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系統識別號 U0002-3007201210225700
中文論文名稱 歐洲統合下捷克勞工移民政策之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of the Labor Migration Policy of the Czech Republic in the Context of European Integration
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 陳若筑
研究生英文姓名 Jo-Chu Chen
學號 699290010
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-15
論文頁數 169頁
口試委員 指導教授-卓忠宏
委員-鄭得興
委員-鄭欽模
中文關鍵字 捷克  勞工移民  雙重勞工市場  移民政策 
英文關鍵字 Czech Republic  Labor migration  Dual labor market  Immigration policy 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 捷克移民政策現今能有如此全面性的規劃,一方面要歸功於歐洲統合下,會員國必須遵循歐洲聯盟移民政策的建制;另一方面則是因經濟危機的影響,大量移民失業問題,使得捷克政府與社會大眾更加關注移民議題。1989年共產體制瓦解後,捷克轉變為民主國家,因此也面臨邊境開放後,新出現的移民潮。但在經濟、政體轉型之際,捷克未有能力建立完善的移民政策法規。然而在2004年加入歐盟後,歐盟共同的移民與庇護政策幫助捷克移民政策的成形。但在全球化經濟與歐盟債務危機等因素影響,使捷克面臨雙重勞工市場需求與高失業率並存的矛盾問題。捷克內政部也表示,在現今社會中,必須視移民為國家經濟發展的「工具」之一。因此,本論文將以政策分析法以及雙重勞工市場理論探討捷克移民政策,內容架構分為三部分:首先,探討歐盟會員國共同面對的人才短缺問題,必須透過內部與外部移民補充歐盟內部的勞工市場;其次,歸納出捷克移民結構與移民問題;最後探究捷克政府如何反應經濟影響下的勞工市場供需問題,如何建立相關移民法規與政策控制移民人力資本的供需,以及移民政策效果與評估。
英文摘要 Immigration policy of the Czech Republic can be such a complete policy today because of two reasons. The first reason is that, as part of European integration process, all member states of the EU should comply with European Union immigration policy. The other reason is that due to economic recession, a large number of immigrants are thrown into unemployment, and this forces Czech government and society to deal with migration issues.
These migration issues emerged after 1989 when the Czech Republic became a democratic country and thus also became an immigration country. In the early days, the Czech Republic struggled with the democratization of its political system as well as a transition toward market economy, and had no strengths left to concentrate on creating a comprehensive immigration policy managing immigration trends.
However, the accession of the Czech Republic to the EU in 2004 promoted the forming of immigration policy in the Czech Republic based on the EU acquis on immigration. Nevertheless, the effects of globalization and European financial crisis compelled the Czech Republic to confront a dilemma: while unemployment rate is higher than ever, labor market still lacks certain specialized workers. According to the Czech Ministry of Interior, this situation can be solved through migration and it is even necessary to regard “migration” as one of the instruments encouraging economic growth.
To sum up, this dissertation discusses the labor migration policy of the Czech Republic, based on policy analysis and Dual Labor Market theory. This diploma work is divided into three parts. The first part includes a general description of the common labor demands in the EU and how the EU promotes mobility of its citizens and immigration of third-country nationals to supply shortages on the labor market. The second part discusses the structure of immigrants and the problems of migration. The last part relates the above mentioned problems to the solutions in order to realize how the Czech government establishes labor migration policy to balance the demand of human capital on its labor market in response to the influence of economic downturn and the whole work concludes with an analysis of migration policy.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與理論 4
第三節 文獻探討 8
第四節 研究範圍與限制 16
第五節 研究架構 17
第二章 歐盟移民接納政策之變革 21
第一節 歐盟勞工市場的人力需求 21
一、歐洲勞力短缺問題 22
二、勞工市場的人才需求 23
第二節 歐盟內部移民政策 26
一、歐盟內部移動障礙 26
二、提升內部移動之政策 30
第三節 歐盟外部移民政策 34
一、共同移民接納政策發展之要因 35
二、歐盟共同移民接納政策 38
(一)藍卡 38
(二)單一許可指令 41
第四節 捷克與歐盟移民領域之相互影響 43
一、歐盟對捷克移民政策之影響 44
二、捷克對歐盟移民領域之影響 48
第三章 捷克移民結構與相關議題 53
第一節 移民流動與組成結構 53
一、合法移民 53
(一)流動情形 54
(二)移民來源國 59
(三)移民性別與年齡結構 61
(四)移民經濟活動 63
二、非法移民與庇護移民 68
(一)非法移民 68
(二)庇護移民 72
第二節 移民移入原因 72
一、經濟因素 73
(一)雙重勞工市場特性 74
(二)經濟繁榮 75
(三)GDP與失業率 77
(四)薪資差異與生活水平 78
二、政治因素 79
(一)國際關係 80
(二)移民政策之影響 81
三、社會因素 82
(一)社會接受度 83
(二)移民網絡 84
第三節 影響移民政策制定因素 85
一、勞工市場需求 85
(一)人才短缺 86
(二)內部移動率低 87
(三)人口結構改變 90
二、經濟危機影響下的移民問題 92
(一)經濟危機對捷克的影響 92
(二)經濟危機對移民的影響 94
三、社會融入問題 98
第四章 捷克移民政策之變革 103
第一節 移民政策發展與組織 103
一、1989至1990年代早期:制度化時期 104
二、1990年代早期至2004年:與歐盟標準協調之鞏固時期 106
三、2004年至今:穩定的治理模式 109
自願回歸計劃 110
四、移民政策相關政府部門 112
第二節 移民接納政策 116
一、合格外國勞工選擇計劃 118
二、綠卡計畫 124
(一)綠卡計畫的發展 124
(二)綠卡申請辦法與程序 126
(三)綠卡計畫的批評 128
第三節 移民融合政策 130
一、移民融合政策發展 132
(一)1990-1998年 132
(二)1999-2003年 133
(三)2004-2006年 133
(四)2007-2010年 134
二、融合政策管理層次 135
垂直合作 136
三、主要行為者 138
(一)政府 138
(二)其他行為者 140
(三)歐洲聯盟 141
第四節 移民政策相關評估 144
一、融合政策 144
二、移民融合措施 145
三、政府立場 146
四、移民的經濟效益 147
第五章 結論 151
參考文獻 157

圖目錄
〈圖1-1〉研究架構圖 20
〈圖2-1〉2008年歐盟公民的移動性(%) 29
〈圖3-1〉捷克外國移民人口變化(1987-1995) 56
〈圖3-2〉捷克外國移民人口變化(1996-2010) 59
〈圖3-3〉1994-2004年,捷克十大移民人口變化 61
〈圖3-4〉2009年捷克外來移民之年齡與性別結構 62
〈圖3-5〉淨移民數值變化 75
〈圖3-6〉1993-2010年,捷克失業率與GDP成長率變化 78
〈圖3-7〉1992-2011年捷克人口變化 90
〈圖3-8〉2004-2009年捷克高低技術外國勞工人口變化 98
〈圖3-9〉捷克不接受不同種族、國籍鄰居的比例 100
〈圖4-1〉捷克庇護與移民政策署組織架構圖 114

表目錄
〈表2-1〉歐盟人口的年齡結構預測 22
〈表2-2〉2008年歐盟公民移動因素之調查(%) 31
〈表2-3〉1996年與2007年國家對移民態度的轉變 37
〈表3-1〉2007年歐盟25國淨移民移入人口 57
〈表3-2〉2010年捷克主要外國移民來源國 60
〈表3-3〉2009年移民女性人口比例 63
〈表3-4〉2009年捷克外國人從事經濟產業比例 65
〈表3-5〉捷克外國勞工職業分類比例 66
〈表3-6〉2000年、2002-2010年捷克非法移民人口數據 69
〈表3-7〉主要邊境非法跨越情形 70
〈表3-8〉2007-2009非法跨越邊境或非法居留者主要來源國 70
〈表3-9〉1998-2009年庇護申請人數 72
〈表3-10〉2006-2010年捷克平均月薪 79
〈表3-11〉2005年高堡國家對外國人態度之調查 83
〈表3-12〉1920-2004年捷克生育率變化 91
〈表3-13〉2008-2009年捷克外國移民就業變化 96
〈表3-14〉2004-2010年捷克外國勞工人口變化 97
〈表3-15〉2008年歐盟各國對不同種族的鄰居接受程度 101
〈表4-1〉合格外國勞工選擇計劃第一年成功申請人數 122
〈表4-2〉合格外國勞工選擇計劃申請者國籍 123
〈表4-3〉2003-2010年合格外國勞工選擇計劃參與人數 123
〈表4-4〉截至2011年10月底的綠卡申請人數 128
〈表4-5〉2007-2009年歐盟會員國移民融合計畫申請通過數 142
〈表4-6〉2005-2009年捷克匯出僑匯總額 148
〈表4-7〉2005-2008年捷克移民匯出僑匯比例%(名義GDP) 149
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Czech Republic
Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 2009. Programme of the Czech Presidency in the Council of the European Union in the Area of Justice and Home Affairs, available from: http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/file/programme-of-the-czech-presidency-in-the-council-of-the-european-union-in-the-area-of-justice-and-home-affairs.aspx (accessed 27.5.2012)
Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 2008. 2007 Status Report on Migration in the Czech Republic. Prague.
Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 2009. 2008 Status Report on Migration in the Czech Republic. Prague.
捷克藍卡申請職缺資訊https://portal.mpsv.cz/sz/zahr_zam/modka/vm
捷克內政部EU Blue Card, available from: http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/migration.aspx?q=Y2hudW09NQ%3d%3d (accessed 5.6.2012)
捷克內政部組織 http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/organisation-620896.aspx
捷克庇護與移民政策署組織 http://www.gdisc.org/uploads/tx_gdiscdb/Organogram_CZ_DepartmentForAsylumAndMigrationPolicy_2011.pdf
The Czech Government’s Migration Policy Principles, available from : http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/the-czech-government-s-migration-policy-principles.aspx (13.5.2012)

國際移民研究相關組織
Drbohlav, Dušan, 2004. “Migration Trends in Selected EU Applicant Countries: Volume II- The Czech Republic, the Times They Are A-Changing,” European Commission Project “Sharing Experience: Migration Trends in Selected Applicant Countries and Lessons Learned from the New Countries of Immigration in the EU and Austria”. Vienna: IOM.
Drbohlav, Dušan, 2005. The Czech Republic: From Liberal Policy to EU Membership. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
Drbohlav , Dušan et al., 2009a. “Irregular economic activities of migrants in the Czech Republic,” International Migration Papers, No. 94. Geneva: International Labour Office.
Doomernik, Jeroen and Koslowski, Rey and Thränhardt, Dietrich, 2009. The Battle for the Brains: Why Immigration Policy is not Enough to Attract the Highly Skilled. Washington DC: The German Marshall Fund of the United States.
Nicolì, Marco, and Corazza, Carlo, 2010. The Market for Remittance Services in the Czech Republic: Outcomes of a Survey among Migrants. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division, 2009. International Migration Report 2006: A Global Assessment. New York: United Nations, available from: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/2006_MigrationRep/part_one.pdf (accessed 6.5.2012)
Von Weizsäcker, Jakob, 2008. Divisions of labour: rethinking Europe’s migration policy. Bruegel Blueprint Series, Vol. VI. Brussels: Bruegel Books.
Dayton-Johnson, Jeff, Katseli, Louka T., Maniatis, Gregory, Münz, Rainer, and Papademetriou, Demetrios, 2007. Gaining from Migration: Towards a New Mobility System, OECD, available from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/Gaining_from_Migration.pdf (accessed 6.5.2012)
網路新聞、評論
Czech News Agency (ČTK), 2012/4/12, “Poll: One-third of Czechs don't want people of different skin colour, foreigners and gays as neighbours,” Prague Monitor, 〈http://praguemonitor.com/2012/04/12/poll-one-third-czechs-dont-want-people-different-skin-colour-foreigners-and-gays-neighbou〉
Czech News Agency (ČTK), 2011/12/15, “Number of Romanies negligible - Czech official census figures,” české noviny, .
Czech News Agency (ČTK), 2012/4/13, “Three in five Czechs mind that Women earn less than men,” Prague Monitor, 〈http://praguemonitor.com/2012/04/13/three-five-czechs-mind-women-earn-less-men〉
Czech News Agency (ČTK), 2012/3/14, “Czech engineering to face manpower shortage soon,” Prague Monitor, 〈http://praguemonitor.com/2012/03/14/czech-engineering-face-manpower-shortage-soon〉
Czech News Agency (ČTK), 2011/5/3. “Poll: Most Czechs want foreigners to assimilate, speak Czech,” Prague Monitor, Czech News Agency (ČTK), 2012/4/16, “Most Czechs want foreigners to assimilate-poll,” Czech News Agency, 〈http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/news/zpravy/most-czechs-want-foreigners-to-assimilate-poll/782673〉


European Union ‘Blue Card’ work permit gathering steam, available from:
http://www.workpermit.com/news/2007_03_20/europe/european_union_blue_card_01.htm (accessed 9.4.2012)
Fleming, Jeremy, 2011/5/17, “Special Report: European Business Summit,” EurActiv.com, 〈http://www.euractiv.com/ebs2011/special-report-european-business-summit-highlight-skills-shortage-news-504866〉
Fleming, Jeremy, 2012/4/26, “Survey: Skills investment slashed despite dearth,” EurActiv.com, 〈http://www.euractiv.com/specialreport-jobs-growth/survey-skills-investment-slashed-despite-dearth-news-512364〉
Johnstone, Chris, 2012/4/3, “German Chancellor Merkel and Czech PM Nečas paper over cracks in relationship,” Czechposition.com, 〈http://www.ceskapozice.cz/en/news/politics-policy/german-chancellor-merkel-and-czech-pm-necas-paper-over-cracks-relationship?page=0%2C1〉
Jones, Tom, 2012/3/29, “Czech governments move to reduce number of non-EU laborers,” Czechposition.com, 〈http://www.ceskapozice.cz/en/news/politics-policy/czech-gov%E2%80%99t-moves-reduce-number-non-eu-laborers〉
Kenety, Brian, 2012/4/18, “Vietnamese seek Czech national minority status,”czechposition.com, 〈http://www.ceskapozice.cz/en/news/society/vietnamese-seek-czech-national-minority-status〉
Ministry of Industry and Trade, 2012/1/4, “What Kind of Workers Do Employers Need?,”BusinessInfo.cz, 〈http://www.businessinfo.cz/en/article/czech-republic-business-news/what-kind-of-workers-do-employers-need/1001536/62962/〉

Perry, Joellen, 2009/4/28. “The Czech Republic Pays for Immigrants to Go Home,” The Wall Street Journal,
< http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124087660297361511.html>
Vrba, Tomaš, 2003/6/17. “Czechs dreams, Czech doubts,” EUROZINE, < http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2003-06-17-vrba-en.html>

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