||Effects of Pictorial and Definition Glosses on EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning and Reading Comprehension
||Department of English
||The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of pictorial and definition glosses on vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. In the present study, a total of 99 EFL Taiwanese senior high school students participated in and they were classified into groups of high or low English proficiency level. The participants were asked to read three articles with pictorial glosses, definition glosses or no-gloss condition alternatively in three experiments. In each experiment, the participants took an immediate vocabulary translation test and a true-false reading comprehension test after reading. They also took two delayed vocabulary translation tests one week, and two weeks after the first exposure to the target words.
The results of the present study showed that glosses significantly influenced the participants’ vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. In vocabulary learning, the present study found that both pictorial and definition glosses facilitated the participants to have greater vocabulary gains in the three articles. Likewise, in reading comprehension, the present study found that reading with glosses facilitated the participants to have better reading comprehension in comparison with a reading only condition. However, the effect of different glosses on the participants’ reading comprehension scores was found to be inconsistent. And the participants’ motivation was found to be a facilitator in reading comprehension. As for the participants’ English proficiency level, the present study did not find the significance of it in relation to vocabulary learning. However, in reading comprehension, it was observed that the participants’ English proficiency level significantly affects the reading comprehension in the pictorial gloss group. The findings also indicated that, in reading comprehension, the pictorial glosses are beneficial to high proficiency participants, and the low proficiency participants benefit more from the definition glosses. Furthermore, the present study also found two different vocabulary forgetting patterns of the gloss and no-gloss groups. For the participants in either pictorial or definition gloss groups, the results showed that they gradually forgot what they learned about the target words two weeks after the primary exposure to the target words. On the other hand, the vocabulary knowledge of the participants in the no-gloss group was observed to slightly increase from the immediate vocabulary test to the 1st delayed vocabulary test.
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLE ix
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation 2
1.3 The purpose of the study 3
1.3.1 Research questions 4
1.3.2 Hypothesis 5
1.4 Significance of the Study 6
Chapter 2: Literature Review 7
2.1 Vocabulary knowledge 8
2.1.1 Significance of vocabulary knowledge 9
2.1.2 Instruction of vocabulary knowledge 10
2.1.3 Problems of incidental vocabulary learning through reading 12
2.2 Instruction of glosses 13
2.2.1 Glosses and vocabulary learning 14
2.2.2 Glosses and reading comprehension 17
2.2.3The relationship between glosses and the learners’ proficiency level 19
2.3 Theoretical issues of glosses 21
2.3.1Noticing theory 21
2.3.2 Deep processing theory 22
2.3.3 Involvement load hypothesis 22
2.3.4 Dual coding theory 23
2.3.5 Graduated interval recall 24
Chapter 3: Methodology 25
3.1 Participants 25
3.2 Materials 26
3.2.1 Assigned articles 27
3.2.2 Glossed words 28
3.2.3 Gloss conditions 29
3.3 Assessments 30
3.3.1 Vocabulary pretest 30
3.3.2 Immediate vocabulary translation test 30
3.3.3 True-false reading comprehension test 31
3.3.4 The two delayed translation vocabulary tests 32
3.4 Procedures 33
3.5 Pilot study 36
Chapter 4: Results 38
4.1 Gloss conditions and vocabulary learning 42
4.1.1 Comparison of vocabulary learning scores in relation to glosses 44
4.2 English proficiency level and vocabulary learning 45
4.2.1 English proficiency level and vocabulary learning in relation to glosses 47
4.2.2 Comparison of vocabulary gains in relation to gloss conditions 49
4.3 Gloss conditions and reading comprehension 52
4.3.1 The reading comprehension scores in relation to gloss conditions 52
4.3.2 Differences among RC scores in relation to gloss conditions 55
4.4 English proficiency levels and reading comprehension 57
4.4.1 Proficiency levels and reading comprehension in relation to gloss 58
Chapter 5: Discussion 62
5.1 Vocabulary learning 62
5.1.1 Positive effects of glosses on vocabulary learning 63
5.1.2 Superiority of pictorial glosses in vocabulary learning 66
188.8.131.52Words with concrete or abstract meaning lead to various processing 69
184.108.40.206 Pictorial glosses enhance vocabulary memorization 71
5.1.3 Insignificance of English proficiency level in vocabulary learning 73
5.1.4 Two vocabulary forgetting patterns at T1, T2, and T3 75
220.127.116.11 Vocabulary forgetting pattern for the gloss groups 75
18.104.22.168 Vocabulary forgetting pattern for the no-gloss group 77
5.2 Reading comprehension 79
5.2.1 Superiority of glosses on reading comprehension 79
22.214.171.124 The insignificance of glosses in Article 1 80
126.96.36.199 The inconsistency of gloss effect on reading comprehension 82
5.2.2 The insignificance of English proficiency on reading comprehension 85
188.8.131.52 The impact of English proficiency level in relation to RC 85
184.108.40.206 English proficiency only affects RC scores in pictorial gloss group 88
Chapter 6: Conclusion 93
6.1 Conclusion 93
6.2 Pedagogical implications 95
6.3 Limitations and suggestions for further study 97
Appendix 1: Article 1 105
Appendix 2: Article 2 106
Appendix 3: Article 3 107
Appendix 4: Target Words List 108
Appendix 5: Pictorial Glosses for Article 1 109
Appendix 6: Pictorial Glosses for Article 2 110
Appendix 7: Pictorial Glosses for Article 3 111
Appendix 8: Definition glosses for the 3 articles 112
Appendix 9: Vocabulary Pretests for 3 articles 114
Appendix 10: Immediate Vocabulary Translation Test for 3 Articles 115
Appendix 11: True-False Reading Comprehension test for Article 1 116
Appendix 12: True-False Reading Comprehension test for Article 2 117
Appendix 13: True-False Reading Comprehension test for Article 3 118
Appendix 14: 1st Delayed Vocabulary Test for 3 Articles 119
Appendix 15: 2nd Delayed Vocabulary Test for 3 Articles 120
Appendix 16: The consent for the subject 121
LIST OF TABLE
Procedures of the main study 35
Descriptive statistics of the vocabulary pretests, immediate tests, and the two delayed vocabulary tests in relation to gloss conditions 39
Descriptive statistics of vocabulary gains at Time 1, Time 2, and Time3 42
Comparison of vocabulary gains between gloss conditions for 3 articles 44
Vocabulary gains at T1, T2, and T3 for High and Low English proficiency level groups in 3 articles 46
Vocabulary gain of each gloss condition for High and Low English proficiency groups at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 47
Comparison of vocabulary gains for participants at high level of English proficiency in relation to gloss conditions 50
Comparison of vocabulary gains for participants at low level of English proficiency in relation to gloss conditions 51
The reading comprehension scores in relation to gloss conditions 53
Comparison of reading comprehension mean scores between gloss conditions 55
Reading comprehension scores for High and Low English proficiency groups in 3 articles 57
Reading comprehension scores for high and low English proficiency level groups in relation to gloss condition 58
Comparison of reading comprehension scores between gloss conditions for participants at high level of English proficiency 60
Comparison of reading comprehension scores between gloss conditions for participants at low level of English proficiency 61
||Barcroft, J. (2009). Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2
Vocabulary Learning during Reading. Tesol Quarterly, 43(1), 79-103.
Brown, R., Waring, R., & Donkaewbua, S. (2008). Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition
from Reading, Reading-While-Listening, and Listening to Stories. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(2), 136-163.
Chen, H.C. (2001). The effects of guessing from context and translation on vocabulary
retention of junior high school students in Taiwan (Master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University). Retrieved from http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/r/eng
Cheng, Ying-Hsueh. (2005) Effectiveness of using glosses to enhance technological
university business and engineering majors’ EFL reading comprehension and vocabulary learning (Master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung First University). Retrieved from http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/r/eng
Cheng Y.H., & Good, R. L. (2009). L1 glosses: Effects on EFL learners’ reading
comprehension and vocabulary retention. Reading in a Foreign Language, 21(2), 119-142.
Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for
memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.
Davis, J.N. (1989). Facilitating effects of marginal glosses on foreign reading. The
Modern Language Journal, 73(1), 41-58.
Day, R., Omura. C., & Hiramatsu, M. (1991). Incidental EFL vocabulary learning and
reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 7(2), 541-551.
Farvardin, M.T., & Biria, R. (2012). The impact of gloss types on Iranian EFL
students reading comprehension and lexical retention. International Journal of Instruction, 5(1), 99-114.
Gan, X. (2014). Study on effects of gloss type on Chinese EFL learners’ incidental
vocabulary acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(6), 1251-1256.
Hsu, M.H. (2011). The effect of first language gloss on reading comprehension,
lexical acquisition and retention: single gloss and multiple-choice gloss. WHAMPOA - An Interdisciplinary Journal, 61, 33-52.
Huang, Y.C. (2003). The effects of vocabulary glosses and example sentences on
junior high school EFL students’ reading comprehension and vocabulary learning (Master’s thesis, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan). Retrieved from http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/r/eng
Hulstijn, J. H., Hollander, M., & Greidanus, T. (1996). Incidental Vocabulary Learning
by Advanced Foreign Language Students: The Influence of Marginal Glosses, Dictionary Use, and Reoccurence of Unknown Words. The Modern Language Journal, 80(3), 327-339.
Hulstijn, J. H., & Laufer, B. (2001). Some empirical evidence for the Involvement
load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning, 51(3), 539-558.
Khaghaninejad, M. S., & Teymoori, E. (2015). The effect of employing lexical
modification techniques on incidental vocabulary learning in Iranian EFL context. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 5(1), 179-189.
Khamesipour, M. (2015). The effects of explicit and implicit instruction of vocabulary
through reading on EFL learners' vocabulary development. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(8), 1620-1627
Ko, M. (2005). Glosses, comprehension, and strategy use. Reading in a Foreign
Language, 17(2), 125-143.
Ko, M. (2012). Glossing and second language vocabulary learning. Tesol Quarterly, 46(1), 56-78.
Lee, Y. C. (2013). Using Involvement Load Hypothesis to examine the effectiveness of
vocabulary acquisition and retention in Taiwanese college EFL learners (Master’s thesis, Tamkang University)
Moghadam, S.H., Zainal, Z., & Ghaderpour, M. (2012). A review on the important
role of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66(7), 555-563.
Lomicka, L. (1998). To gloss or not to gloss an investigation of reading
comprehension online, language learning and technology. Language learning and technology, 1(2), 41-50.
Nagata, N. (1999). The effectiveness of computer-assisted interactive glosses. Foreign
Language Annals, 32(4), 469-479
Nation. I. S. P. (1990) Teaching and learning vocabulary. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
Paivio, A. (1990). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Pimsleur, P. (1967). A memory schedule. The Modern Language Journal, 51(2), 73-75
Qian, D. D. (2002). Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and
academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language Learning, 52(3), 513-536.
Richards, J., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Longman dictionary of language teaching and
applied linguistics. Malaysia: Pearson Education.
Rott, S., & William, J. (2003). Making form-meaning connection while reading: A
qualitative analysis of word processing. Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(1), 45-75.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning.
Applied Linguistics, 11, 129-158.
Shahrokni, A. (2009). Second language incidental vocabulary learning: The effect of
online textual, pictorial, and textual pictorial glosses. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 13(3), 1-17.
ShaImani, H; & KhaliliSabet, M. (2010). Pictorial, Textual, and picto-textual glosses
in E-Reading: A comparative study. English Language Teaching, 3(4), 195- 203.
Srichamnong, N. (2009). Incidental EFL Vocabulary Learning: The effects of
interactive multiple-choice glosses. Paper presented at ICT for Language Learning, Florence, Italy. Retrieved from http://conference.pixel-online.net/
Wang, Y. H. (2013). Incidental vocabulary learning through extensive reading: A case
of lower-level EFL Taiwanese learners. Journal of Asia TEFL, 10(3), 59-80.
Watanabe, Y. (1997). Input, Intake, and Retention: Effects of Increased Processing on
Incidental Learning of Foreign Language Vocabulary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(3), 287-307
Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Linguistics in language teaching. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Yali, G. (2010). L2 vocabulary acquisition through reading - Incidental learning and
intentional learning. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 33(1), 74-93
Yoshi, M. (2006) L1 and L2 glosses: Their effects on incidental vocabulary learning.
Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 85-101.