淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-3012201519501100
中文論文名稱 中國大陸直銷銷售員行動學習的績效預估與設計之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of Performance Prediction and Design on Mobile Learning for Direct Selling Sales in Mainland China
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 李大經
研究生英文姓名 Ta-Ching Lee
學號 802620020
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2016-01-09
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-張紘炬
委員-歐陽良裕
委員-李培齊
委員-林進財
委員-黃建森
委員-顏錫銘
委員-賴奎魁
中文關鍵字 直銷  直銷銷售員  適應性銷售  信效度分析  情境設計  行動學習  智慧型手機 
英文關鍵字 Direct selling  Direct selling sales  Adaptive selling  Validity and reliability analysis  Scenario design  Mobile learning  Smart phone 
學科別分類
中文摘要 自2007年以來,智慧型手機蓬勃發展,以致各個產業均強化行動化解決方案,本研究將以中國大陸直銷產業為研究目標,針對直銷產業在中國大陸面臨到的新機會與困難,廣大的銷售機會與直銷銷售員素質、銷售績效之影響,擬提出行動學習方案以改善之。因此,本研究將分兩階段:第一階段將以中國大陸直銷業者作為實證性研究對象,使用問卷方式,對導入行動學習(mobile learning)方案後進行信效度分析,以瞭解行動學習是否對銷售績效有正向影響。研究結果顯示直銷產業在導入行動學習後,將可對銷售績效產生效益。第二階段則以行動學習設計與雛型實作,依據不同的情境建立雛型系統並對300位直銷銷售員進行測試,測試結果發現,使用行動學習方案的直銷銷售員比使用傳統一般電腦的直銷銷售員成效有顯著的提升,此研究證明行動學習方案可在直銷行業內提升直銷銷售員素質,並提高商品銷售的正確性。
英文摘要 The rise of smart phones from 2007 has stimulated various industries to develop mobile solutions to improve and solve past problems relating to the inaccessibility of information systems. This study used the direct marketing industry in Mainland China as the research subject. It aimed to understand the new opportunities and challenges encountered by the direct marketing industry in Mainland China and to propose mobile learning solutions to improve the relationship among extensive sales opportunities, skills of salespersons, and sales performance. Therefore, this study was divided into two phases: in the first phase, the study targeted the direct marketing industry in Mainland China through empirical research, using questionnaires after introducing mobile learning to analyze their validity and reliability with regarding to observing whether the mobile learning had a positive impact on sales performance. Research in this phase concluded that sales performance benefited from the introduction of mobile learning into the direct marketing industry. In the second phase, mobile learning solution was used as the means for implementing mobile solutions. Based on different user oriented scenario which was designed in the research, a prototype was designed and built for 300 salespersons. After those salespersons used and to be tested, the test results showed that sales performance for salespersons that used mobile learning solution was significantly higher compared to those who used traditional personal computers solution for sales efforts. This demonstrates that the use of mobile solutions in mobile learning improved sales quality in the direct marketing industry and increased the accuracy of merchandise sales.
論文目次 目錄

中文摘要 .................................................I
英文摘要 ................................................II
目錄 ................................................III
表目錄 ..................................................V
圖目錄 .................................................VI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究問題與目的 7
第三節 論文架構 9
第二章 文獻探討 10
第一節 直銷的定義 10
第二節 銷售績效 10
第三節 適應性銷售對銷售績效之影響 11
第四節 影響適應性銷售之因素 13
第五節 學習導向對適應性銷售 14
第六節 行動學習定義與設計 16
第七節 行動學習方案對銷售績效之影響 18
第八節 行動化方案、適應性銷售對銷售績效之影響 18
第九節 情境設計法 19
第十節 直銷業行動學習方案之設計 21
第三章 研究方法與假設 23
第一節 研究方法 23
第二節 研究假設模型架構 26
第三節 問卷設計與資料收集 28
第四節 資料來源、範圍、內容與篩選 29
第五節 資料分析與計算:信效度分析 31
III
第六節 系統設計方法:情境設計 34
第四章 假設模型研究分析與結果 36
第一節 信效度分析 36
第二節 研究結果 41
第五章 行動學習方案設計與檢驗 45
第一節 行動學習方案設計理念 45
第二節 行動學習方案設計之目標 46
第三節 行動學習方案情境與流程 49
第四節 行動學習方案介面設計 60
第五節 雛形開發 62
第六節 研究結果 66
第六章 結論與建議 77
第一節 研究成果 77
第二節 後續研究建議 80
參考文獻 82
附錄 88

表目錄
表3.1 Chang & Lee (2015a)研究與本研究樣本之差異 24
表3.2 行動學習假設模型和各個構面參考文獻列表 28
表3.3 信度之評估指標 31
表3.4 適合進行因素分析之評估指標 32
表3.5 收斂效度之評估指標 33
表3.6 整體模式適配度指標 33
表4.1 Cronbach’s α信度分析結果 36
表4.2 構面 KMO 取樣適合性檢定和Bartlett 球面性檢定 38
表4.3 各構面之信度分析 38
表4.4 Chang & Lee (2015a) 研究與本研究問卷之差異 43
表5.1 一般設計與成功設計的案例比較 48
表5.2 直銷銷售員測驗項目 67
表5.3 平均分數統計表 72
表5.4 平均日點擊次數統計表 73
表5.5 平均測驗分數之獨立樣本t檢定結果 74
表5.6 平均日點擊次數之獨立樣本t檢定結果 75

圖目錄
圖1.1 全球直銷市場各地區營業額百分比 2
圖1.2 2014年中國大陸直銷企業數 3
圖1.3 行動化、客戶行為分析、大數據時代演進 5
圖1.4 新科技對現代化直銷產業的效益 6
圖1.5 行動學習建立直銷產業願景 6
圖3.1 研究方法流程 25
圖3.2 本研究假設模型架構 27
圖3.3 問卷施測程序 30
圖3.4 問卷回收流程 31
圖4.1 實驗設計AMOS SEM分析結果 37
圖5.1 企業行動學習方案設計架構 50
圖5.2 行動學習方案架構 51
圖5.3 情境設計與頁面流程:直銷銷售員 56
圖5.4 情境設計與頁面流程:講師 58
圖5.5 情境設計與頁面流程:直銷公司管理者 59
圖5.6 行動學習方案功能模組圖 59
圖5.7 行動軟體介面設計原則 62
圖5.8 登入使用者介面 62
圖5.9 註冊使用者介面 63
圖5.10 產品影片分類頁 63
圖5.11 最新消息通知信件匣 64
圖5.12 產品銷售頁 64
圖5.13 客戶訂單查詢 65
圖5.14 銷售訓練工具 65
圖5.15直銷銷售員受測與驗證流程 66


參考文獻 參考文獻
一、中文部分
1.江崇志和許尚華 (2005),情境設計資料庫之架構發展,國立交通大學工業工程與管理學系碩士論文,頁84。
2.李欣萍 (2013),行動學習與企業領導力提升研究,中國大陸雲南大學硕士論文,頁58-60。
3.吳愛政 (2005),我國直銷理論與應用的研究,中國天津大學博士論文,頁89-92。
4.吳欣蓉 (2010),數位學習科技趨勢分析-數位典藏與學習之產業發展與推動
計畫,取自:http://idp.teldap.tw/epaper/20100429/416。
5.吳明隆 (2011),以數位化行動學習迎接新挑戰,國家文官學院 T&D飛訊第
124期,頁11。
6.林宏亮 (2000),國際行銷人員跨文化訓練、人格特質、與調適性銷售之研究,東吳大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文,頁22。
7.唐玄輝和林穎謙 (2011),情境故事法運用於跨領域合作的問題與影響,設計學報,16(3),頁21-44。
8.郭建宏 (2000),螢幕種類、極性、目標背景色彩組合對視覺敏銳與主觀偏好之研究,國立台灣科技大學工業管理研究所碩士論文,頁15。
9.郭彥谷 (2001), PDA介面資訊傳達與工作效能的關係,交通大學傳播所碩士論文,頁18-20。
10.郭麗玲 (2000),自我導向學習理論與模式,社會教育學刊,29卷,頁1-34。
11.許馨元 (2006),手機主選單圖像動態模式與不同性別滿意度之關連性研究,大同大學工業設計學系(所)碩士論文,頁13-15。
12.翁興利和郭香蘭 (2009),M-learning與企業經營績效關係之研究:系統動態學之觀點,空大商學學報,17期,頁131-159。
13.陳嵩等四人(2012),再探銷售人員目標導向對行為績效之影響:銷售經驗及上司家長式領導的干擾角色 ,輔仁管理評論,19(2),頁117-170。
14.陳嵩和蔡青瞱 (2005),銷售人員自我監控能力、適應性銷售行為與銷售績效之關聯性 - 權變觀點,崑山科技大學企業管理系行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫,頁1。
15.黃俊英 (1991),多變量分析(第四版),台北華泰書局。
16.蕭錫錡和張仁家 (1997),自我導向學習的本質及其對成人教育的啟示,成人教育,40期,頁37-42。
17.小松原明哲 (1992),對話型認知人間工學設計,技報堂出版,東京,頁96-102。
18.北京大學中國直銷行業發展研究中心(2014),中國大陸商務部市場秩序司,2014年直銷行業發展報告。
19.世界直銷聯盟 (2014),2014年最新資料統計,世界直銷協會聯盟(WFDSA),http://www.wfdsa.org/。


二、英文部分
1.Anderson, J. S. & Durney, B. (1992). Using scenarios in deficiency-driven requirements engineering. In proceedings of the IEEE international symposium on requirements engineering. Washington, pp. 134-141.
2.Babakus, E., Cravens, D. W., Grant, H., Ingram, T. N. & LaForge, R. W. (2001). Investigating the relationships among sales, management control, sales territory design, salesperson performance, and sales organization effectiveness. International Journal of research in marketing, 13(4), pp. 345−363.
3.Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. (1998). On the evaluation of structure equations models. Academic of marketing science, 16, pp. 76-94.
4.Baker, W. E. & Sinkula, J. M. (1999). The synergistic effect of market orientation and learning orientation on organizational performance, Academy of marketing science Journal, 27(4), p. 411.
5.Barbara G., Tabachnick, Linda S. & Fidell. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (6th Edition), pp. 607-611.
6.BenMoussa, C. (2003). Workers on the move: New opportunities through mobile
commerce. In proceedings of the Stockholm mobility roundtable, May, pp. 22-23.
7.Bonham, L. A. (1989). Self-directed orientation toward learning: A learning style? In H. B. Long and associates (Eds.), Self-directed learning: Emerging theory and practice. Oklahoma research center for continuing professional and higher education of university of Oklahoma, pp. 13-42.
8.Brown, J. S. (2010), John Seely Brownʼs Stanford entrepreneur’s corner talk of April 14 2010 and thoughts on the power of pull, An examination of firms in the brave new world of 21st century internet economics.
9.Brown, S. P. & Peterson, R. A. (1994). The effect of effort on sales performance and Job satisfaction, Journal of marketing, 58 (2), pp. 70-80.
10.Brown, S. P. & Leigh T. W. (1996). A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to job involvement, effort, and performance, Journal of applied psychology, 81(4), pp. 358-368.Brüderl, Josef & Peter Preisendörfer (1998). Network support and the success of newly founded businesses. Small business economics, 10, pp. 213-225.
11.Byrne, B.M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
12.Chang, H. J. & Lee, T. C. (2015a). An efficiency prediction of mobility solutions in direct selling businesses of mainland China, International journal of information and management sciences,26, pp. 181-197.
13.Chang, H. J. & Lee, T. C. (2015b). The study of mobility solution system design on China direct selling industry. Open journal of social sciences, 3(7), pp. 139-147.
14.Chiu P.-S., Kuo Y.-H., Huang Y.-M., & Chen T.-S. (2008), A meaningful learning based u-learning evaluation model, Proceedings of the 8th IEEE international conference on advanced learning technologies, Cantabria, Spain, July 1-5.
15.Chowdhury, J. (1993). The motivational impact of sales quotas on effort, Journal of marketing research, 30 (1), pp. 28-41.
16.Darmon, R. (1982).Identifying profit-producing salesforce members. Journal of personal selling and sales management, 2(2), pp. 12-23.
17.David, A.B. (2014).Context design: How to anticipate users’ needs before they’re needed. URL:http://thenextweb.com.
18.Dubinsky, A. J., & Berry, T.E. (1982).A survey of sales management practices. Industrial marketing management, 11, pp. 133-141.
19.Dubinsky, A. J. & Hartley, S.W. (1986). A path-analytic study of a model of salesperson performance, Journal of the academy of marketing science, 14 (1), pp. 36-46.Dweck, C. S. & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality, Psychological review, 95(2), pp. 256–273.
20.Elfring. T & Hulsink, W. (2003) Networks in entrepreneurship: The case of high-technology firms, Small Business Economics, Vol 21, No 4, pp. 409-422.
21.Erika, R. (1999). The 10 traits of top salesperson, Sales and marketing management, 151, pp. 34–37.
22.Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981).Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research,18, pp. 39-50.
23.Guglielmino, L. M. (1977). Development of the self-directed learning readiness scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Georgia. Dissertation abstracts international, 38(11a), 6467A.
24.Hair, J. F. Jr., Anderson ,R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1992).Multivariate data analysis with reading(3rd ed.).New York, NY: Macmillan publishing company.
25.Harris, P. (2001). Going mobile. learning circuits, ASTD online magazine, July.
26.Hart, S. H., Moncrief, W. C. & Parasuraman, A.. (1989). An empirical investigation of salespeople’s performance, effort and selling method during a sales contest, Journal of the academy of marketing science, 17 (1), pp. 29-39.
27.Houle, C.O. (1961), The inquiring mind. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, p. 32.
28.Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999).Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling, 6, pp. 1-55.
29.Ingram, T. N., Lee, K. S. & Steven J. S. (1989). An empirical assessment of salesperson motivation, commitment, and job outcomes, Journal of personal selling & sales management, 9 (3), pp. 25-33.
30.Jackson, D. W. Jr., Ostrom, L. L., & Evans, K. R. (1982).Measures used to evaluate industrial marketing activities. Industrial marketing management, 11(4), pp. 269-274.
31.Knowles, M. S.(1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. Chicago: Follett publishing company, p.18.
32.Lennox, R. D. & Wolfe, R. N. (1984). Revision of the self-monitoring scale. Journal of personality and social psychology, 46(6), pp. 1349 -1364.
33.Menguc, B. (1996). Evidence for Turkish industrial salespeople: Testing the applicability of a conceptual Model for the effect of effort on sales performance and job satisfaction, European journal of marketing, 30 (1), pp. 33-51.
34.Mezirow, J. (1985). Concepts and action in adult education. Adult education quarterly, 35(3), pp. 142-151.
35.Mohamed, S.,Laila E. & Hamza A. (2012).Mobile learning and education environments, International Journal of distributed and parallel systems , 3(4), pp. 31-38.
36.Moore, M. G. (1973). Speculations on a definition of independent study. Proceedings of a conference on independent learning, W. K. Kellog Report 7. Vancouver: Center for continuing education, university of British Columbia, pp. 25-41.
37.Nardi, B. A. Ed. (1996). Context and consciousness: Activity theory and human-computer Interaction. Cambridge, MA : MIT press, pp. 35-52.
38.Ni, L. M., Liu, Y., Lau, Y. C., & Patil, A. P.(2004). Landmarc : Indoor location sensing using active RFID. Wireless Networks, 10(6), pp. 701-710.
39.Percy, K., Burton, D. & Withmall, A. (1994). Self-directed learning among Adults: the challenge for continuing educators. Lancaster, England: The association for lifelong learning, continuing education department, Lancaster University, p. 17.
40.Peters, K (2007). M-learning: Positioning educators for a mobile, Connected future, international review of research in open and distance learning,8(2), pp. 1-17.
41.Potts, K., Takahashi & Anton, A. (1994), Inquiry-based scenario analysis of system requirements, IEEE software, pp. 21-32.
42.Quinn, C. (2000). M-learning: Mobile, wireless, in your pocket learning. LineZine, fall 2000. Available at http://www.linezine.com/2.1/features/cqmmwiyp.htm.
43.Robinson, L., Marshall, G. W., Moncrief, W. C., & Lassk, F. G. (2002). Toward a shortened measure of adaptive selling. Journal of personal selling & sales management, 22(2), pp. 111−119.
44.Rubin, K. S. & Goldberg, A. (1992). Object behavior analysis. Communications of the ACM, 35(9), pp. 48-62.
45.Sager, J. K. & Johnston, M.W.,. (1989). Antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment: A study of salespeople, Journal of personal selling & sales management, 9(1), pp. 30-41.
46.Schillewaert, N., Ahearne, M. J., Frambach R. T. & Moenaert, R. K. (2005).The adoption of Information technology in the sales force industrial marketing management.V34, pp. 323-336.
47.Snyder, M. (1974).Self-monitoring of expression behavior, Journal of personality and social psychology, 30, pp. 525-537.
48.Spiro, R.L. & Weitz B. A. (1990). Adaptive selling: Conceptualization, measurement, and nomological validity, Journal of marketing research, 27 (1), pp. 61-69.
49.Srivastava, R., Strutton, D. & Lou E. P. (2001). The will to win: An investigation of how sales managers can improve the quantitative aspects of their sales force’s effort, Journal of marketing theory and practice, 9 (2), pp. 11-25.
50.Stanton, W. J. (1975).Fundamentals of marketing,4th ed.,New York, Mcgraw - hill book Co., p. 499.
51.Sujan, H. (1986). Smarter versus harder: An exploratory Attributional analysis of salespeople’s motivation, Journal of marketing research, 23 (1), pp. 41-49.
52.Sujan, H., Weitz, B. A. & Kumar, N. (1994).Learning orientation, working smart, and effective selling, Journal of marketing. 58(3), pp. 39-52.
53.Sujan, H., Weitz, B. A. & Mita, S. (1988). Increasing sales productivity by getting salespeople to worksmarter, Journal of personal selling & sales management, 8 (2), pp. 9-19.
54.Topland, K. O. (2002). Mobile learning technological challenges on multi-channel
E-learning services, unpublished master’s thesis. Gimastad : Agder University
College, p. 17.
55.Tough, A. M. (1979). The Adult’s learning projects: A fresh approach to theory and practice in adult learning. (2nd ed.). Toronto: The Ontario institute for studies in education, pp. 95-104.
56.Tough, A. M. (1989). Self-directed learning: concepts and practice. In Colin J. Titmus (ED.), Lifelong education for adults : An international handbook (1st ed.). New York: pergamon press, Elmsford. The assistance obtained by adult self-teacher. Adult education U. S.,17(1), pp. 31-37.
57.Weiser, M. (1991).The computer for the 21st century, scientific American 265 (3), pp. 66-75.
58.Weitz, B.A., Sujan, H. & Sujan, M. (1986). Knowledge, motivation, and adaptive behavior: A framework for improving selling effectiveness, journal of marketing, 50(4), pp. 174–191. .
59.Wright, P. (1992). What’s in a scenario? , SIGCHI Bulletin, 24(4), p. 11.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2016-01-14公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-01-14起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信