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中文論文名稱 以力平衡儀氣動力實驗探討高寬比6方形斷面高層建築物之干擾效應
英文論文名稱 Interference Effects of Square-section High-rise Building with Aspect Ratio of 6 Based on High-frequency Force Balance Tests
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 彭安君
研究生英文姓名 AN-CHUN PENG
學號 607380101
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2019-07-06
論文頁數 74頁
口試委員 指導教授-羅元隆
委員-王人牧
委員-陳建忠
中文關鍵字 高層建築  力平衡儀  干擾效應  干擾因子 
英文關鍵字 High-rise building  Force balance  Interference effect  Interference factor 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 建築物對風力的反應為高層建築物設計中重要的一環。本研究以兩相同建築物之間風力所造成的干擾效應影響比較為主,比較相同之建築物在高風速下,不同地況及不同干擾位置對於主要建築物所受風力之特性。本研究實驗以國內現行規範之A、B、C三種標準地況作為逼近流場,模型高的風速固定為9.2 m/sec,選用高寬比為6、深寬比為1的方形斷面之柱狀模型(簡稱方柱模型)作為高層建築物與干擾建築物。每個標準地況包含單棟不受干擾的情況以及204個受到鄰近不同位置上干擾建築物的影響情況,本研究總共有615種實驗結果。實驗方法採取氣動力風洞實驗,將力平衡儀所量測到的風力歷時經過模型高風速壓的轉換,變為無因次化的風力係數歷時資料。再經數據分析後,計算風力係數等各統計值與各干擾因子。結論則針對平均風力干擾因子、背景風力干擾因子與共振風力干擾因子分別進行探討,歸納出不同流場以及不同干擾位置下,對高層建築物的風力評估應考慮干擾效應之影響。
本研究將三種地況分別以等值線圖將各風力係數統計值與三種干擾因子呈現,並針對三種干擾因子進行探討,其中發現干擾因子會隨著地況改變而改變,間接得知地況不同確實會影響干擾風力的不同,文獻中未曾有人提出此方法來探討,本研究對於本研究室已奠定實驗方法與理論架構。建議未來可採相同的實驗方式,進行更多的參數分析,累積足夠的數據量進行整合分析,期望能提出規範風力載重計算之修正,建立適用於我國之規範。
英文摘要 Wind-induced response estimation plays an essential role when giving the high-rise building designs. This research investigates the interference effects between two high-rise buildings by comparing its interfered wind forces of a principal building affected by a neighboring identical building at difference locations under three standard terrains in Taiwan code. The models for the principal and interfering buildings are made in square prisms with an aspect ratio of 6. The flow velocity at model height is 9.2 m/sec. In total, there are 615 experimental conditions. The high-frequency force balancer is adopted to record forces and moments in each case. Interference factors of mean, background-fluctuating, and resonant fluctuating components are calculated to evaluate interference effects on wind force estimations. Results are shown in the contour plots of force coefficients and interference factors. It is found that the approaching flows and locations significantly alter the interference effects on wind forces. The interference factors proposed in this research can not only indicate interference effects on different force components, but also systematically present good integration with the conventional force estimation formulae. It is expected in the future that, interference effect can be quantified and integrated with Taiwan code after accumulating sufficient data for parametric analyses.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究方法 1
1.3 研究內容 2
1.4 論文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 風洞實驗之模擬 5
2.1.1 大氣邊界層之模擬 5
2.1.2 阻塞效應 6
2.1.3 雷諾數效應 6
2.1.5 力平衡儀之風力量測 7
2.2 干擾效應之於主要建物的風力影響 7
2.2.1 整體風力影響之定性描述 7
2.2.2 以干擾因子定義之定量描述 8
2.3 各國規範 10
第三章 理論背景 12
3.1 大氣邊界層特性 12
3.1.1 平均風速剖面 12
3.1.2 紊流強度 13
3.1.3 紊流長度尺度 14
3.1.4 縱向擾動風速頻譜 15
3.2 風與結構體之相互關係 16
3.2.1 氣動力現象 17
3.2.2 結構物之整體設計風載重 18
3.3 力平衡儀量測架構 20
3.4 力平衡儀量測原理 22
3.4.1 基本原則 22
3.4.2 本實驗研究採用之理論推導 23
3.5 隨機數據理論 27
第四章 實驗設置與數據處理分析 28
4.1 風洞設備 28
4.2 大氣邊界層流場模擬 29
4.2 模型與座標 31
4.2.1 主要建物之氣動力模型 31
4.2.1 干擾建物之巴莎木模型 31
4.2.1 座標版 32
4.3 風速量測 32
4.4 風力量測 34
4.4.1 六軸向力平衡儀之描述 34
4.4.2 六力平衡儀之準確性校定 34
4.4.3 力平衡儀量測系統之架設 35
4.5 實驗數據及採樣分析 35
4.6 干擾因子(Interference Factor) 36
第五章 實驗結果與討論 38
5.1 平均風力係數之探討 38
5.2 擾動風力係數之探討 38
5.3 最大風力係數之探討 39
5.4 最小風力係數之探討 39
5.5 順風向干擾因子之探討 50
5.1.1 平均風力干擾因子 50
5.1.2 背景部分干擾因子 50
5.1.3 共振部分干擾因子 50
5.6 橫風向干擾因子之探討 58
5.2.1 背景部分干擾因子 58
5.2.2 共振部分干擾因子 58
5.7 扭轉向干擾因子之探討 64
5.3.1 背景部分干擾因子 64
5.3.2 共振部分干擾因子 64
第六章 結論與建議 70
6.1 結論 70
6.2 建議 70
參考文獻 72

表目錄
表3-1 不同地況之指數律參數 12
表3-2 不同地況之地表粗糙長度尺度 13
表3-3 地表粗糙長度尺度對應之β 14
表4-1 力平衡儀原廠性能 35
表4-2 本研究實驗所量測的各項相似性比例縮尺 36

圖目錄
圖2-1 中國規範中單棟干擾之順風向最大風力等值線圖 10
圖2-2 中國規範中單棟干擾之橫風向最大風力等值線圖 10
圖2-3 中國規範中雙棟干擾之順風向最大風力等值線圖 10
圖2-4 日本規範中單棟干擾之C地況順風向結構反應等值線圖 11
圖2-5 日本規範中單棟干擾之C地況橫風向結構反應等值線圖 11
圖2-6 日本規範單棟干擾之B地況橫風向結構反應等值線圖 11
圖3-1紊流長度尺度參數C、m與高度z0關係圖 15
圖3-2鈍體分離流及渦漩示意圖 18
圖3-3 模型與力平衡儀之動力反應頻譜轉換圖(截取於林倚仲[文獻2-20]) 21
圖4-1淡江大學風工程研究中心第一號大氣邊界層風洞實驗室 28
圖4-2淡江大學大氣邊界層風洞實驗室擾流板與粗糙元素擺設示意圖 29
圖4-3 A、B、C地況之平均風速剖面、紊流強度與紊流長度 30
圖4-4氣動力模型主建物與干擾建物模型示意圖及照片 31
圖4-5座標版配置示意圖 32
圖4-6皮托管與壓力轉換器 33
圖4-7訊號擷取器 33
圖4-8力平衡儀各構件圖 34
圖5-1 A、B、C地況CFx、CMy平均風力係數等值線圖 40
圖5-2 A、B、C地況CFx、CMy擾動風力係數等值線圖 41
圖5-3 A、B、C地況CFy、CMx擾動風力係數等值線圖 42
圖5-4 A、B、C地況CMz擾動風力係數等值線圖 43
圖5-5 A、B、C地況CFx、CMy最大風力係數等值線圖 44
圖5-6 A、B、C地況CFy、CMx最大風力係數等值線圖 45
圖5-7 A、B、C地況CMz最大風力係數等值線圖 46
圖5-8 A、B、C地況CFx、CMy最小風力係數等值線圖 47
圖5-9 A、B、C地況CFy、CMx最小風力係數等值線圖 48
圖5-10 A、B、C地況CMz最小風力係數等值線圖 49
圖5-11 A、B、C地況順風向平均風力干擾因子等值線圖 51
圖5-12 MARA文獻[2-31] A、C地況順風向平均風力干擾因子等值線圖 52
圖5-13 A、B、C地況順風向背景部分干擾因子等值線圖 53
圖5-14 MARA文獻[2-31] A、C地況順風向背景部分干擾因子等值線圖 54
圖5-15 A、B、C地況順風向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.05)等值線圖 55
圖5-16 A、B、C地況順風向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.1)等值線圖 56
圖5-17 A、B、C地況順風向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.2)等值線圖 57
圖5-18 A、B、C地況橫風向背景部分干擾因子等值線圖 59
圖5-19 MARA文獻[2-31] A、C地況橫風向背景部分干擾因子等值線圖 60
圖5-20 A、B、C地況橫風向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.05)等值線圖 61
圖5-21 A、B、C地況橫風向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.1)等值線圖 62
圖5-22 A、B、C地況橫風向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.2)等值線圖 63
圖5-23 A、B、C地況扭轉向背景部分干擾因子等值線圖 65
圖5-24 MARA文獻[2-31] A、C地況扭轉向背景部分干擾因子等值線圖 66
圖5-25 A、B、C地況扭轉向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.05)等值線圖 67
圖5-26 A、B、C地況扭轉向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.1)等值線圖 68
圖5-27 A、B、C地況扭轉向共振部分干擾因子(f'=0.2)等值線圖 69

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