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系統識別號 U0002-3006201023310600
中文論文名稱 公民參與科技風險決策之評估:以英國基改作物與食品公共辯論為例
英文論文名稱 Evaluation of Public Participation in Technological Risk Decision-making: The Case of the UK GM Crops and Foods Public Debate
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 公共行政學系公共政策碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Public Administration
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 邱智民
研究生英文姓名 Chih-Ming Chiu
學號 696640019
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-15
論文頁數 150頁
口試委員 指導教授-范玫芳
共同指導教授-林聰吉
委員-陳志瑋
委員-林子倫
中文關鍵字 公民參與  審議民主  科技風險  風險論述  基因改造科技 
英文關鍵字 public participation  deliberative democracy  technological risk  risk discourse  GM technology 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學行政與地政
中文摘要 鑑於科技民主化的呼聲以及對代議民主缺失的反思,愈來愈多學者主張審議民主以及肯定常民知識在科技風險決策之重要性。公民參與在晚近受到歐洲、美國與新興民主國家的高度關注,學界嘗試建立各種評估公民參與模式的準則,以檢視其品質與成效。英國在2002-2003年間舉行「基因改造國家?公共辯論」,針對基因改造科技爭議進行全國性討論,作為政府在基改科技可能的應用與管制之參考。英國政府採行不同公民參與形式,從中央到地方層級,舉辦逾六百場公開討論會、深度焦點團體與工作坊,同時也透過網路參與,吸引三萬以上人次的參與。
本研究採取文件分析作為資料蒐集方法。本文主要根據不同公民參與評估準則瞭解公共辯論之過程、結果及其成效;探討不同參與者對基改作物與食品的風險論述;呈現公共辯論的特殊性、侷限性,作為台灣未來推動公民參與和審議民主的參考。本研究發現基礎工作討論坊、深度焦點團體在過程評估上具較高成效;公開討論會、互動網站在過程評估之成效不理想;參與者與政府的風險論述存在歧異;公共辯論產出對參與者具有提升其知識與能力的效果,但對政治與政策的直接影響相當有限。本文最後主張台灣應嘗試推動多元公民參與形式、建立回溯上游的公民參與、預警原則的應用以及建立行政課責機制以促進公共審議之推動。
英文摘要 In response to the call for democratization of science and reflection on the deficits of representative democracy, more and more scholars argue for deliberative democracy and recognition of lay knowledge in risk decision-making. As public participation has received considerable attention in Europe, North America and newly democratic countries, various criteria for evaluating participatory methods have been developed to examine the quality and efficiency of participatory mechanisms. The UK Government initiated a nationwide public debate – “GM Nation? Public Debate” on the controversies of GM technology during 2002-2003 to guide the Government’s consideration for potentially adopting the applications of GM technology and regulations. The UK government adopted various participatory mechanisms and held over 600 public meetings, narrow-but-deep groups and workshops took place with over 30,000 people taking part.
This research adopts document analysis as its data-gathering method. The essay primarily focuses on using different public participation evaluation criteria to understand the process, outcome, and efficiency of public debate; discuss the risk discourse of GM crops and foods from a variety of participants; presents the uniqueness and limitations of public debate, and use the results as references for Taiwan’s public participation and deliberative democracy movement in the future. This research shows that foundation discussion workshop, narrow-but-deep group achieves higher efficiency in process evaluation, while public meeting and interactive website generate less result from the same evaluation. There are disagreements between the opinions of the participants and that of the government, although public discussions raises the specific knowledge of the participants, it has limited direct effect on policy decision-making. Finally, this essay argues the need for forming variety public participation, establishing upstream public participation, applying precautionary principle and creating accountability mechanism to promote public deliberation in Taiwan.
論文目次 目次

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
壹、研究背景 1
貳、研究動機 2
第二節 研究問題與目的 4
第三節 研究方法與限制 7
壹、研究方法 7
貳、研究限制 9
第四節 評估準則與架構 11
第五節 章節安排 16
第二章 文獻檢閱 18
第一節 科技風險與民主 18
壹、風險相關概念介紹 18
貳、專家與公眾的風險論述 21
參、專家主導科技決策 25
肆、科技決策民主化 27
第二節 公民參與理論 30
壹、公民參與的提倡 31
貳、公民參與內涵 32
參、公民參與的立論與模式 34
肆、國內外公民參與經驗 39
伍、公民參與的限制 40
第三節 公民參與評估準則 42
壹、過程評估 43
貳、結果評估 43
參、綜合評估 45
第三章 基改風險爭議與公共辯論 49
第一節 基因改造科技爭議 49
壹、定義、功能與現況 49
貳、環境風險爭議 52
參、健康風險爭議 53
肆、社會風險爭議 55
伍、國際貿易爭議 56
小結 57
第二節 基改公共辯論之背景 58
壹、基改作物與食品抵達 58
貳、相關政策措施之推動 60
第三節 基改公共辯論之推動 66
壹、農業暨環境生物科技委員會推動公共辯論 66
貳、基改公共辯論之舉行過程 68
小結 71
第四章 基改公共辯論過程評估 74
第一節 基改公共辯論模式設計評估 74
壹、直接參與 74
貳、面對面討論 75
參、基於平等 76
小結 76
第二節 基改公共辯論參與者評估 77
壹、獨立性 78
貳、早期參與 78
參、公開透明 79
肆、工作闡述 80
伍、資源可接近性 81
陸、結構性決策 82
小結 83
第三節 基改公共辯論代表性評估 85
壹、人口結構特性 86
貳、基改議題態度 91
參、互動網站的代表性 95
小結 96
第五章 基改公共辯論結果評估 98
第一節 參與者對基改議題的觀點 98
壹、支持基改者之觀點:低風險與視反對者為不理性 98
貳、增加自然環境風險 99
參、增加人體健康風險 100
肆、沒有種植基改作物的必要性 100
伍、社會倫理與選擇的自由 101
陸、跨國生技公司擴張權力 101
柒、發展中國家形成貿易依賴 102
捌、強制標示與風險責任 102
玖、參與者的預警觀點:社會理性 102
小結 104
第二節 政府對公共辯論結果的回應 105
壹、部份基改作物有利於環境 105
貳、已上市的基改食品對健康安全無虞 106
參、基改作物的走向由市場決定 106
肆、基改科學知識的不同見解 107
伍、強制標示、自由選擇 108
陸、基改與非基改共存制度 108
柒、政府的預警觀點:科學理性 110
小結 112
第三節 基改公共辯論之影響 113
壹、對參與者的影響 113
貳、對政策的影響 117
參、對政治的影響 119
小結 120
第六章 結論與建議 122
第一節 研究發現 122
壹、公共辯論參與模式設計與過程評估 123
貳、公共辯論的風險論述與實際影響 125
第二節 研究建議 128
壹、政策建議 128
貳、後續研究建議 133
參考書目 135

表次

表2-1 影響風險被接受的因素 22
表2-2 專家與非專家對風險認知與評估的差距比較表 23
表2-3 GMO風險評估與溝通比較分析 24
表2-4 各種正式的公民參與模式 37
表2-5 實質影響分析表 45
表2-6 公民參與設計與評估準則 47
表3-1 2008年全球前二十大基改作物商業化種植國家 51
表4-1 公共辯論之潛在成效評估 77
表4-2 公共辯論參與者評估結果 85
表4-3 基礎討論工作坊樣本 87
表4-4 公開討論會參與者人口結構特性 88
表4-5 深度焦點團體法樣本 90
表4-6 公共辯論參與者與英國人口結構特性比較 91
表4-7 不同樣本對七項基改議題的評分 93
表4-8 四種樣本對七項基改議題的認同度 94
表4-9 公共辯論的代表性評估 97
表5-1 公共辯論參與者與政府的風險論述比較 113
表5-2 深度焦點團體參與者前測與後測比較 115
表5-3 基改公共辯論結果與影響分析 121

圖次

圖1-1 研究架構圖 15
圖2-1 審議民主的動態性 48
圖3-1 基改作物對生態可能的影響 53
圖3-2 基改公共辯論實施程序 71
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