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系統識別號 U0002-3006201318081300
中文論文名稱 修正式活動理論探討組織變革之研究-以軟體公司導入CMMI為例
英文論文名稱 A Study of the Modified Activity Theory to Explore the Organizational Change - Case Studies of CMMI Adoptions
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 傅大煜
研究生英文姓名 Ta-Yu Fu
學號 894560514
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-09
論文頁數 204頁
口試委員 指導教授-蕭瑞祥
指導教授-施盛寶
委員-廖則竣
委員-范懿文
委員-邱光輝
委員-林我聰
委員-吳錦波
委員-楊明玉
中文關鍵字 組織變革  活動理論  CMMI  軟體產業 
英文關鍵字 Oranizational Change  Activity Theory  CMMI 
學科別分類
中文摘要 傳統上在探討組織變革的研究時,總是將個人與組織分開進行研究,較少研究關心在導入過程中的組織群體層面的觀點,也忽略了不同活動之間前後的脈絡關係與時間上的交互影響。本研究首先以組織變革、活動理論與社會歷程模式等理論為基礎,發展具有時間序列觀點的「修正式活動理論方法」,並採取二階段研究方法進行驗證。第一階段以修正式活動理論進行個案研究,針對台灣二家軟體公司導入 CMMI 組織變革的過程,從組織活動的脈絡,探討員工與組織互動的歷程,釐清變革事件之間複雜的互動關係。第二階段以修正式德爾菲法,依據專家的意見將修正式活動理論的操作程序與步驟進行縮減,發展出具有理論代表性,適合探討組織變革議題的修正式活動理論方法。在學理上,本研究突破傳統只探討個體行為的活動理論範疇,提出修正式活動理論,以組織層面結合時序及動態的觀點,呈現組織變革活動時間與空間上的連結,發展一具有理論代表性,適合用於探討組織變革的詮釋性個案研究方法。在實務應用上,本研究深入探究軟體企業導入 CMMI 組織變革過程中的內涵,並對於資訊軟體產業導入 CMMI 和組織變革提出實務建議。
英文摘要 In traditional studies regarding organizational changes, individuals and organizations are often investigated and discussed separately. There are only very few studies focusing on the aspect of groups in implementation processes. In addition, relationships among activities and their interactions with time are often ignored in these studies. This study thus modified the “Activity Theory” and proposed the “Modified Activity Theory (MAT)”, analyzing processes of organizational changes more systematically and organizationally from the dynamic viewpoints of time series, and could explore the context and content of organizational changes. Based on theories such as organizational changes, activity theory, and social process model, this study developed the MAT with the viewpoints of time series. In the first phase, the MAT was applied to perform a case study with two software companies’ implementation processes of CMMI, to explore their employees’ interactions with the organizations from the context of the organizational activities, for the purpose of clarifying the complex interactions between/among the changes. In the second phase, according to the experts’ opinions, the Modified Delphi Method was conducted to reduce the operational procedure and steps of the MAT to explore issues related to organizational changes. In the aspect of theories, this study went beyond the traditional range of activity theory and proposed the MAT, a theoretically representative method suitable for case studies of organizational changes. In practical applications, this study further explored the content of the processes of organizational changes of software companies implementing CMMI, and proposed some practical suggestions for the software industry regarding CMMI implementation and organizational changes.
論文目次 目錄 i
表目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景動機 1
1.2 研究問題與目的 3
1.3 研究內容 5
1.4 研究流程 6
第二章 文獻探討 7
2.1 組織變革 7
2.1.1 組織變革的內涵 7
2.1.2 組織變革的抗拒 10
2.1.3 組織變革的過程 13
2.2 活動理論 17
2.2.1 活動理論的發展 17
2.2.2 活動理論的分析架構 20
2.2.3 活動理論的動態觀點 23
2.2.4 活動理論的步驟 25
2.2.5 活動理論與組織變革 30
2.3 社會歷程模式 33
2.3.1 社會歷程模式內涵 33
2.3.2 社會歷程模式於組織變革之應用 35
2.4 能力成熟度模型 37
2.4.1 CMMI源起 37
2.4.2 導入 CMMI 的效益 40
2.4.3 資訊服務業導入 CMMI 42
2.4.4 導入CMMI與組織變革 45
第三章 研究方法 47
3.1 研究方法與階段 47
3.2 個案研究 48
3.3 修正式德爾菲法 58
第四章 修正式活動理論 66
4.1 修正式活動理論構面推論與轉化 66
4.2 發展修正式活動理論之時間動態觀點 69
4.3 修正式活動理論程序 70
4.3.1 發展四大操作程序 70
4.3.2 推導修正式活動理論之分析步驟 72
4.4 小結-修正式活動理論操作程序與步驟 82
第五章 個案研究 85
5.1 解構變革與活動理論模式化-個案A公司導入 CMMI ML3 85
5.1.1 解構變革活動 85
5.1.2 製作活動系統模型 92
5.2 解構變革與活動理論模式化-個案B公司導入CMMI ML2、ML3 96
5.2.1 解構變革活動 96
5.2.2 製作活動系統模型 103
5.3 以時間序列串接活動系統,製作 MAT 架構圖,展現關切議題 106
5.3.1 A公司的 MAT 架構圖 106
5.3.2 B公司的 MAT 架構圖 109
5.4 分析討論,提出實務和學理之研究發現 112
5.5 小結-MAT方法進行個案研究之適用性 125
第六章 精簡修正式活動理論操作步驟 126
6.1 研究設計 126
6.2 分析檢定 128
6.3 專家意見分析與討論 138
第七章 結論 140
7.1 研究結果彙整 140
7.2 學術意涵 145
7.3 管理意涵 148
7.4 研究限制與未來研究方向 153
參考文獻 156
附錄 175
附錄一 個案研究訪談題目 175
附錄二 第一回合專家問卷 177
附錄三 第二回合專家問卷 183
附錄四 個案研究編碼過程摘要 186

表2.1 減少組織變革抗拒的方法 12
表2.2 各學者提出組織變革階段比較 16
表2.3 活動標記圖 28
表2.4 活動理論構面與組織變革領域彙整表 32
表2.5 全球通過 CMMI 前十大國家排名 42
表2.6 台灣資訊服務業家數與產值 44
表3.1 台灣軟體組織通過 CMMI 家數統計 50
表3.2 個案公司簡介 52
表3.3 參與本研究修正式德爾菲法專家名單 63
表3.4 修正式德爾菲法一致程度標準 65
表4.1 修訂適合組織變革的活動理論元件 68
表4.2 修正式活動理論的四大操作程序 71
表4.3 MAT 程序一之操作步驟 73
表4.4 MAT 程序二之操作步驟 76
表4.5 MAT 程序三之操作步驟 79
表4.6 MAT 程序四之操作步驟 81
表4.7 修正式活動理論方法之程序與步驟 83
表5.1 個案A導入CMMI後KPI比較 91
表5.2 個案A公司活動系統中的重要發現 95
表5.3 導入CMMI後KPI比較 103
表5.4 個案B活動系統中的重要發現 105
表5.5 個案A在MAT上的關切議題 108
表5.6 個案B在MAT上的關切議題 110
表6.1 參與本研究修正式德爾菲法專家名單 126
表6.2 第一回合程序一問項分析結果 129
表6.3 第一回合程序二問項分析結果 130
表6.4 第一回合程序三問項分析結果 132
表6.5 第一回合程序四問項分析結果 134
表6.6 第二回合程序一問項分析結果 135
表6.7 第二回合程序二問項分析結果 136
表6.8 第二回合程序三問項分析結果 137
表6.9 第二回合程序四問項分析結果 137
表6.10 MAT 分析程序與步驟 139

圖1.1 研究流程 6
圖2.1 中介概念的活動架構 18
圖2.2 活動階層的結構 19
圖2.3 活動理論三角型架構 20
圖2.4 活動的擴展性概念圖 24
圖2.5社會歷程模式基本假設 34
圖2.6 CMMI成熟度架構圖 39
圖3.1 古典德爾菲法的分析流程 60
圖3.2 修正式德爾菲法的分析流程 61
圖4.1 修訂為適用於組織變革研究議題之活動理論三角形 68
圖4.2 修正式活動理論觀念性架構圖 69
圖4.3 拆解組織變革之活動,製作活動系統模型 75
圖4.4 依時間序列製作 MAT 架構圖,展現關切議題 79
圖5.1 A公司組織變革規劃階段之活動系統 93
圖5.2 A公司組織變革起始階段之活動系統 93
圖5.3 A公司組織變革推動階段之活動系統 94
圖5.4 A公司組織變革完成階段之活動系統 94
圖5.5 B公司二階段導入 CMMI 示意圖 96
圖5.6 B公司組織變革 Phase I 之活動系統 104
圖5.7 B公司組織變革 Phase II 之活動系統 105
圖5.8 個案A之MAT示意圖 107
圖5.9 個案B之MAT示意圖 110
圖5.10 個案A活動主體作為討論 113
圖5.11 個案B活動主體作為討論 114
圖5.12 個案A群體與分工的重要性討論 115
圖5.13 個案B群體與分工的重要性討論 116
圖5.14 個案A變革活動中介活動討論 118
圖5.15 個案B變革活動中介活動討論 119
圖5.16 個案B從失敗到再變革的動態觀察 120
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