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系統識別號 U0002-3012201314295800
中文論文名稱 有限空腔型音箱聲壓性能之模擬與實測
英文論文名稱 The limited cavity type speakers sound pressure by simulation and experiment
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 葉檠蒲
研究生英文姓名 Ching-Pu Yeh
電子信箱 asdff1111@hotmail.com
學號 700440323
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-12-10
論文頁數 78頁
口試委員 指導教授-丘建青
委員-林丁丙
委員-孫積賢
中文關鍵字 喇叭  音壓  失真  阻抗 
英文關鍵字 Speaker  Sound press level  Total Harmonic Distortion  Impedance 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 本文主要內容為利用數值分析來模擬揚聲器在有限空間內,對於頻率的表現應用在筆記型及薄型3c產品,並在有規範ISO 3745無響室內使用LMS聲音測試儀器進行量測與數學模擬分析來加以比對。本研究需維持原有音壓大小及空間下,主要貢獻有三點,其一為揚聲器之數學分析模型, 利用T-S參數模擬單體與導音管,並對功能做實際量測及驗證;本研究貢獻之二,為在有限空間下更換揚聲器增加低頻表現,脫離傳統改變音箱大小及導音管設計;貢獻之三為揚聲器藉由本分析流程可減少設計時間及成本。實驗結果發現,原先導音管設計低頻起振點為1300Hz,而本實驗的設計低頻起振點為800Hz,低頻表現增加500Hz;原先導音管設計須在800Hz以後失真表現才低於10%,而本研究設計在400Hz之後就低於10%,可清楚的從音樂表現上聽出2個表現的差異;聲音表現Q值從原本的1.22改變為0.81越接近在人耳中的最佳表現,且在音箱設計上減少許多困難度。 文中針對有限音箱內揚聲器的變化做了一系列的分析與實測研究,同時也針對音壓(Sound press level)、失真(Total Harmonic Distortion)、阻抗(Impedance)進行實驗量測分析探討,並經由多次的實驗結果,驗證揚聲器表現。
英文摘要 This dissertation demonstrate the comparisons and analyses in the application frequency performance of speaker in the limited space by numerical analysis in NB (Notebook) and slim 3C products. In the analyses, measurements and numerical simulations are applied for further comparison to show the performances of speakers by LMS test system under ISO 3745 anechoic lab.To maintain the original sound pressure and space, the dissertation is dedicated to three contributions. 1. In the mathematics model of the speaker, using T-S parameter to simulate speaker unit and sound guide tube. And apply experiment and verification for the function. 2. To exchange the speaker in limited space to enhance the low frequency performance, instead of changing the speaker size and sound guide tube design in tradition.
3. Speakers can be reduced design, developing time and cost by this analysis process. In the experiment result, we found that starting vibration point in low frequency of original sound guide tube is 1300Hz. And the design of starting vibration point in low frequency in this experiment is 800Hz, which is 500Hz increase in low frequency performance. In the previous sound guide tube design, distortion performance decreases 10% after 800Hz. And this experiment leads to 10% decrease after 400Hz. We can hear the difference by music between these two designs clearly. Sound performance Q-value changed from 1.22 to 0.81 which is closed to the best performance in human hearing, which makes speaker design more easily than before.Regarding to the variation of the speaker in limited space, a series of analyses and actual experiments are conducted to prove the performance of speakers. Simultaneously, Sound Press, Total Harmonic Distortion and Impedance of speakers are measured and compared in the experiments, which can be regarded as indicators of speakers’ performances by several executive experiments.
論文目次 VI
目錄
第一章 簡介 ..................................................................................................... 1
1.1研究動機 ................................................................................................. 1
1.2應用與發展 ............................................................................................. 2
1.3研究目的與方法 ..................................................................................... 3
1.4本研究之貢獻 ......................................................................................... 4
1.5論文大綱 ................................................................................................. 4
第二章 揚聲器測量 ......................................................................................... 5
2.1設備 .......................................................................................................... 5
2.1.1無響室 ............................................................................................... 5
2.1.2 無響室量測設備 .............................................................................. 6
2.1.3 無響室量測誤差 .............................................................................. 9
2.2基本電磁理論 ....................................................................................... 12
2.3 機械性質 ............................................................................................... 13
2.4聲學系統 ............................................................................................... 14
2.5 T-S參數 ................................................................................................. 19
2.5.1添加質量法 ..................................................................................... 21
2.5.2體積換算法 ..................................................................................... 23
2.6等效電路數學式 ................................................................................... 23
2.6.1揚聲器音箱等效電路 ..................................................................... 26
2.6.2揚聲器導音管等效電路數學式 ..................................................... 28
第三章 揚聲器音箱 ....................................................................................... 31
3.1揚聲器規格概述 ................................................................................... 31
3.1.1揚聲器單體規格 ............................................................................. 31
3.1.2揚聲器單體示意圖 ......................................................................... 32
3.1.3揚聲器單體測試曲線 ..................................................................... 34
3.1.4揚聲器單體T-S參數 ..................................................................... 35
3.2揚聲器音箱規格 ................................................................................... 35
3.2.1揚聲器音箱規格 ............................................................................. 36
VII
3.2.2揚聲器音箱示意圖 ......................................................................... 37
3.2.3揚聲器音箱測試曲線 ..................................................................... 38
3.3揚聲器單體T-S參數 ............................................................................ 41
3.4揚聲器等效電路分析 ........................................................................... 42
第四章 揚聲器等效電路分析 ....................................................................... 44
4.1誤差值分析 ........................................................................................... 44
4.2實測與模擬比較 ................................................................................... 45
4.2.1 實測數據與規格 ............................................................................ 45
4.2.2數值分析與平均誤差 ..................................................................... 51
4.3模擬分析 ............................................................................................... 54
4.3.1模擬分析 ......................................................................................... 55
4.3. 2樣品實作 ........................................................................................ 68
第五章 結論與未來展望 ............................................................................... 74
5.1實驗結果討論 ....................................................................................... 74
5.2未來展望 ............................................................................................... 76
參考文獻 ......................................................................................................... 77
圖目錄
圖2.1 ZYLUX無響室 ........................................................................................ 6
圖2.2 LOUDSPEAKER MEASUREMENT SYSTEM .................................................. 7
圖2.3 音源校正器 ........................................................................................... 7
圖2.4 LMS31 .................................................................................................... 8
圖2.5(ISO 3744)環境修正K2 ........................................................................ 11
圖2.6音圈系統等效電路圖 .......................................................................... 12
圖2.7 振動系統 ............................................................................................. 13
圖2.8 振動系統等效電路圖 ......................................................................... 14
圖2.9 聲音的傳播 ......................................................................................... 15
圖2.10赫姆茲共鳴器示意圖 ........................................................................ 16
圖2.11瓶頸自由體圖 .................................................................................... 16
圖2.12聲音系統等效電路圖 ........................................................................ 16
圖2.13瓶頸自由體圖 .................................................................................... 18
圖2.14轉能器示意圖 .................................................................................... 19
圖2.16 阻抗曲線圖 ....................................................................................... 20
圖2.17 添加質量法 ....................................................................................... 21
圖2.18 PRECISA 310M .................................................................................... 22
圖2.19 體積換算法 ....................................................................................... 23
圖2.20揚聲器音箱等效電路 ........................................................................ 26
圖2.21揚聲器導音管等效電路 .................................................................... 28
圖2.22揚聲器導音管等效電路 .................................................................... 29
圖3.1揚聲器單體俯視示意圖 ...................................................................... 32
圖3.2揚聲器單體側視示意圖 ...................................................................... 33
圖3.3揚聲器單體圖 ...................................................................................... 33
圖3.4揚聲器單體頻率響應 .......................................................................... 34
圖3.5揚聲器單體測試圖 .............................................................................. 34
圖3.6揚聲器音箱俯視示意圖 ...................................................................... 37
圖3.7揚聲器音箱側視示意圖 ...................................................................... 37
圖3.8揚聲器音箱導音管 .............................................................................. 38
圖3.9揚聲器音箱頻率響應 .......................................................................... 38
IX
圖3.10揚聲器音箱測試圖 ............................................................................ 39
圖3.11揚聲器音箱擺放圖 ............................................................................ 39
圖3.12數值分析聲壓圖 ................................................................................ 42
圖3.13 實際平均音壓與數值模擬比較聲壓圖 ........................................... 43
圖4.1吸音棉示意圖 ...................................................................................... 44
圖4.2無響室測試曲線 .................................................................................. 45
圖4.3實際平均音壓與數值模擬比較聲壓圖 .............................................. 51
圖4.4 單體圖30*14 ...................................................................................... 55
圖4.5 30*14音箱模擬 ................................................................................... 56
圖4.6 30*14音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ....................................... 56
圖4.7 單體圖30*09 ...................................................................................... 57
圖4.8 30*09音箱模擬 ................................................................................... 58
圖4.9 30*09音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ....................................... 58
圖4.10 單體圖20*14 .................................................................................... 59
圖4.11 20*14音箱模擬 ................................................................................. 60
圖4.12 20*14音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ..................................... 60
圖4.13 單體圖18*13 .................................................................................... 61
圖4.14 18*13音箱模擬 ................................................................................. 62
圖4.15 18*13音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ..................................... 62
圖4.16 單體圖16*09 .................................................................................... 63
圖4.17 5 16*09音箱模擬 .............................................................................. 64
圖4.18 16*09音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ..................................... 64
圖4.19 單體圖15*11 .................................................................................... 65
圖4.20 15*11音箱模擬 ................................................................................. 66
圖4.21 15*11音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ..................................... 66
圖4.22 15*11音箱模擬 ................................................................................. 67
圖4.23 15*11音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ..................................... 68
圖4.24 CNC車床圖 ....................................................................................... 69
圖4.25 15*11音箱模擬與原音箱模擬曲線比較圖 ..................................... 69
圖4.26 15*11音箱模擬曲線圖 ..................................................................... 70
圖4.27 15*11音箱模擬與原音箱曲線比較圖 ............................................. 70
圖4.28 15*11音箱與原音箱曲線比較圖 ..................................................... 73
圖5.1 15*11音箱與原音箱THD曲線比較圖 ............................................... 75

表目錄
表2.1無響室內部尺寸概算表 ...................................................................... 10
表2.2 PRECISA 310M規格 ........................................................................... 22
表2.3 參數表示式 ......................................................................................... 26
表3.1揚聲器單體規格 .................................................................................. 32
表3.2單體T-S參數表 .................................................................................. 35
表3.3揚聲器音箱規格 .................................................................................. 36
表3.4實測曲線F0比較表 ............................................................................ 40
表3.5 T-S參數表示式 ................................................................................... 41
表3.6空氣中固定參數 .................................................................................. 42
表3.7 數值分析 ............................................................................................. 43
表3.8實際平均音壓與數值模擬比較 .......................................................... 43
表4.1 音壓表示式 ......................................................................................... 49
表4.2 規格平均音壓比較表 ......................................................................... 50
表4.3 規格F0比較表 ................................................................................... 50
表4.4 規格阻抗比較表 ................................................................................. 50
表4.5 數值分析規格比較表 ......................................................................... 51
表4.6 數值分析與平均音壓比較表 ............................................................. 54
表4.7 單體表示式 ......................................................................................... 55
表4.8 T-S參數表示式30*14 ........................................................................ 55
表4.9 T-S參數表示式30*09 ........................................................................ 57
表4.10 T-S參數表示式20*14 ...................................................................... 59
表4.11 T-S參數表示式18*13 ....................................................................... 61
表4.12 T-S參數表示式1609 ........................................................................ 63
表4.13 T-S參數表示式1511 ......................................................................... 65
表4.14 T-S參數表示式1511 ......................................................................... 67
表4.15 音壓表示式1511 .............................................................................. 72
表5.1 Q值表示式 .......................................................................................... 74
參考文獻 [1]A. N. Thiele, "Loudspeakers in Vented Boxes:Parts I and Π,Proceedings of the IRE", Australia, vol. 22, pp. 487-508, 1961.reprinted in J. Audio Eng. Soc., 1971.
[2]G. Y. Hwang, H. J. Lee, S. M. Hwang, B. S. Kang, S. K. Jeung, "Performance Comparison between Inner and Outer PermanentMagnet Type Microspeakers Used for Mobile Phones, " Journal ofApplied Physics, vol. 93, No. 10, pp. 1900-1904, 2003.
[3]E. W. SIEMENS, German Patent No. 2355, 1877.
[4]C. W. Rice, and E. W. Kellogg, "Notes on the Development of aNew Type of Hornless Loud Speaker", JAIEE, vol. 12, pp. 461-480,1925.
[5]A. N. Thiele, "Loudspeakers in vented Boxes : Part I and II", Proceedings of the IRE, Australia, vol.22, pp.487-508, (1961,Aug.,reprinted in J. Audio Eng. Soc., May/June, 1971.
[6] R. H. Small, "Direct-Radiator Loudspeaker System Analysis", IEEETransactions on Audio and Electroacoustics, AU-19, pp.269-281,1971.
[7]馬大猷著, "現代聲學理論基礎",科學出版社,2004年3月
[8]白明憲,"工程聲學",全華科技圖書股份有限公司,2006
[9]王以真,"實用揚聲器技術手冊",國防工業出版社,2006
[10]杜功煥,朱哲民,秀芬,"聲學基礎",南京大學出版社,2001
[11]郭晟宇,"可攜式揚聲器之分析與模擬",私立逢甲大學機械工程研究所碩士論文,2007
[12]W. Klippel, "Prediction of Speaker Performance at High Amplitudes, " presented at 111th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, New York, USA, 2001.
[13]W. Klippel, "Measurement of Large-Signal Parameters of Electrodynamic Transducer, " presented at the 107th Convention ofthe Audio Engineering Society, New York, September 24-27, 1999,preprint 5008.
[14]W. Klippel, U. Seidel, "Fast and Accurate Measurement of LinearTransducer Parameters, " presented at the 110th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, Amsterdam, 2001.
[15] 蔡國隆、王光賢、涂聰賢,"聲學原理與噪音量測控制",全華圖書股份有限公司出版,2005。
[16] E. Brian. Anderson, "Derivation of Moving-coil LoudspeakerParameters Using Plane Wave Tube Techniques", Master of Science in Brigham Young University, 2003.
[17]Acoustic-Determination of Sound Power Levels of Noise Sources Using Sound Pressure-Engineering Method in an Essentially Free Field over a Reflecting Plane, International Standard ISO 3744, (1994).
[18]Acoustics-Determination of Sound Power Levels of Noise Sources Using Sound Pressure-Precision Methods for Anechoic and Hemi-Acoustic Rooms, International Standard ISO 3745 (2003).
[19]Acoustics-Determination of Sound Power Levels of Noise Sources Using Sound Pressure Survey Method Using an Enveloping Measurement Surface Over a Reflecting Plane, International Standard ISO 3746 (1995).
[20]陳金文,“噪音量測與控制技術應用,” 台北,科技圖書
[21]李自強, “無響室設計概要,”機械月刊, Vol. 23, No. 9, pp 324-326
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