Anderson, James D. 1988. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Becker, Gary S. 1957. The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bell, Daniel 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books.
Bernstein, Basil B. 1971-75. Class, Codes and Control (3 vols.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Blau, Peter M., and Otis Dudley Duncan. 1967. The American Occupational Structure. New York: Free Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture. Beverly Hills, CA:Sage.
Bowen, William G., and D C. B. 1998. The Shape of the River: Long-term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bowles, Samuel, and Herbert Gintis. 1976. Schooling in Capitalist America: Educational Reform and Contradictions of Economic Life. New York: Basic Books.
Bryk, Anthony S., Valerie E. Lee, and Peter B. Holland. 1993. Catholic Schools and the Common Good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Coleman, James S., Ernest Q. Campbell, Carol J. Hobson, James McPartland, Alexander M. Mood, Frederic D. Weinfeld, and Robert L. York. 1966. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department Education.
Coleman, James S., and Thomas Hoffer. 1987. Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities. New York: Basic Books.
Deutsch, Martin. 1967. The Disadvantaged Child: Selected Papers of Martin Deutsch and Associates. New York: Basic Books.
DuBois, William Edward Burghardt. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. G. McClurg.
Fischer, Claude S., Michael Hout, Marvin Sanchez Jankowski, Samuel R. Lucas, Ann Swidler, and Kim Voss. 1996. Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Franklin, John Hope. 1993. The Color Line: Legacy for the Twenty-first Century. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Friedman, Milton. 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gardner, Howard. 1983. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Giroux, Henry A. 1981. Ideology, Culture, and the Process of Schooling. London: Falmer Press.
Glazer, Nathan. 1997. We Are All Multiculturalists Now. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gobineau, Joseph Arthur De. 1915. The Inequality of Human Races. London: Heineman.
Heath, Shirley Brice. 1983. Ways with Words. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray. 1994. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press.
Hoopes, David S. & Pusch, Margaret D., “Definition of Times” in Pusch, Margaret D., Multicultural Education : A Cross Cultural Training Approach. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press
Hunter, Allen. 1986. Children in the Service of Conservatism. Madison: Department of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Jaynes, Gerald David, and Robin M. Williams, Jr., eds. 1989. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Jencks, Christopher. 1998. “Racial Bias in Testing.” pp. 55-85 in The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillip. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Jencks, Christopher, and Meredith Phillips, eds. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Jencks, Christopher, Marshall Smith, Henry Ackland, Mary Jo Bane, David Cohen, Herbert Gintis, Barbara Heyns, and Stephen Michelson. 1972. Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America. New York:Basic Books.
Jensen, Arthur Robert. 1973. Educability and Group Differences. New York: Harper&Row.
Karabel, Jerome, and A. H. Halsey. 1977. Power and Ideology in Education. New York: Oxford University Press.
Krug, Edward August. 1966. Salient Dates in American Education, 1635-1964. New York: Harper&Row.
MacLeod, Jay. 1987. Ain’t No Makin’ It. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
_______. 1995. Ain’t No Makin’ It. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Mann, Horace. 1832. Common School Education. Rochester, NY.
McAdoo, Harriette P. 1998. Black Families. Newbury Park: CA: Sage.
Mosteller, Frederick, and Daniel P. Moynihan, eds. 1972. On Equality of Educational Opportunity. NewYork: Random House.
Moynihan, Daniel P. 1965. The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Policy Planning and Research.
National Center for Education Statistics. 2000a. The Condition of Education 2000 (NCES Publication 2000-062). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
________________________________. 2000b. Developments in School Finance, 1998 (NCES Publication 2000-302). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Oakes, Jeannie, Adam Gamoran, and Reba N. Page. 1992. “Curriculum Differentiation: Opportunities, Outcomes, and Meanings.” pp. 570-608 in Handbook of Research on Curriculum, edited by Philip Jackson. New York: Macmillan.
Oakes, Jeannie. 1990. Multiplying Inequalities: The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and Science. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp.
Ogbu, John U. 1978. Minority Education and Caste: The American System in Cross-cultural Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
Orfield, Gary, and Nora Gordon. 2001, July. “Schools More Separate: Consequences of a Decade of Resegregation. New Research Findings.” Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.
Rosenthal, Robert, and Lenore Jacobson. 1968. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart&Winston.
Sewell, William H., and Robert M. Hauser. 1975. Education, Occupation, and Earnings: Achievement in the Early Career. New York: Academic Press.
Smith, Daryl G., Guy L. Gerbick, Mark A. Figueroa, Gayle Harris Watkins, Thomas Levitan, Leeshawn Cradoc Moore, Pamela A. Merchant, Haim Dov Beliak and Benjamin Figueroa. 1997. Diversity Works: The Emerging Picture of How Students Benefit. Washington, DC: Association of American College and University.
Solomon, R. Patrick. 1992. Black Resistance in High School. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Sowell, Thomas. 1981. Ethnic America. New York: Basic Books.
St. John, Nancy Hoyt. 1975. School Desegregation: Outcomes for Children. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Terman, Lewis Madison. 1916. The Measurement of Intelligence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
U.S. Department of Labor. 1967. Growth of Labor Law in the United States, 1967. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Willie, Charles V. 1970. The Family Life of Black People. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Willis, Paul E. 1977. Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids get Working Class Jobs. Farnborough, England: Saxon House.
Wilson, William Julius. 1978. The Declining Significance of Race: Black and Changing American Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, William Julius. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ainsworth-Darnell, James W. and Douglas Downey B. 1998. “Assessing Racial/Ethnic Differences in School Performance.” American Sociological Review 63:536-53.
Alexander, Karl L., Martha Cook, and Edward L. McDill. 1978. “Curriculum Tracking and Educational Stratification: Some Further Evidence.” American Sociological Review 43:47-66.
Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Susan L Dauber. 1993. “First Grade Classroom Behavior: Its Short and Long Terrm Consequences for School Performance. ” Child Development 64:801-14.
Alexander, Karl L., and Edward L. McDill. 1976. “Selection and Allocation within Schools: Some Causes and Consequences of Curriculum Placement.” American Sociological Review 41:963-80.
Armor, David J. 1972. “School and Family Effects on Black and White Achievement: A Reexamination of the USOE Data.”pp.168-229 in On Equality of Educational Opportunity, edited by Frederick Mosteller and Daniel P. Moynihan. New York: Random House.
Arrow, Kenneth J. 1973. “The Theory of Discrimination.” Pp.3-33 in Discrimination in Labor Markets, edited by Orley Ashenfelter and Albert Rees. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Catsambis, Sophia. 1994. “The Path to Math: Gender and Racial-Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Participation from Middle School to High School.” Sociology of Education 67:199-215.
Coleman, James S. 1979. “Presentation to the Massachusetts legislature: March 30, 1976.” Pp.111-23 in New Perspectives on School Integration, edited by Murray Friedman, Roger Meltzer, and Charles Miller. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.
_______. 1994. “A Vision for Sociology.” Society 32:29-34.
Crain, Robert L., and Rita E. Mahard. 1978. “Desegregation and Black Achievement: A Review of the Research.” Law and Contemporary Problems 42:17-56.
Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1994. Performance-based Assessment and Educational Equity. Harvard Educational Review 64:5-30
Ekstrom, Ruth, Margaret Goertz, Judith Pollack, and Donald Rock. 1986. “Who Drops Out of High School and Why: Findings from a National Study.” Teachers College Record. 87:356-73.
Fredinand, Pamela. 1999, J 18. “Critics Fear Schools Have Turned Back the Clock in Boston: End of Race-based Admissions Assailed.” Washington Post:A03.
Ferguson, Ronald F. 1998a. “Can Schools Narrow the Black-White Test Score Gap?” pp.318-74 in The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillip Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
________. 1998b. “Teachers’ Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap.” pp.273-317 in The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillip. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Fordham, Signithia, and John U. Ogbu. 1986. “Black Students’ School Success: Coping with the ‘Burden of Acting White.’” Journal of Urban Review 18:176-206.
Gamoran, Adam, and Robert D. Mare. 1989. “Secondary School Tracking and Education Inequality: Compensation, Reinforcement, or Neutrality?” American Journal of Sociology 94:1146-83.
Glick, Paul C. 1994. “Living Alone During Middle Adulthood.” Sociological Perspectives 37:445-57.
Hallinan, Maureen T. 1991. “School Differences in Tracking Structures and Track Assignments.” Journal of Research on Adolescence 1:251-75.
_______. 1992. “Organization of Students for Instruction in the Middle School.” Sociology of Education 65:114-27.
_______. 1994a. “School Differences in Tracking Effects on Achievement.” Social Forces 72:799-820.
_______. 1994b. “Tracking from Theory to Practice.” Sociology of Education 67:79-91.
_______. 1996. “Race Effects on Students’ Track Mobility in High School.” Social Psychology of Education 1:1-24.
_______. 1998. “Diversity Effects on Student Outcomes: Social Science Evidence.” Ohio State Law Journal 59:733-54.
Hallinan, Maureen T., and Seven S. Smith. 1985. “The Effects of Classroom Racial Composition SIF.” Social Psychology Quarterly 48:3-16.
Hanson, Sandra L. 1994, “Lost Talent: Unrealized Educational Aspirations and Expectations among U.S. Youths.” Sociology of Education 67:159-83.
Hesburgh, Theodore M. 1973. “Father Hesburgh’s Program for Racial Justice.” pp.177-79. in The Great School Bus Controversy, edited by Nicolaus Mills. New York: Teachers College Press.
Jaschik, Scott. 1995, April 28. “A Valuable Tool or Bias in Reverse?” Chronicle pf Higher Education:A14.
Lazar, Irving, and Richard B. Darlington. 1982. “Lasting Effects of Early Education: A Report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies.” Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 47:1-151.
Loury, Glenn C. 1985. “The Moral Quandary of Black Community.” In the Public Interests 75:19.
Massey, Douglas S. 1995. “Review Essay: The Bell Curve.” American Journal of Sociology 101:747-53.
McDill, Edward L., Leo C. Rigsby, and E.D. Meyers, Jr. 1969. “Educational Climates of High Schools: Their Effects and Sources.” American Journal of Sociology 74:567-86.
McPartland, James. 1969. “The Relative Influence of School Desegregation and of Classroom Desegregation on the Academic Achievement of Ninth Grade Negro Students.” Journal of Social Issues 25:93-103.
McPartland, James, and Robert York, eds. 1967. “Furthur Analysis of Equality of Educational Opportunity.” pp.35-47 in U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Racial Isolation in Public Schools, 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
____________. 1994a. “More than Misapplied Technology: A Normative and Political Response to Hallinan on Tracking.” Sociology of Education 67:84-89.
____________. 1994b. “One More Thought.” Sociology of Education 67:91.
Orfield, Gary. 1995. “Public Opinion and School Desegregation.” Teachers College Record 96:654-70.
______. 1997, September. “City-Suburban Desegregation: Parent and Student Perspectives in Metropolitan Boston.” Paper presented at the research conference of the Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Pallas, Aaron M., Doris R. Entwisle, Karl L. Alexander, and M. Francis Stulka. 1994. “Ability-Group Effects: Instructional, Social, or Institutional?” Sociology of Education 67:27-46.
Rist, Ray. 1970. “Student Social Class and Teacher Expectations: The Self-fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education.” Harvard Education Review 40:411-51.
Rosenbaum, James E. 1980. “Track Misperceptions and Frustrated College Plans: An Analysis of the Effects of Tracks and Track Perceptions in the National Longitudinal Study.” Sociology of Education 53:74-88.
Scarr, Sandra, and Richard A. Weinberg. 1976. “IQ Test Performance of Black Children Adopted by White Families.” American Psychologist 31:726-39.
Schofield, Janet Ward, and H. Andrew Sagar. 1983. “Desegregation, School Practices, and Students Race Relations.” pp. 58-102 in The Consequences of School Desegregation, edited by Christine H. Rossell and Willis D. Hawley. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Sewell, William H., Archibald O. Haller, and Alejandro Portes, 1969. “The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process.” American Sociological Review 34:82-92.
Simpson, Lorenzo. 1987. “Values, Report, and Recognition: On Race and Couture in the Neoconservative Debate.” Praxis International 7:164-73
Sorensen, Aage B., and Maureen T. Hallinan. 1984. “Race Effects on Assignment to Ability Groups.” pp.85-103 in The Social Contest of Instruction: Group Processes, edited by Penelope Peterson, Louise Cherry Wilkinson, and Maureen T. Hallinan. San Diego: Academic Press.
Spady, William G. 1973. “The Impact of School Resources on Students.” Pp.135-77 in Review of Research in Education, edited by Fred N. Kerlinge. Itasca, IL:F.E.Peacock.
Steele, Shelby. 1989,. February. “The Recoloring of Campus Life: Student Racism, Academic Pluralism, and the End of a Dream.” Harper’s Magazine:47-55.
Stodolsky, Susan and Gerald Lesser. 1967. “Learning Patterns in the Disadvantaged.” Harvard Educational Review 37:546-93.
Turner, Ralph H. 1960. “Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System.” American Sociological Review 25:855-67.
Wells, Amy Stuart, and Robert L. Crain, 1994. “Perpetuation Theory and the Long-term Effects of School Desegregation.” Review of Educational Research 64:531-55.
Vanfossen, Beth E., James D. Jones, and Joan Z. Spade. 1987. “Curriculum Tracking and Status Maintenance.” Sociology of Education 60:104-22.
“Vital Signs: The Statistics that Describe the Present and Suggest the Future of African Americans in Higher Education.” 1997. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 17:97-103.
Weisberg, Jacob. 2000, November 5. “For the Sake of Argument.” New York Times Magazine:48-72
Belluck, Pam. 1999, July 4. “Reason Is Sought for Lag by Blacks in School Effort.” New York Times:1, 12.
Patterson, Orlando. 1999, July 18. “What to Do When Busing Becomes Irrelevant.” New York Times Sec. 4:17.
Wilgoren, Jodi. 2000, March 19. “Florida Case Casts Shadow of Doubt Across the Future of School Vouchers.” New York Times:18.
V. World Wide Web
Africans in America
（ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/home.html ）
Census Scope Census 2000 Data, Charts, Maps, and Rankings
（ http://www.censusscope.org/index.html ）
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing （ http://www.etc.ca.gov/default.html ）
National Coalition for Woman and Girls in Education
（ http://www.ncwge.org/ ）
National Council for the Social Studies
（ http://www.socialstudies.org/ ）
No Child Left Behind
（ http://www.nochildleftbehind.gov/ ）
The Office of Women’s Affairs at University of Illinois at Chicago
（ http://www.uic.edu/depts/owa/ ）
U.S. Census Bureau
（ http://www.census.gov/ ）
U.S. Department of Education
（ http://www.ed.gov/index.jsp ）