淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
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系統識別號 U0002-3007200716325400
中文論文名稱 美國黑人與白人學生受教問題之探討
英文論文名稱 The survey of American black and white education
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 王楨涵
研究生英文姓名 Chen-han Wang
學號 692220089
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-20
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-劉興漢
委員-趙國材
中文關鍵字 美國教育  種族界限  族群問題  大熔爐  多元文化教育 
英文關鍵字 American education  ethnic boundary  ethnic problem  melting pot  multiculturalism  multicultural education 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 學校只是成為很多社會機構之中,唯一一個要建立更公正合理的社會結構和過程的地方。不過,學校可以說是主要影響幾乎所有美國人的生活的社會機構,所以,更背負著減少在教育機會上的種族不平等情形之重責大任。社會學家在二十世紀做了一個相當大的貢獻,那就是,種族不平等對教學結果的表現和成就方面之決定因素和結果,有深層的了解。相信,這個理論和知識的研究,會在二十一世紀,特別針對完全解釋「種族不平等」到最後根除「種族界限」的社會科學領域,提供解決問題的堅固基礎。

要改善美國黑人與白人學生教育不平等的方法,最根本的方法就是實行多元文化教育,面對消除種族不平等的措施,就是實行「多元文化教育。」這是因為,當時的學者並不接受同化論著提出的所謂美國社會是「大熔爐」的觀點。他們認為,教育應該是在維護少數或弱勢族群的文化獨特性和民族認同,允許各族群的自我認同,並保障各族群間能夠在不受歧視的情況下,共同平等地發展與生存。所以,美國的多元文化教育始終是在歧視與反歧視、不平等與爭取平等的矛盾和鬥爭中不斷演進。
英文摘要 School should be a place for people have equal opportunity to have education choice.
Hence, schools influence everyone in the world, and contribute to good or bad results.
The basic way to solve ethnic problem is to have multicultural education.

論文目次 目錄

第一章   緒論……………………………………………..1
第一節  研究動機與研究目的…………………………..2
第二節  研究方法、限制、範圍與架構………………..3

第貳章 美國的種族問題
第一節  美國種族問題之起源…………………………..6
第二節  美國種族融合之過程…………………………..7

第參章 美國的教育問題
第一節  黑人的奴隸制度與教育問題…………………11
第二節  美國的種族與教育問題………………………19
第三節  美國教育問題的探討……………………........23

第肆章 美國黑人和白人學生教育不平等的原因
第一節  生理構造的不同…………………………..…..25
第二節  家庭文化的影響……………………………....32
第三節  社會階層的不同及學校的影響………………43

第伍章 平等的入學機會
第一節  減少黑人與白人學生教育不平等的情形……61
第二節  教育不平等對黑人就業的影響………………65

第陸章 結論……………………………………………..67

參考書目…………………………………………………....73
參考文獻 參考書目

壹、、中文部份

一、 專書

王玉民。社會科學研究方法原理。台北:洪葉文化,民國八十三年。
王逢振。文化研究。台北市:揚智文化,民國八十九年。
田培林。教育與文化,上下冊。台北市:五南出版社,民國八十四年。
伍啟元。美國世紀(1901---1990)。台北市:商務印書館,民國八十三年。
江雪齡。多元文化教育。台北:師大書苑,民國八十六年。
江雪齡。邁向二十一世紀的多元文化教育。台北:師大書苑,民國八十五年。
林立樹。美國通史。台北市:五南出版社,民國九十四年。
林寶山。美國教育制度與改革動向。台北:五南圖書出版有限公司,民國八十年。
周珮儀。從社會批判到後現代-季胡課程理論之研究。台北市:師大書苑,民國八十八年。
邱兆偉。美國教育改革研究。台北:師大書苑,民國八十六年。
莊錫昌。二十世紀的美國文化。台北市:淑馨出版社,民國八十五年。
陳枝烈。多元文化教育。高雄市:復文圖書出版社。民國八十八年。
陳美如。多元文化課程理念與實踐。台北市:師大書苑,民國八十九年。
黃政傑。多元社會課程取向。台北市:師大書苑,民國八十四年。
黃嘉雄。轉化社會結構的課程理論:課程社會學的觀點。台北市:師大書苑民國八十五年。
黃政傑主編。各國教育改革動向。台北市:師大書苑,民國八十五年。
歐用生主編。新世紀的教育發展。台北市:師大書苑,民國八十六年。






二、 翻譯書籍

王佳煌、陸景文譯。文化戰爭:為美國下定義的一場奮鬥。台北市:正中書局,民國八十四年。
宋克亞譯。美國文化。台北市:遠流出版公司,民國八十二年。
李苹綺譯。多元文化教育概述。台北市:心理出版社,民國八十七年。
黃政傑主譯。多元文化課程。台北市:師大書苑,民國八十九年。









三、 期刊

王希。「多元文化主義的起源、實踐與侷限性」。美國研究,第十四卷第二期,民國八十九年。
黃慧如。「珍惜多元文化」。教育資料與研究。第三十期,民國八十八年九月。
洪雯柔。「美國種族/族群問題與多元文化教育」。中等教育。第五十卷第四期,民國八十八年八月。
陳美如。「差異多元的開展-多元文化課程的認識論基礎」。教育研究,第四十五期,民國九十一年三月。
黃政傑,張嘉育。「多元文化教育的問題與展望」。教育研究資訊。第六卷第四期,民國八十七年七月。
張四德。「多元文化與美國歷史教育」。當代。第六十六期,民國八十年。
鄭培凱。「多元文化真難」。當代,第六十六期,民國八十年十月。










貳、英文部份

I. Books

Anderson, James D. 1988. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Becker, Gary S. 1957. The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bell, Daniel 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books.
Bernstein, Basil B. 1971-75. Class, Codes and Control (3 vols.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Blau, Peter M., and Otis Dudley Duncan. 1967. The American Occupational Structure. New York: Free Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture. Beverly Hills, CA:Sage.
Bowen, William G., and D C. B. 1998. The Shape of the River: Long-term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bowles, Samuel, and Herbert Gintis. 1976. Schooling in Capitalist America: Educational Reform and Contradictions of Economic Life. New York: Basic Books.
Bryk, Anthony S., Valerie E. Lee, and Peter B. Holland. 1993. Catholic Schools and the Common Good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Coleman, James S., Ernest Q. Campbell, Carol J. Hobson, James McPartland, Alexander M. Mood, Frederic D. Weinfeld, and Robert L. York. 1966. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department Education.
Coleman, James S., and Thomas Hoffer. 1987. Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities. New York: Basic Books.
Deutsch, Martin. 1967. The Disadvantaged Child: Selected Papers of Martin Deutsch and Associates. New York: Basic Books.
DuBois, William Edward Burghardt. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. G. McClurg.
Fischer, Claude S., Michael Hout, Marvin Sanchez Jankowski, Samuel R. Lucas, Ann Swidler, and Kim Voss. 1996. Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Franklin, John Hope. 1993. The Color Line: Legacy for the Twenty-first Century. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Friedman, Milton. 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gardner, Howard. 1983. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Giroux, Henry A. 1981. Ideology, Culture, and the Process of Schooling. London: Falmer Press.
Glazer, Nathan. 1997. We Are All Multiculturalists Now. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gobineau, Joseph Arthur De. 1915. The Inequality of Human Races. London: Heineman.
Heath, Shirley Brice. 1983. Ways with Words. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray. 1994. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press.
Hoopes, David S. & Pusch, Margaret D., “Definition of Times” in Pusch, Margaret D., Multicultural Education : A Cross Cultural Training Approach. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press
Hunter, Allen. 1986. Children in the Service of Conservatism. Madison: Department of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Jaynes, Gerald David, and Robin M. Williams, Jr., eds. 1989. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Jencks, Christopher. 1998. “Racial Bias in Testing.” pp. 55-85 in The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillip. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Jencks, Christopher, and Meredith Phillips, eds. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Jencks, Christopher, Marshall Smith, Henry Ackland, Mary Jo Bane, David Cohen, Herbert Gintis, Barbara Heyns, and Stephen Michelson. 1972. Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America. New York:Basic Books.
Jensen, Arthur Robert. 1973. Educability and Group Differences. New York: Harper&Row.
Karabel, Jerome, and A. H. Halsey. 1977. Power and Ideology in Education. New York: Oxford University Press.
Krug, Edward August. 1966. Salient Dates in American Education, 1635-1964. New York: Harper&Row.
MacLeod, Jay. 1987. Ain’t No Makin’ It. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
_______. 1995. Ain’t No Makin’ It. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Mann, Horace. 1832. Common School Education. Rochester, NY.
McAdoo, Harriette P. 1998. Black Families. Newbury Park: CA: Sage.
Mosteller, Frederick, and Daniel P. Moynihan, eds. 1972. On Equality of Educational Opportunity. NewYork: Random House.
Moynihan, Daniel P. 1965. The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Policy Planning and Research.
National Center for Education Statistics. 2000a. The Condition of Education 2000 (NCES Publication 2000-062). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
________________________________. 2000b. Developments in School Finance, 1998 (NCES Publication 2000-302). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Oakes, Jeannie, Adam Gamoran, and Reba N. Page. 1992. “Curriculum Differentiation: Opportunities, Outcomes, and Meanings.” pp. 570-608 in Handbook of Research on Curriculum, edited by Philip Jackson. New York: Macmillan.
Oakes, Jeannie. 1990. Multiplying Inequalities: The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and Science. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp.
Ogbu, John U. 1978. Minority Education and Caste: The American System in Cross-cultural Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
Orfield, Gary, and Nora Gordon. 2001, July. “Schools More Separate: Consequences of a Decade of Resegregation. New Research Findings.” Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.
Rosenthal, Robert, and Lenore Jacobson. 1968. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart&Winston.
Sewell, William H., and Robert M. Hauser. 1975. Education, Occupation, and Earnings: Achievement in the Early Career. New York: Academic Press.
Smith, Daryl G., Guy L. Gerbick, Mark A. Figueroa, Gayle Harris Watkins, Thomas Levitan, Leeshawn Cradoc Moore, Pamela A. Merchant, Haim Dov Beliak and Benjamin Figueroa. 1997. Diversity Works: The Emerging Picture of How Students Benefit. Washington, DC: Association of American College and University.
Solomon, R. Patrick. 1992. Black Resistance in High School. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Sowell, Thomas. 1981. Ethnic America. New York: Basic Books.
St. John, Nancy Hoyt. 1975. School Desegregation: Outcomes for Children. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Terman, Lewis Madison. 1916. The Measurement of Intelligence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
U.S. Department of Labor. 1967. Growth of Labor Law in the United States, 1967. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Willie, Charles V. 1970. The Family Life of Black People. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Willis, Paul E. 1977. Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids get Working Class Jobs. Farnborough, England: Saxon House.
Wilson, William Julius. 1978. The Declining Significance of Race: Black and Changing American Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, William Julius. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

























II. Journals

Ainsworth-Darnell, James W. and Douglas Downey B. 1998. “Assessing Racial/Ethnic Differences in School Performance.” American Sociological Review 63:536-53.
Alexander, Karl L., Martha Cook, and Edward L. McDill. 1978. “Curriculum Tracking and Educational Stratification: Some Further Evidence.” American Sociological Review 43:47-66.
Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Susan L Dauber. 1993. “First Grade Classroom Behavior: Its Short and Long Terrm Consequences for School Performance. ” Child Development 64:801-14.
Alexander, Karl L., and Edward L. McDill. 1976. “Selection and Allocation within Schools: Some Causes and Consequences of Curriculum Placement.” American Sociological Review 41:963-80.
Armor, David J. 1972. “School and Family Effects on Black and White Achievement: A Reexamination of the USOE Data.”pp.168-229 in On Equality of Educational Opportunity, edited by Frederick Mosteller and Daniel P. Moynihan. New York: Random House.
Arrow, Kenneth J. 1973. “The Theory of Discrimination.” Pp.3-33 in Discrimination in Labor Markets, edited by Orley Ashenfelter and Albert Rees. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Catsambis, Sophia. 1994. “The Path to Math: Gender and Racial-Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Participation from Middle School to High School.” Sociology of Education 67:199-215.
Coleman, James S. 1979. “Presentation to the Massachusetts legislature: March 30, 1976.” Pp.111-23 in New Perspectives on School Integration, edited by Murray Friedman, Roger Meltzer, and Charles Miller. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.
_______. 1994. “A Vision for Sociology.” Society 32:29-34.
Crain, Robert L., and Rita E. Mahard. 1978. “Desegregation and Black Achievement: A Review of the Research.” Law and Contemporary Problems 42:17-56.
Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1994. Performance-based Assessment and Educational Equity. Harvard Educational Review 64:5-30
Ekstrom, Ruth, Margaret Goertz, Judith Pollack, and Donald Rock. 1986. “Who Drops Out of High School and Why: Findings from a National Study.” Teachers College Record. 87:356-73.
Fredinand, Pamela. 1999, J 18. “Critics Fear Schools Have Turned Back the Clock in Boston: End of Race-based Admissions Assailed.” Washington Post:A03.
Ferguson, Ronald F. 1998a. “Can Schools Narrow the Black-White Test Score Gap?” pp.318-74 in The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillip Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
________. 1998b. “Teachers’ Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap.” pp.273-317 in The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillip. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Fordham, Signithia, and John U. Ogbu. 1986. “Black Students’ School Success: Coping with the ‘Burden of Acting White.’” Journal of Urban Review 18:176-206.
Gamoran, Adam, and Robert D. Mare. 1989. “Secondary School Tracking and Education Inequality: Compensation, Reinforcement, or Neutrality?” American Journal of Sociology 94:1146-83.
Glick, Paul C. 1994. “Living Alone During Middle Adulthood.” Sociological Perspectives 37:445-57.
Hallinan, Maureen T. 1991. “School Differences in Tracking Structures and Track Assignments.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 1:251-75.
_______. 1992. “Organization of Students for Instruction in the Middle School.” Sociology of Education 65:114-27.
_______. 1994a. “School Differences in Tracking Effects on Achievement.” Social Forces 72:799-820.
_______. 1994b. “Tracking from Theory to Practice.” Sociology of Education 67:79-91.
_______. 1996. “Race Effects on Students’ Track Mobility in High School.” Social Psychology of Education 1:1-24.
_______. 1998. “Diversity Effects on Student Outcomes: Social Science Evidence.” Ohio State Law Journal 59:733-54.
Hallinan, Maureen T., and Seven S. Smith. 1985. “The Effects of Classroom Racial Composition SIF.” Social Psychology Quarterly 48:3-16.
Hanson, Sandra L. 1994, “Lost Talent: Unrealized Educational Aspirations and Expectations among U.S. Youths.” Sociology of Education 67:159-83.
Hesburgh, Theodore M. 1973. “Father Hesburgh’s Program for Racial Justice.” pp.177-79. in The Great School Bus Controversy, edited by Nicolaus Mills. New York: Teachers College Press.
Jaschik, Scott. 1995, April 28. “A Valuable Tool or Bias in Reverse?” Chronicle pf Higher Education:A14.
Lazar, Irving, and Richard B. Darlington. 1982. “Lasting Effects of Early Education: A Report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies.” Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 47:1-151.
Loury, Glenn C. 1985. “The Moral Quandary of Black Community.” In the Public Interests 75:19.
Massey, Douglas S. 1995. “Review Essay: The Bell Curve.” American Journal of Sociology 101:747-53.
McDill, Edward L., Leo C. Rigsby, and E.D. Meyers, Jr. 1969. “Educational Climates of High Schools: Their Effects and Sources.” American Journal of Sociology 74:567-86.
McPartland, James. 1969. “The Relative Influence of School Desegregation and of Classroom Desegregation on the Academic Achievement of Ninth Grade Negro Students.” Journal of Social Issues 25:93-103.
McPartland, James, and Robert York, eds. 1967. “Furthur Analysis of Equality of Educational Opportunity.” pp.35-47 in U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Racial Isolation in Public Schools, 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
____________. 1994a. “More than Misapplied Technology: A Normative and Political Response to Hallinan on Tracking.” Sociology of Education 67:84-89.
____________. 1994b. “One More Thought.” Sociology of Education 67:91.
Orfield, Gary. 1995. “Public Opinion and School Desegregation.” Teachers College Record 96:654-70.
______. 1997, September. “City-Suburban Desegregation: Parent and Student Perspectives in Metropolitan Boston.” Paper presented at the research conference of the Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Pallas, Aaron M., Doris R. Entwisle, Karl L. Alexander, and M. Francis Stulka. 1994. “Ability-Group Effects: Instructional, Social, or Institutional?” Sociology of Education 67:27-46.
Rist, Ray. 1970. “Student Social Class and Teacher Expectations: The Self-fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education.” Harvard Education Review 40:411-51.
Rosenbaum, James E. 1980. “Track Misperceptions and Frustrated College Plans: An Analysis of the Effects of Tracks and Track Perceptions in the National Longitudinal Study.” Sociology of Education 53:74-88.
Scarr, Sandra, and Richard A. Weinberg. 1976. “IQ Test Performance of Black Children Adopted by White Families.” American Psychologist 31:726-39.
Schofield, Janet Ward, and H. Andrew Sagar. 1983. “Desegregation, School Practices, and Students Race Relations.” pp. 58-102 in The Consequences of School Desegregation, edited by Christine H. Rossell and Willis D. Hawley. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Sewell, William H., Archibald O. Haller, and Alejandro Portes, 1969. “The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process.” American Sociological Review 34:82-92.
Simpson, Lorenzo. 1987. “Values, Report, and Recognition: On Race and Couture in the Neoconservative Debate.” Praxis International 7:164-73
Sorensen, Aage B., and Maureen T. Hallinan. 1984. “Race Effects on Assignment to Ability Groups.” pp.85-103 in The Social Contest of Instruction: Group Processes, edited by Penelope Peterson, Louise Cherry Wilkinson, and Maureen T. Hallinan. San Diego: Academic Press.
Spady, William G. 1973. “The Impact of School Resources on Students.” Pp.135-77 in Review of Research in Education, edited by Fred N. Kerlinge. Itasca, IL:F.E.Peacock.
Steele, Shelby. 1989,. February. “The Recoloring of Campus Life: Student Racism, Academic Pluralism, and the End of a Dream.” Harper’s Magazine:47-55.
Stodolsky, Susan and Gerald Lesser. 1967. “Learning Patterns in the Disadvantaged.” Harvard Educational Review 37:546-93.
Turner, Ralph H. 1960. “Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System.” American Sociological Review 25:855-67.
Wells, Amy Stuart, and Robert L. Crain, 1994. “Perpetuation Theory and the Long-term Effects of School Desegregation.” Review of Educational Research 64:531-55.
Vanfossen, Beth E., James D. Jones, and Joan Z. Spade. 1987. “Curriculum Tracking and Status Maintenance.” Sociology of Education 60:104-22.
“Vital Signs: The Statistics that Describe the Present and Suggest the Future of African Americans in Higher Education.” 1997. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 17:97-103.












III. Magazine

Weisberg, Jacob. 2000, November 5. “For the Sake of Argument.” New York Times Magazine:48-72






















I.V. Newspaper

Belluck, Pam. 1999, July 4. “Reason Is Sought for Lag by Blacks in School Effort.” New York Times:1, 12.
Patterson, Orlando. 1999, July 18. “What to Do When Busing Becomes Irrelevant.” New York Times Sec. 4:17.
Wilgoren, Jodi. 2000, March 19. “Florida Case Casts Shadow of Doubt Across the Future of School Vouchers.” New York Times:18.


















V. World Wide Web

Africans in America
( http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/home.html )
Census Scope Census 2000 Data, Charts, Maps, and Rankings
( http://www.censusscope.org/index.html )
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing ( http://www.etc.ca.gov/default.html )
National Coalition for Woman and Girls in Education
( http://www.ncwge.org/ )
National Council for the Social Studies
( http://www.socialstudies.org/ )
No Child Left Behind
( http://www.nochildleftbehind.gov/ )
The Office of Women’s Affairs at University of Illinois at Chicago
( http://www.uic.edu/depts/owa/ )
U.S. Census Bureau
( http://www.census.gov/ )
U.S. Department of Education
( http://www.ed.gov/index.jsp )
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