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系統識別號 U0002-3007201103323100
中文論文名稱 玻利維亞民主發展(1989至今)
英文論文名稱 The Recent Democratic Development in Bolivia (1989-Present)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 馮一凡
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Fan Feng
電子信箱 uka123ily@gmail.com
學號 696310142
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-06-29
論文頁數 105頁
口試委員 指導教授-葉浩
委員-王秀琦
委員-熊建成
中文關鍵字 玻利維亞  民主  參與  古柯  天然氣  水資源  憲政改革 
英文關鍵字 Bolivia  Democracy  Participation  Coca  Natural Gas  Water  Constitutional Reform 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 西元13世紀,玻利維亞原為印加帝國的一部分。1538年淪為西班牙殖民地,史稱上秘魯。1825年8月6日宣佈獨立,為紀念解放者玻利瓦爾取名玻利瓦爾共和國,後改為現名。1952年4月爆發人民武裝起義,民族主義革命運動(Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionaria)領導人帕斯·埃斯登索羅(Victor Paz Estenssoro)就任總統。此後,軍事政變頻繁,政局長期動蕩。但即便再民主化後,玻利維亞仍為世界上最貧困的國家之一,內部充斥族群問題,原住民權利低落,抗爭與動亂頻仍。

玻利維亞民眾陸續發動大規模示威遊行、罷工封路等抗議活動,反對政府對天然氣與水資源進行新自由主義的新經濟政策。在古柯議題,政府無力抗拒外國干預使得民眾對政府的信賴度下降。再民主化時代的玻利維亞,其人民在政治參與的方式與焦點產生了許多改變:抗爭動員型態的改變、原住民文化權利落實,新憲法公投的過程。本論文將在這些面相進行探討,以理解玻利維亞民主化後進行的轉變,以及玻利維亞人民期待民主政治參與應該如何被實踐。
英文摘要 Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire in 13th century. In 1538, it was a Spanish colony, known as the Upper Peru. On August 6, 1825, it declared independence, and commemorated the name of the Bolivian Republic of liberator Bolivar, later changed to its present name. In April, 1952, the outbreak of people's armed uprising took place, Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionaria) leader Victor Paz Es-tenssoro became president. Since then, the country had undergone frequent military coups and political instability. However, even after the re-democratization, Bolivia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and is filled with ethnic conflicts, the ignorance on indigenous right, and protests occuring frequently, all leaving the country unrest.

Bolivian people launched large-scale public demonstra-tions, strikes and built other road barrier, against the govern-ment for natural gas and water resources of the new neo-liberalism economic policies. In the coca issue, the government is unable to resist foreign intervention, so the public's reliabil-ity declined. In Re-democratization era of Bolivia, the way of mass political participation had changed. Many issues emerged: mobilization in resistance and protest, indigenous cultural rights institutionalized, the new constitution referen-dum. This paper will discuss these issues to understand the changes after the re-democratization of Bolivia, and which democratic practice of participation the people prefer.
論文目次 Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
Research Motivation and Research Purposes 1
Research Method and Research Framework 3
Limitation and Literature Review 10
CHAPTER 2 COCA AND THE DEMOCRACY 13
Coca and Cocaine Issue 13
Anti-Cocaine program 20
Democratic Development and Cocaleros 22
CHAPTER 3 CONFLICTS IN THE NATURAL RESOURCE ISSUES. 25
Water and Gas Protests 25
Mass Mobilization 30
CHAPTER 4 INJUSTICE AND CONSTITUTION 33
Social Injustice in the Past Decades 34
Constitutional Reform? 38
CHAPTER 5 ETHNIC, DECENTRALIZATION, AND ECONOMICS 55
Ethnic Groups and Decentralization 59
Economics 64
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 69
BIBLIOGRAPHY 73
Books and Journal Papers 73
Websites 81

Appendix I CONSTITUCION POLITICA DEL ESTADO 82
Appendix II LEY ESPECIAL DE CONVOCATORIA A LA ASAMBLEA CONSTITUYENTE 85
Appendix III LEY DEL REFERENDUM 97
Appendix IV CONSTITUCION POLITICA DEL ESTADO 102



Tables and Figures

Table 1- 2009 Referendum On The Constitutional Amendment 2
Table 2- Plan Dignidad Expenditure 1998 ~ 2002 21
Table 3- Definition Of Liberal Democracy And Participatory Democracy 58

Figure 1- Cocaine Consumption Percentages United State On Global 17
Figure 2- Percentage Distribution Of Cocaine Use In United State 18
Figure 3- The Votes Of Evo Morales In 2005 And 2009 34
Figure 4- Satisfaction With Democracy 56
Figure 5- Gas Percentage Of National Exportation In Bolivia 67
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