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系統識別號 U0002-3006201615192400
中文論文名稱 圖像注釋及字義注釋對於英語為第二外語學生的單字學習及閱讀理解之影響
英文論文名稱 Effects of Pictorial and Definition Glosses on EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning and Reading Comprehension
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 潘宣融
研究生英文姓名 Hsuan-Jung Pan
學號 699110614
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2016-06-17
論文頁數 121頁
口試委員 指導教授-薛玉政
委員-孫韵芳
委員-李佳盈
中文關鍵字 圖像注釋  字義注釋  單字學習  閱讀理解 
英文關鍵字 Pictorial glosses  Definition glosses  Vocabulary learning  Reading Comprehension 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討圖像注釋及字義注釋對於英語單字學習及閱讀理解之影響。99位來自三個班級的台灣高一學生參與本研究,並根據其高中會考英文科成績被分為英語程度為高程度及英語程度為低程度之兩種組別分別做探討;研究中受試者閱讀三篇文章於「圖像注釋+文章」、「字義注釋+文章」與「純粹閱讀」等三種閱讀情境,並在每次閱讀後使用一次閱讀測驗以及三次單字測驗來評量學習成效。研究結果顯示圖像注釋及字義注釋皆對於受試者之單字習得及閱讀理解有顯著幫助;然而在閱讀理解方面,此次研究結果顯示對於英語程度為高程度之學生而言,兩種注釋接能夠明顯幫助其學習;然而對於英語程度為低程度之學生的閱讀成效而言,僅字義注釋能夠顯著協助其閱讀理解。在英語程度影響閱讀理解成效之部分,本次研究結果顯示學生之英語程度僅對於「圖像注釋+文章」之閱讀情況有顯著影響。於單字習得部分,本研究結果顯示,使用注釋學習之受試者於三次單字測驗中逐漸遺忘閱讀中所習得的單字;然而對於並未使用注釋來學習單字之受試者而言,單字習得於第二次單字測驗有些微進步。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of pictorial and definition glosses on vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. In the present study, a total of 99 EFL Taiwanese senior high school students participated in and they were classified into groups of high or low English proficiency level. The participants were asked to read three articles with pictorial glosses, definition glosses or no-gloss condition alternatively in three experiments. In each experiment, the participants took an immediate vocabulary translation test and a true-false reading comprehension test after reading. They also took two delayed vocabulary translation tests one week, and two weeks after the first exposure to the target words.
The results of the present study showed that glosses significantly influenced the participants’ vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. In vocabulary learning, the present study found that both pictorial and definition glosses facilitated the participants to have greater vocabulary gains in the three articles. Likewise, in reading comprehension, the present study found that reading with glosses facilitated the participants to have better reading comprehension in comparison with a reading only condition. However, the effect of different glosses on the participants’ reading comprehension scores was found to be inconsistent. And the participants’ motivation was found to be a facilitator in reading comprehension. As for the participants’ English proficiency level, the present study did not find the significance of it in relation to vocabulary learning. However, in reading comprehension, it was observed that the participants’ English proficiency level significantly affects the reading comprehension in the pictorial gloss group. The findings also indicated that, in reading comprehension, the pictorial glosses are beneficial to high proficiency participants, and the low proficiency participants benefit more from the definition glosses. Furthermore, the present study also found two different vocabulary forgetting patterns of the gloss and no-gloss groups. For the participants in either pictorial or definition gloss groups, the results showed that they gradually forgot what they learned about the target words two weeks after the primary exposure to the target words. On the other hand, the vocabulary knowledge of the participants in the no-gloss group was observed to slightly increase from the immediate vocabulary test to the 1st delayed vocabulary test.

論文目次 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLE ix
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation 2
1.3 The purpose of the study 3
1.3.1 Research questions 4
1.3.2 Hypothesis 5
1.4 Significance of the Study 6

Chapter 2: Literature Review 7
2.1 Vocabulary knowledge 8
2.1.1 Significance of vocabulary knowledge 9
2.1.2 Instruction of vocabulary knowledge 10
2.1.3 Problems of incidental vocabulary learning through reading 12
2.2 Instruction of glosses 13
2.2.1 Glosses and vocabulary learning 14
2.2.2 Glosses and reading comprehension 17
2.2.3The relationship between glosses and the learners’ proficiency level 19
2.3 Theoretical issues of glosses 21
2.3.1Noticing theory 21
2.3.2 Deep processing theory 22
2.3.3 Involvement load hypothesis 22
2.3.4 Dual coding theory 23
2.3.5 Graduated interval recall 24

Chapter 3: Methodology 25
3.1 Participants 25
3.2 Materials 26
3.2.1 Assigned articles 27
3.2.2 Glossed words 28
3.2.3 Gloss conditions 29
3.3 Assessments 30
3.3.1 Vocabulary pretest 30
3.3.2 Immediate vocabulary translation test 30
3.3.3 True-false reading comprehension test 31
3.3.4 The two delayed translation vocabulary tests 32
3.4 Procedures 33
3.5 Pilot study 36

Chapter 4: Results 38
4.1 Gloss conditions and vocabulary learning 42
4.1.1 Comparison of vocabulary learning scores in relation to glosses 44
4.2 English proficiency level and vocabulary learning 45
4.2.1 English proficiency level and vocabulary learning in relation to glosses 47
4.2.2 Comparison of vocabulary gains in relation to gloss conditions 49
4.3 Gloss conditions and reading comprehension 52
4.3.1 The reading comprehension scores in relation to gloss conditions 52
4.3.2 Differences among RC scores in relation to gloss conditions 55
4.4 English proficiency levels and reading comprehension 57
4.4.1 Proficiency levels and reading comprehension in relation to gloss 58

Chapter 5: Discussion 62
5.1 Vocabulary learning 62
5.1.1 Positive effects of glosses on vocabulary learning 63
5.1.2 Superiority of pictorial glosses in vocabulary learning 66
5.1.2.1Words with concrete or abstract meaning lead to various processing 69
5.1.2.2 Pictorial glosses enhance vocabulary memorization 71
5.1.3 Insignificance of English proficiency level in vocabulary learning 73
5.1.4 Two vocabulary forgetting patterns at T1, T2, and T3 75
5.1.4.1 Vocabulary forgetting pattern for the gloss groups 75
5.1.4.2 Vocabulary forgetting pattern for the no-gloss group 77
5.2 Reading comprehension 79
5.2.1 Superiority of glosses on reading comprehension 79
5.2.1.1 The insignificance of glosses in Article 1 80
5.2.1.2 The inconsistency of gloss effect on reading comprehension 82
5.2.2 The insignificance of English proficiency on reading comprehension 85
5.2.2.1 The impact of English proficiency level in relation to RC 85
5.2.2.2 English proficiency only affects RC scores in pictorial gloss group 88
Chapter 6: Conclusion 93
6.1 Conclusion 93
6.2 Pedagogical implications 95
6.3 Limitations and suggestions for further study 97
References 99
Appendix 1: Article 1 105
Appendix 2: Article 2 106
Appendix 3: Article 3 107
Appendix 4: Target Words List 108
Appendix 5: Pictorial Glosses for Article 1 109
Appendix 6: Pictorial Glosses for Article 2 110
Appendix 7: Pictorial Glosses for Article 3 111
Appendix 8: Definition glosses for the 3 articles 112
Appendix 9: Vocabulary Pretests for 3 articles 114
Appendix 10: Immediate Vocabulary Translation Test for 3 Articles 115
Appendix 11: True-False Reading Comprehension test for Article 1 116
Appendix 12: True-False Reading Comprehension test for Article 2 117
Appendix 13: True-False Reading Comprehension test for Article 3 118
Appendix 14: 1st Delayed Vocabulary Test for 3 Articles 119
Appendix 15: 2nd Delayed Vocabulary Test for 3 Articles 120
Appendix 16: The consent for the subject 121







LIST OF TABLE
Table 1
Procedures of the main study 35

Table 2
Descriptive statistics of the vocabulary pretests, immediate tests, and the two delayed vocabulary tests in relation to gloss conditions 39

Table 3
Descriptive statistics of vocabulary gains at Time 1, Time 2, and Time3 42

Table 4
Comparison of vocabulary gains between gloss conditions for 3 articles 44

Table 5
Vocabulary gains at T1, T2, and T3 for High and Low English proficiency level groups in 3 articles 46

Table 6
Vocabulary gain of each gloss condition for High and Low English proficiency groups at Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 47

Table 7
Comparison of vocabulary gains for participants at high level of English proficiency in relation to gloss conditions 50

Table 8
Comparison of vocabulary gains for participants at low level of English proficiency in relation to gloss conditions 51

Table 9
The reading comprehension scores in relation to gloss conditions 53

Table 10
Comparison of reading comprehension mean scores between gloss conditions 55

Table 11
Reading comprehension scores for High and Low English proficiency groups in 3 articles 57

Table 12
Reading comprehension scores for high and low English proficiency level groups in relation to gloss condition 58

Table 13
Comparison of reading comprehension scores between gloss conditions for participants at high level of English proficiency 60

Table 14
Comparison of reading comprehension scores between gloss conditions for participants at low level of English proficiency 61
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