場的過渡措施...86
四、 勞動力市場政策及就業策略...........88
五、 第三國移民政策................91
第三節 勞工流動政策評估與展望...........94

第六章 結論....................97
附件.......................99
參考書目.....................103
圖  次
【圖一】研究架構圖......................... 6
【圖二】經濟整合的種類.......................10
【圖三】歐盟(歐體)內部市場勞工流動.........26
【圖四】美國與歐盟人口流動的情形比較.........28
【圖五】歐洲國家製造業單位勞工成本 (2000)... ..32
【圖六】歐盟國家間可能移動的動機及因素........34
【圖七】影響內部市場流通因素.............35
【圖八】抑制歐盟國家間地理流動的因素.........36
【圖九】歐盟勞工流動的人口特徵............39
【圖十】勞動供需缺口之政策意涵............41
【圖十一】EU-25 國出生率...............44
【圖十二】德國的季節性勞工(2003)..... .... 50
【圖十三】實證研究模型................61
【圖十四】歐盟會員國、新加入國製造業平均工資水準(2003) 62
【圖十五】實證分析架構.................63
【圖十六】歐洲主要勞工流出國及流入國的工資水準(1995-2004).....65
【圖十七】德國與波蘭勞動生產力(1995-2004).............67
【圖十八】「生產力成長」與「工資差異變動率」(1995-2004).......68
【圖十九】「勞工流動率」與「工資差異」比較 (1995-2004)........69
【圖二十】「勞工流動率」與「工資差異」比較 (考慮時間延遲效果) ....69
【圖二十一】「勞工流動」與「失業率變動」比較(1995-2004)...... 70
【圖二十二】「勞工流動」與「失業率變動」比較 (考慮時間延遲效果)... 71
【圖二十三】歐盟現行之三柱架構............ 76
【圖二十四】歐洲現行勞工流動政策之架構.........78
表  次
【表一】相關名詞界定.................. 3
【表二】經濟整合概念匯整................ 7
【表三】經濟整合程度比較................12
【表四】不同領域間對於遷移的認知............19
【表五】一年後移動到其他歐盟國家的傾向(2001-2005). .33
【表六】65歲以上的人口比例 (占總人口百分比)...... 44
【表七】文獻探討....................55
【表八】移入德國前三名的歐盟國家(單位:人)(1994-2003)....... 62
【表九】波蘭移民進入德國的人數統計(1995-2004).............64
【表十】波蘭失率業及失業變動率(1995-2004)..............65
【表十一】波蘭勞動生產力(1995-2004).................66
【表十二】波蘭與德國勞動生產力比較(1995-2004)............67
【表十三】歐盟對於勞工自由移動相關的就業與社會立法措施..76
【表十四】勞動市場開放的過渡期間的重要政策及回應(2006)....... 87


參考文獻 中文書目:
1. 廖正宏,人口遷移。台北:三民書局,1985年。
中文報告、期刊:
1. 王玉葉 (2000),〈歐洲聯盟之輔助原則〉,《歐美研究》,第30卷,第2期,中央研究院歐美研究所。
2. 王泰銓 (2005),〈歐洲共同體內部市場人員自由移動之研析〉,《行政國家科學委員專題研究計畫成果報告》,國立高雄大學財經法律學系。
3. 林建山 (2001),〈施政再造以強化職訓再就業效果:歐洲勞動市場政策開放對我國之啟示〉,《就業與訓練月雙月刊》,第19卷,第4期,行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局。
4. 許琇媛 (2005),〈歐盟憲法條約探討歐盟與會員國間之權限劃分〉,《歐洲國際論壇》,第1期,南華大學。
5. 焦興鎧 (2001),〈論歐洲聯盟勞工及勞資關係法制之建構〉,《政大法學評論》,第65期

西文書目:
1. Adnett, Nick (1996), European Labour Markets. New York: Addison Wesley Lognman.
2. Becker, Gary S. (1993), Human Capital: a theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
3. Brettell, Caroline B. and Hollifield, James F. (2000). Migration Theory: Talking across Disciplines, New York: Routledge.
4. Craig, P. and Búrca, G. D. (2003), EU Law. Text, Cases, and Materials, Oxford University Press.
5. Eijffinger, Sylvester C. W. and Hann, Jakob de (2000), European Monetary and Fiscal Policy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
6. J. Meade (1955), The Theory of Customs Unions, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
7. J. Viner (1950), The Customs Union Issue, New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
8. Joly, Danièle (2004), International migration in the new millennium: global movement and settlement, England: Ashgate.
9. Jovanović, Miroslav N. (2006), The Economics of International Integration. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing.
10. Markusen, James R., Melvin, James R. and Kaempfer, William H. et al. (1995), International trade: theory and evidence. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
11. Molle, Willem and Mourik, Aad van (1989), Wage Differentials in the European Community: convergence or Divergence, England: Avebury.
12. Pitirim Sorokin (1959), Social and Cultural Mobility. New York: The Free Press
13. Tassinopoulos, Alexandros; Werner, Heinz and Kristensen, Søren (1998), Mobility and migration of labour in the European Union and their specific implications for young people. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP.
14. Ulman, Lloyd; Eichengreen, Barry and Dickens, William T., ed. (1993), Labor and an integrated Europe. Washington: The Brookings Institution.
15. White, Robin C. A. (2004), Workers, establishment and services in the EU, Oxford University Press.


西文期刊:
1. Eichengreen, Barry (1991), “Is Europe an optimum currency area?” NBER working paper no. W3579.
2. Krieger, Hubert and Fernandez, Enrique (2006), “Too much or too little long-distance mobility in Europe?” European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
3. Markusen, James R. (1983). “Factor Movements and Commodity Trade as Complements.” Journal of International Economics. vol.14, no. 3-4, pp. 341-356.
4. Mundell, Robert A. (1961), “A Thoery of Optimum Currency Areas”, The American Economic Review, vol. 51, no. 4.
5. Portes, Jonathan & French, Simon (2005). “The impact of free movement of workers from central and eastern Europe on the UK labour market: early evidence” Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), Working Paper no.18.
6. Rahn, Richard W., ‘Europe vs. Europe’, Washington Times on October 31, 2005.
7. Ravenstein, E. G. (1889), ‘The Laws of Migration’, Journal of Statistical Society of London, 52.
8. Scitovsky, Tibor (1959), “Economic Theory and Western European Integration”, International Affairs, vol. 35, no. 2.
9. Stark, Oded and Bloom, David E. (1985), “The New Economics of Labor Migration”, The American Economic Review, vol. 75, no. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Ninety-Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. (May, 1985).
10. Straubhaar, Thomas (1986a), “The Causes of International Labor Migrations- A Demand-Determined Approach”, International Migration Review, Vol.20, No.4, Special Issue: Temporary Worker Programs: Mechanisms, Conditions, Consequences,.
11. Straubhaar, Thomas (1986b), “Temporary Worker Programs: Mechanisms, Conditions, Consequences”, International Migration Review, Vol. 20, No.4.
12. Straubhaar, Thomas (1988), “International Labour Migration with a Common Market: Some Aspects of EC Experience”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol.27, no.1.
13. Tovias, Alfred (1982), “Testing Factor Price Equalization in the EEC”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol.20, no.4.
14. Traser, Julianna (2005). “Report on the free movement of workers in EU-25: Who’s Afraid of EU Enlargement?” European Citizen Action Services.
15. UNECE (2001), “European labour market rigidity not a constraint to growth” Economic Survey of Europe -first 2001.


官方出版品:
1. Council Directive 64/221/EEC, the co-ordination of special measures concerning the movement and residence of foreign nationals which are justified on grounds of public policy, public security or public health, OJ 056, 4.4.1964.
2. Council Directive 68/360/EEC, the abolition of restrictions on movement and residence within the Community for workers of Member States and their families; OJ L 257, 19.10.1968.
3. European commison (2006), Europeans and mobility: first results of an EU-wide survey, Luxembourg: Office for Offical Publications of the European Communities.
4. European Commission (2006a), Mobility in Europe: Analysis of the 2005 Eurobarometer survey on geographical and labour market mobility, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
5. European Commission (2006b), Employment in Europe 2006, Luxembourg: Office for Offical Publications of the European Communities.
6. European Commission (2006c), Social Agenda, Luxembourg: Office for Offical Publications of the European Communities.
7. Regulation (EEC) No 1612/68 of the Council, freedom of movement for workers within the Community; OJ L 257, 19/10/1968.
8. Treaty estabilishing a Constitution for Europe, ArticleI-11 (2)
9. Regulation (EEC) No 1251/70 of the Commission, the right of workers to remain in the territory of a Member State after having been employed in that State, OJ L 142 , 30/06/1970.
10. COM(2001)386, 11.7.2001, Council directive on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purpose of paid employment and self-employed economic activities.
11. COM(2002)72 final, 13.2.2002, Commission’s Action Plan for skills and mobility.
12. COM(2004) 66 final, 6.2.2004, Report on the Implementation of the Commission’s Action Plan for Skills and Mobility.
13. COM(2006) 48 final, 8.2.2006, Report on the Functioning of the Transitional Arrangements set out in the 2003 Accession Treaty (period 1 May 2004-30 April 2006)


網路資料:
1. 歐洲工會聯合會 http://www.etuc.org/a/652
2. 歐盟執委會 http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm
3. EurActiv http://www.euractiv.com/
4. Europass http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/europass/preview.action?locale_id=1
5. EUROSTAT http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1090,30070682,1090_33076576&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
6. Heinz Fassmann, Rainer Münz (2002), ‘EU Enlargement and Future East-West Migration in Europe’, New Challenges in Central and Eastern Europe: 2002 Review, United Nation: IOM. http://www.demographie.de/info/epub/pdfdateien/EU%20Enlargement%20and%20Future%20East-West%20Migration.pdf
7. Home Office (2005): Accession monitoring report May 2004 – December 2005. http://www.ind.homeoffice.gov.uk/ind/en/home/about_us/reports/accession_monitoring.Maincontent.0023.file.tmp/Accession%20Monitoring%20Report.pdf
8. Ifo Institute for Economic Research網站http://www.cesifo-group.de/link/JB_2004.pdf
9. Leonardo Programme http://leonardo.cec.eu.int/
10. Migration Research Group (2005), “Does Germany Need Labour Migration?” focus MIGRATION: policy brief, No.2.
http://www.focus-migration.de/typo3_upload/groups/3/focus_Migration_Publikationen/Kurzdossiers/PB02_-_Labourmigration.pdf
11. Migration Research Group (2006), “EU Expansion and the Free Movement of Workers: Do Continued Restrictions Make sense for Germany?” focus MIGRATION: policy brief, no.4.
http://www.focus-migration.de/typo3_upload/groups/3/focus_Migration_Publikationen/Kurzdossiers/PB04_free_movement.pdf
12. University of Alicante, Florence and Oxford, the CNRS (Paris) German Centre for Survey Research and Methodology (ZUMA), “Pioneers of Europe’s Integration: Mobility and the Emergence of European Identity among National and Foreign Citizens in the EU”. http://www.obets.ua.es/pioneur/difusion/PioneurExecutiveSummary.pdf
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