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系統識別號 U0002-3006201416554900
中文論文名稱 以數位遊戲進行華語聲調辨識之探索研究
英文論文名稱 Video Games for Native English Speakers' Mandarin Tone Perception: An Exploratory Study of Game-Based Learning
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 課程與教學研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Curriculum and Instruction
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 歐陽濤
研究生英文姓名 Torah Oglander
學號 600750185
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-06-10
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳劍涵
共同指導教授-林君憶
委員-曾金金
委員-陳劍涵
委員-林君憶
中文關鍵字 遊戲式學習  華語聲調  聲調辨識 
英文關鍵字 Mandarin  CFL  tones  CALL  video games  Cognitive Load Theory  Game-based learning 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於英文、中文不同語言體系的因素,英文為母語的學生學中文時常常認為華語的聲調很複雜、很難學。這份實證研究透過Cognitive Load Theory (認知負荷論)來看英文為母語的華文學生辨識華語聲調的挑戰並借用Flash ActionScript設計兩個簡單的電動遊戲讓華語學生訓練華語聲調感知。
為了更了解英文為母語者學中文時辨識華語聲調的困難,以十位英文為母語者其中文程度包含初級與中級作為抽樣。每位做了以下四個步驟:(1)前測,(2)玩此研究之遊戲並被觀察,(3)參加訪談,(4)後測。經由觀察發現和訪談組成質性資料,前後測的成績與測試速度作為量化資料。
十位測試者都認為此練習工具好玩,有幫助於聲調感知聽力,且可以增加學習動機,因玩遊戲比勉強自己念課文好玩。玩遊戲時初級生遇到較多困難,中級生玩得比較久也達到較高的分數。量化的部份,前後測透過Paired Sample T-test顯著差異,抽樣母體後測之成績均比前測為高,但是選取速度沒有顯著差異。在觀察時發現初級生玩此研究之遊戲較中級生困難。因此運用Repeated Measures ANOVA比較初級生跟中級生進步的趨勢,結果顯著差異,顯示進步趨勢不同。再分別用Paired Sample T-test統計初級生跟中級生前後測資料。很明顯中級生玩遊戲後有進步,但初級生沒有。在認知負荷論之下這種現象叫做Expertise Reversal Effect(專長逆轉作用),中級生的聲調概念較強,因此他們能夠解除該遊戲的高速度反覆訓練作用,但是初級生因為聲調的概念較弱,所以初級生玩此遊戲時沒有足夠的認知空間建立更強的聲調辨識概念。
英文摘要 Tones are a difficult challenge for native English speakers who want to learn Mandarin. In this mixed methods empirical study, the theoretical lens of cognitive Load Theory is adopted to interpret this challenge, and two simple video games were developed to help novice and intermediate level native English speaking Mandarin learners practice their Chinese tone-awareness.
Ten participants were drawn from the pool of native English speakers who are learning Mandarin in Taiwan. The participants were given a chance to play the games, and interviewed after playing. They were also tested for tone perception capability before and after playing the games to measure learning effectiveness. The participants’ responses, attitudes, and the benefits and challenges encountered with this video game based approach to CLF tone learning is discussed, and inferential statistics are applied to interpret the quantitative data.
The qualitative findings from this study confirm that the participants liked the idea of video games for practicing Chinese, and felt that these games enhance motivation, and provide useful practice. The quantitative results support the research hypothesis—that the games can help learners improve their tone perception. However, whereas the intermediate level CFL learners did show improvement on the post-tests, the beginner level participants did not. The conclusions explain this result in terms of CLT as an example of the so-called ‘expertise reversal effect.’
論文目次 Abstract (English) i

Abstract (Chinese) iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of Contents v

Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Theoretical Orientation: Cognitive Load Theory 5
1.4 Purposes of this Research 7
1.5 Research Questions and Hypotheses 8
1.6 Significance of this Study 10
1.7 Limits and Delimitations 11

Chapter Two: Review of the Literature 13
2.1 Cognitive Load Theory 13
2.2 Cognitive Load Theory and Chinese as a Foreign Language 21
2.3 Motivation for Language Learning 29
2.4 Game Based Learning 30

Chapter Three: Methodology 37
3.1 Overview 37
3.2 The Design of the Games 39
3.3 The Pre- and Post-Tests 47
3.4 The Participants 49
3.5 Data Collection 50
3.6 Data Analysis 63

Chapter Four: Results 56
4.1 Interviews and Observations 56
4.2 Qualitative Generalization 85
4.3 Quantitative Results and Discussion 90
4.4 Research Questions and Hypotheses Revisited 95
4.5 Summary of the Results 97

Chapter Five: Conclusions 100
5.1 Summary of This Study 100
5.2 Summary of the Key Findings 103
5.3 Implications 105
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research 108

List of References 111
Figure 2.1 The CLT Model 15
Figure 3.1 Screen Shot of the Target Tone mode 42
Figure 3.2 Screen Shot of the Target Pinyin mode 44
Table 3.1 CLT in Game Designs 47
Figure 3.3 Screen Shot of the Quiz Application 48
Table 3.2 Steps in the Research Process 50
Table 3.3 Interview Probes 52
Table 4.1 Qualitative Data Summary 90
Table 4.2 Quantitative Results 91
Table 4.3 Mean Values and Standard Deviations by learning level 93

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