淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-3006201010035000
中文論文名稱 概念隱喻教學對借用身體部位表達情緒之英語成語理解比對研究
英文論文名稱 Comprehension of Body-Part Idioms of Emotions with CM-guided Instruction: A Comparative Study
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 葉宛宜
研究生英文姓名 Wan-Yi Ye
學號 695110691
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-06-21
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡映雪
委員-衛友賢
委員-張雅慧
中文關鍵字 認知教學  情境線索  情緒  身體部位  成語理解  雙碼過程 
英文關鍵字 Cognitive Instuction  Contex Cues  Emotions  Body Parts  Iidom Comprehension  Dual Coding Processing 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 Lakoff & Gibbs (1990, 1994)認為許多成語是可透過背後的隱喻和借喻概念來引發概念動機的;而這些動機,根據Lakoff & Johnson(1980)是透過我們的具體經驗而產生的。因此,藉由這些論述,為此研究引導出更能有效幫助第二語言學習者成語理解的教學方法。
此研究目標是要探討借用身體部位表達情慾之英語成語以母語翻譯及情境提示(大部分台灣的第二語言學習者學習成語的方式)和以認知概念教學方式的有效性。根據Hu & Fong (2006)的研究結果顯示,透過成語隱喻概念和圖像基模學習,的確幫助學習者學習第二外語的成語理解,但是因為兩種語言文化上的差異,導致的錯誤母語翻譯結果。學習者容易理解一目了然的成語,例如,giving someone the cold shoulder (對某人冷淡);但是having cold feet (臨陣脫逃)在教學前教學後都無法立刻了解其成語意思。我們假設這樣的理解困難可能是因為缺少有系統的教學解釋,因為前項研究只強調成語隱喻概念及圖像基模,因此,在本研究三個不同的教學方法當中,其中一組認知概念教學組,除了提供成語隱含的隱喻及借喻概念之外,同時提供相關的情緒分類。我們將從不同的英語字典及英語語料庫 (BNC)選出三十個情緒相關的成語,例如,生氣、快樂、害怕、驚訝、及難過等情緒;另外,增加十個具有文化差異且其意思和信仰、價值觀相關的成語成為此研究的控制項目。
研界結果顯示,透過三組不同的教學法,受試者在母語翻譯及情境提示教學組和兩組認知教學組的表現都有明顯的進步,但是,在成語記憶部分,第三組,即認知教學搭配情緒分類的受試者表現得比其他兩組稍微好一點,雖然最後統計數字顯示,三組在成語記憶上並沒有顯著差異。這項結果或許可以證明任何的分類比沒有分類的學習,更能幫助長期記憶。另外,透過分析十個具文化差異成語的學習結果顯示,所有三組的受試者在前三十個成語的理解比後十個文化差異的成語理解表現好。這項結果顯示,雖然身體具有文化共通性,不同的文化仍會導致不同的意義解釋。
此研究的教學含意顯示,概念隱喻和圖像基模的確能夠幫助第二外語學習者的成語理解,然而,認知教學如果沒有同時運用情境提示或是詞源學的概念,其教學法並不會比母語翻譯及情境提示教學效果好。此研究的限制及其他的建議將會在未來的研究中討論。
英文摘要 Lakoff and Gibbs (1990, 1994) argued that most idiomatic expressions are conceptually motivated by the underlying metaphors and metonymies, which, according to Lakoff and Johnson (1980), derived from our embodied experiences. This insight has led to an alternative pedagogy proposed in this study to enhance idiom comprehension of EFL learners.
This study aims to investigate the efficacy of a cognitive instruction involving explicating the underlying conceptual metaphors and metonymies (CM) of body-part idioms of emotions by comparing it with a more traditional approach that employs L1 translation with context cues, According to the result of a previous study (Hu & Fong, 2006), raising the awareness of CMs and ICs underlying idioms in the target language did facilitate learning; however, negative L1 transfer deriving from differences in cultural specific metonymies and image schemas would occur to interfere with comprehension. Some seemingly easy, i.e., transparent idioms such as giving someone the cold shoulder or having cold feet were not immediately understood both before and after teaching. Presumably, such difficulty might have been due to a lack of systematic explanation as the study only highlighted the underlying CMs and ICs rather than contrasting them systematically with proper categorizations. Thus, in this current study, three groups of subjects were recruited with two groups instructed with CM-guided cognitive instruction (CIM1, CIM2), and one group as the control group (TCM). Above all, one of the CM-guided groups (CIM2) had a further treatment of grouping emotions into different categorizations. A pool of 30 idioms related to emotions, such as anger, joy, fear, surprise, and sadness as well as body parts such as heart, hand, feet, mouth, head were selected from dictionaries and BNC (British National Corpus) for treatment.. 10
The results of this study suggest that subjects of the three groups, L1 translation with context cues (TCM), CIM1, and CIM2 with emotion categorizations, all improved significantly after respective treatment. However, from idiom long-term retention point of view, subjects of CIM2 performed slightly better, though not significantly, than the other two groups. This result indicates that any kinds of grouping lead to better than no grouping at all, and for the type of idioms used in the experiment, all tested approaches proved to be effective. For the 10 more cultural specific idioms, subjects of all three groups demonstrated an overall difficulty in learning, suggesting that cultural specific schemas are indeed harder to learn.
The above findings indicate that CM-guided instructions for more universal or cultural-shared body-part idioms of emotions are equally helpful to L2 learners as a more traditional approach. This may have more to do with the transparent, bodily-motivated idiom type. Some limitations and suggestions were also discussed for future research.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………i
Abstract………………………………………………………………………. ii
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………….. v
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………. vii

Chapter One Introduction…………………………………………………….1
1.1 Background of the Study…………………………………………1
1.2 Purpose of the Study……………………………………………...7
1.3 Research Questions……………………………………………….8
1.4 Organization of the Thesis………………………………………..9

Chapter Two Literature Review………………………………………………11
2.1 The Traditional and the Cognitive View of Idioms………………11
2.2 Aspects and Models of Idiom Comprehension……………………13
2.3 L2 Idiom Comprehension Research………………………………16
2.4 The Embodied Motivation for Metaphorical Concepts…………..20
2.5 Cross-Cultural Variation in Conceptual Metaphor………………..22
2.6 Body-part Idioms of Emotion……………………………………..27

Chapter Three Methodology………………………………………………….29
3.1 Participants………………………………………………………..29
3.2 Procedure……………………………………………………….…33
3.2.1 Materials………………………………………………....34
3.2.2 Pilot Study……………………………………………….35
3.2.3 Main Study………………………………………………37
3.3 Treatment…………………………………………………………..39
3.3.1 The Control Lesson: Translation and Context Method…..39
3.3.2 The Experimental Lesson: Cognitive Instructive Method..40
3.3.3 The Experimental Lesson: Cognitive Instructive Method with Emotional Categories………………………………..42
3.4 Data Analysis……………………………………………………….43
3.4.1 Pre-test, Post-test, and Delayed Post-test………………..43
3.4.2 Think-Aloud Protocol……………………………………44
3.4.3 Statistical Tools…………………………………………..45

Chapter Four Results and Discussion…………………………………………...46
4.1 Results and Discussions of Research Question 1…………………..46
4.2 Results and Discussions of Research Question 2…………………..55
4.3 Results and Discussions of Research Question 3…………………..58
4.4 Summary……………………………………………………………62

Chapter Five Conclusion……………………………………………………….64
5.1 Implications of the Study…………………………………………..64
5.2 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Research……65

References………………………………………………………………………68

Appendices………………………………………………………………………. 75

List of Tables
Table 3.1 The Mean Score of 98-Entrance College Joint Exam of English...... 30
Table 3.2 The Background of Participants……………………………………. 31
Table 3.3 Chronological Arrangement of Activity Sessions………………...... 38
Table 3.4 A Sample of Teaching Material Used in TCM Group……………… 40
Table 3.5 A Sample of Teaching Material Used in CIM Group…………........ 41
Table 3.6 A Sample of Teaching Material Used in CIM with Emotion Categories Group…………………………………………………...
42
Table 3.7 Examples on Scores for Idioms…………………………………….. 44
Table 4.1 ANOVA Test of the Mean Scores of TCM, CIM1, and CIM2 Groups Before and After Each Treatments…………………………
47
Table 4.2 ANOVA Test of the Mean Scores of the Post-test of TCM, CIM1, and CIM2 Groups……………………………………………….......
48
Table 4.3 The Participants’ Interpretation with or without the Underlying Metaphors and Metonymies of Idioms in the Post-test of TCM Group………………………………………………………………..

49
Table 4.4 The Participants’ Interpretation with or without Underlying Metaphors and Metonymies of Idioms in the Post-test of CIM Group1………………………………………………………………

52
Table 4.5 The Participants’ Interpretation with or not with the Underlying Metaphors and Metonymies of Idioms in the Post-test of CIM Group 2…………………………………………………………......

55
Table 4.6 ANOVA Test of the Mean Scores of the Post-test and Delayed post-test of TCI, CIM1, and CIM2 Groups…………………………
57
Table 4.7 ANOVA Test of the Mean Scores of the Delayed post-test of TCM, CIM1, and CIM2 Groups…………………………………………..
57
Table 4.8 Paired Sample T-test of the Mean Scores of the First 30 and the Last 10 Idioms of Three Groups………............................................
58
Table 4.9 ANOVA Test of Mean Score of the Post-test and the Delayed Post-test of the Last 10 Idioms of TCM, CIM1 and CIM2 Groups...
59
Table 4.10 The Percentages of Each Interpretation Type of the Post-test of Three Groups………………………………………………………..
59
Table 4.11 The Percentages of Each Interpretation Type of the Delayed Post-test of Three Groups…………………………………………...
60
Table 4.11 Average Percentage of Correct Answers Based on Body Types in Various Emotions…………………………………………………...
62
參考文獻 Adkins, P. (1968), Teaching idioms and figures of speech to non-native speakers. Modern Language Journal, 52, 148-152.
Aitchison, J., (2003) Words in the mind: An introduction to the mental lexicon. 3rd edition (1st edition 1987). Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell.
Alexander, R. J. (1978), Fixed expressions in English: a linguistic, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and didactic study (part 1). Anglistik und Englischunterricht 6, 171-188.
Alexander, R. J. (1979), Fixed expressions in English: a linguistic, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and didactic study (part 2). Anglistik und Englischunterricht 7, 181-202.
Black, M. (1962), Models and metaphor, Itchaca: Cornell University Press.
Bobrow, S., & Bell, S. (1973). On Catching on to Idiomatic Expressions. Memory and
Cognition, l, 343-346.
Boers, F. (1997). When a bodily source domain becomes prominent: The joy of counting metaphors in the socio-economic domain. In R. W. Jr., Gibbs & G. J. Steen (Eds.), Metaphor in cognitive linguistics: Selected papers from the fifth International Cognitive Linguistics conference (pp. 47-56). Amsterdan/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Boers, F. (2000), Metaphor awareness and vocabulary retention. Applied Linguistics 21: 553-571.
Boers, F. (2001), Measuring the impact of cross-cultural differences on learners’ comprehension of imageable idioms. ELTeaching Journal 55: 255-262.
Boers, F. (2003), Applied linguistics perspectives on cross-cultural variation in conceptual metaphor. Metaphor and Symbol. 18(4), 231-238.
Boers, F., & Demecheleer, M. (1997). A few metaphorical models in (western) economic discourse. In W. A. Liebert, G. Redeker, & L. Waugh (Eds.), Discourse and perspective in cognitive linguistics (pp. 115-129). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Boers, F., and Demecheleer, M. (2001), Measuring the impact of cross-cultural differences on learners’ comprehension of imaginable idioms. ELT Journal, 55(3), 255-262.
Boers, F., J. Eyckmans & H. Stengers (2007), Presenting figurative idioms with a touch of etymology: More than mere mnemonics? Language Teaching Research 11(1): 43-62.
Boers, F., and Lindstromberg, S. (eds.) (2009), Optimizing a Lexical Approach to Instructed Second Language Acquisition. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cacciari, C. (1993). The place of idioms in a literal and metaphorical world. In C. Cacciari & P. Tabossi. (Eds.), Idioms: Processing, structure, and interpretation (pp. 27-55). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cacciari, C., and Glucksberg, S. (1995), Understanding idioms: do visual images reflect figurative meanings? European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 7(3), 283–305.
Carter, R. (1987), Vocabulary. London: Allen and Unwin.
Cater, R. (1998), Vocabulary: applied linguistic perspectives. London: Routledge.
Cooper, T. C. (1998), Teaching idioms. Foreign Language Annals, 31, 255-266.
Cooper, T. C. (1999), Processing of idioms by L2 learners of English. TESOL Quarterly, 33(2): 233-262.
Cornell, A.(1999). An approach to identifying major pitfalls for learners. IRAL, 37(1),1-11.
Coulmas, F. (1981). Idiomaticity as a problem of pragmatics. In H. Parret, M. Sbísa, and J. Verschueren (Eds.) Possibilities and Limitations of Pragmatics: Proceedings of the Conference on Pragmatics (pp. 139-151). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins
Cowie, A. P. (1988) Phraseology: Theory, analysis, and applications. Oxford University Press.
Cowie, A. P. and Mackin, R. (1975), Oxford dictionary of current idiomatic English. London: Oxford University Press v.2.
Deignan, Alice, Gabrys, Danuta, and Agnieszka Solska (1997), 'Teaching English metaphors using cross- linguistic awareness-raising activities', ELT Journal 51:4, 352-360.
Enfield, N. J. and Wierzbicka, A. (eds.) (2002), The body in description of emotion: cross-linguistic studies. Special issue of pragmatics and cognition 10:1/2
Enfield, N. J., Majid, A., & Van Staden, M. (2006), Cross-linguistic categorization of the body: Introduction. Language Sciences, 28(2-3), 137-147.
Fernando, C. and Flavell, R. (1981), On idioms: Critical views and perspectives. Exeter Linguistic Studies 5, University of Exeter.
Fong, Y. Y. (2006), An experimental investigation to determine the utility of conceptual metaphors and metonymies in enhancing idiom comprehension and production for EFL undergraduate learners of English. MA thesis, Department of English at Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Grady, J. E., Taub, S. & Morgan, P. (1996). Primitive and compound metaphors. In A. E. Goldberg (Ed.), Conceptual structure, discourse, and language (pp.177-187). Standford, CA: CSLI.
Grady, J. E. (1997). Theories are buildings revisited. Cognitive Linguistics, 8(4), 267-290.
Gibbs, R. W. (1990), Psycholinguistic studies on the conceptual basis of idiomaticity.
Cognitive Linguistics, 1, 417–51.
Gibbs, R. W. (1992), What do idioms really mean? Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 485–506.
Gibbs, R. W. (1994), The Poetic of Mind. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gibbs, R. W. (1995), Idiomaticity and human cognition. In Everaert, M., van der
Linden, E.-J., Schenk,A. and Schreuder, R., editors, Idioms: structural and
psychological perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 97–116.
Gibbs, R. W., Jr. (1980). Spilling the beans on understanding and memory for idioms
in context. Memory and Cognition, 8, 149-156.
Gibbs, R. W., Jr. (1987). Linguistic factors in children’s understanding of idioms.
Journal of Child Language, 14, 569-586.
Gibbs, R. W. & Gonzales, P. (1985), Syntactic frozenness in processing
and remembering idioms. Cognition, 20,243-259.
Gibbs, R. W. Jr. & Nayak, N. P. (1989). Psycholinguistic studies on the syntactic behaviour of idiom. 21, 100-138.
Gibbs, R. W., Jr., Nayak, N. P., & Cutting, C. (1989). How to kick the bucket and not
decompose: Analyzability and idioms processing. Journal of Memory and
Language, 28, 576-593.
Gibbs, R.W. and O’Brien, J. (1990), Idioms and mental imagery: the metaphorical motivation for idiomatic meaning. Cognition, 36, 35–68.
Gibbs, R. W., Jr., & Nayak, N. P. (1991). Why idioms mean what they do. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 93-95.
Gibbs, R., & Colston, H. (1995). The cognitive psychological reality of image
schemas and their transformations. Cognitive Linguistics, 6, 347-378.
Reprinted in (2006) Cognitive linguistics: Basic readings. D. Geeraerts (Ed.).
Berlin: Mouton:
Glucksberg, S. (1993), Idiom meaning and allusional content. In C. Cacciari & P. Tabossi (Eds.), Idioms: Processing, structure, and interpretation, 3-26. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Goossens, L. (1990). Metaphonymy: The interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action. Cognitive Linguistics, 1, 323-340.
Grant, L. & Bauer, L. (2004), Criteria for re-defining idioms: Are we barking up the wrong tree? Applied Linguistics, 25, 38-61.
Hsieh, Ching-Yu, (2009), Embodiment in language (I): Human, animal and plant expressions. Bookman Books.
Hu, Ying-Hsueh (2002), A Cross-cultural Investigation of Mandrin Chinese Conceptual Metaphors of Anger, Happiness and Romantic Love. Doctoral thesis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Lingusitics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Hu, Y-H and Huang, H.Y. (2007), An experimental investigation of the effectiveness of input and output instruction via pictures in idiom comprehension of EFL undergraduates. MA thesis, Department of English at Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Hu, Y-H and Fong, Y-Y 2010 (forthcoming) Obstacles to CM-guided L2 idioms comprehension. In Sabine De Knop, Frank Boers, and Antoon Rycker (eds), Fostering Language Teaching Efficiency through Cognitive Linguistics. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Irujo, S. (1986), Don't put your leg in your mouth: Transfer in the acquisition of idioms in a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 287-304.
Kellerman, E. (1978), Giving learners a break: Native language intuitions as a source of predictions about transferability. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 14, 59-92.
Kellerman, E. (1979), Transfer and non-transfer: Where we are now. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2, 37-57.
Kellerman, E. (1983), Now you see it, now you don’t. In S. Gass & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp.112-134). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Kovecses, Z., (1990), Emotion Concepts. New York: Springer Verlag.
Kovecses, Z. (2001), A cognitive linguistic view of learning idioms in an FLT context. Cognitive Linguistics Research: 88-115.
Johnson, M. (1987). The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, G. (1993), The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed., pp.202-251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff,G. and Johnson, M. (1980), Metaphors we live by, Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, G., and Turner, M. (1989), More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor, Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Lakoff, G., and Johnson M., (1999), Philosophy in the Flesh. New York: Basic Books.
Lazar, G. (1996) 'Using figurative language to expand students' vocabulary', English Language Teaching Journal, Volume 50, no 1, pages 43-51.
Long, T. H. (Eds.) (1979), Longman dictionary of English idioms. Harlow: Longman.
Maalej, Zouhair (2004). Figurative language in anger expressions in Tunisian Arabic: an extended view of embodiment. Metaphor and Symbol 19.1: 51-75.
Moon, R., (1998). Fixed Expressions and Idioms in English. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Nippold, M. A. (1991), Evaluating and enhancing idiom comprehension in language disordered students. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 22, 100-106.
Nippold, M. A., and Fey, S. H. (1983), Metaphoric understanding in preadolescents having a history of language acquisition dimculties. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 14, 171-180.
Patton, M. Q. (2002), Variety in quality inquiry. Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (3rd ed.). California: Sage Publication.
Radden, Günter, (1999) Metonymy in Language and Thought. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Skoufaki, S., (2008), Conceptual metaphoric meaning clues in two idiom presentation methods. Cognitive Linguistic Approach to Teaching Vocabulary and Phraseology, Frank Boers, and Seth Lindstromberg (eds), 101-132. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Swan, M. (1997): “The influence of the mother tongue on second language vocabulary acquisition and use”, in: Schmitt, N./McCarthy, M. (Eds.): Vocabulary. Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy, Cambridge: CUP, 156-180.
Swinney, D. A., & Cutler, A. (1979). The access and processing of idiomatic
expressions. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 523-534.
Thomas, C.C. (1999), Processing of idioms by L2 learners of English. TESOL Qurterly, 33(2), 233-262.
Yandell, M. D., and Zintz, M. V. (1961), Some difficulties Indian children encounter with idioms in reading. The Reading Teacher, 14, 256-259.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2012-07-09公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2012-07-09起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信