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系統識別號 U0002-3005201311365100
中文論文名稱 從ALBA檢視尼加拉瓜與委內瑞拉關係
英文論文名稱 Nicaragua-Venezuela Relations Through ALBA (2007 to 2012)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 宮迪彥
研究生英文姓名 Diego Alberto Gonzalez Meza
學號 600330418
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-05-23
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-王高成
委員-李大中
委員-曾怡碩
中文關鍵字 尼加拉瓜  委內瑞拉  美洲玻利瓦爾替代計畫  美洲玻利瓦爾聯盟  ALBA 
英文關鍵字 Nicaragua  Venezuela  Bolivarian Alliance  Bolivarian Alternative  ALBA  Latin America 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本研究探討通過從左派國際組織美洲玻利瓦爾聯盟(ALBA)檢視尼加拉瓜與委內瑞拉關係。委內瑞拉和ALBA的目標是使尼加拉瓜相較於依賴美國更加依賴對委內瑞拉的經濟、政治和外交形勢。

近幾年尼加拉瓜在與委內瑞拉的合作中扮演著受益者的角色,而尼加拉瓜的發展應感謝ALBA和委內瑞拉。 ALBA在許多不同的領域中擁有許多公司,例如在發電、石油、銀行、食品領域中,其中包括投入數百萬美元資金於尼加拉瓜,提供數以千計的就業機會,幫助尼加拉瓜發展。
英文摘要 The research examines the relations of Nicaragua and Venezuela through the leftist international organization ALBA (Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of our America Treaty Trade for the People) from the years 2007 to 2012. The objective of Venezuela and ALBA is make Nicaragua more dependent on the Venezuelan economy, diplomatic and political situation, and depend less on the USA.

Nicaragua has been beneficiated with the Venezuelan cooperation during these years, Nicaragua development could be thanks to ALBA and Venezuela. ALBA has many companies in many different fields as power generating, petroleum distribution, banking, food, among others in Nicaragua, managing hundreds of millions American Dollars, providing thousands of job opportunities helping the development of Nicaragua.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Abstract (Chinese Version) …………………………………………………………………... i
Abstract (English Version) …………………………………………………………………... ii
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………………… iii
List of Figures ……………………………………………………………..………………... vi
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………..……………….... vii
List of Graphics ………………………………………………………..…………………....viii

Chapter I: Introduction ………………………..…………………………………………... 1
1. Background Introduction …………………………………………….. 1
2. Research Motives …………………………………………………………..….. 2
3. Objectives …………………………………………………………………………. 3
4. Literature Review …………………………………………………………………. 4
5. Hypotheses ……………………………………………………………………… 13
6. Methodology …………………………………………………………………… 13
7. Chapter Arrangement ………………………………………………… 14

Chapter II: The Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas ………………………………… 16
1. History of ALBA ……………………………...…………………………….……… 16
1.1 Meaning of ALBA ……………………………………….…………………… 16
1.2 Birth of ALBA ………………………………………………...……………… 19
2. Summits …………………………………………………………………………….. 20
2.1 First Summit ……………………………………………….………………… 21
2.2 Second Summit ………...………………………………...………………...… 23
2.3 Third Summit ………………………………………………………………… 24
2.4 Forth Summit ………………………………………………………………… 26
2.5 Fifth Summmit ……………………………………………………...……....... 26
2.6 Sixth Summit …………………………………………………….…………… 30
2.7 First Extraordinary Summit ……………………………..………………...… 32
2.8 Second Extraordinary Summit ………………………………………..……… 32
2.9 Third Extraordinary Summit ………………………………………….……… 33
2.10 SUCRE ……………………………………………………………………… 34
2.11 Forth Extraordinary Summit …………………………………………......… 34
2.12 Fifth Extraordinary Summit …………………………………………...…… 36
2.13 Sixth Extraordinary Summit …………………………………….………..… 37
2.14 Seventh Summit ……………………………..……………………….……… 38
2.15 Eight Summit ………………………………………………………….…… 41
2.16 Ninth Summit ………………………..………………………...…………… 42
2.17 Tenth Summit …………………………………………………….………… 43
2.18 Summary of Summits ………...……………………………………...……… 43
3. Perception and Reality of ALBA ………………………………………...…….…… 45
4. Summary of Chapter II ……………………...……………………...…………….… 55

Chapter III: Relations and performance between Nicaragua and Venezuela through ALBA 2007-2012 ……………………………………………………… 56
1.Nicaragua-Venezuela bilateral cooperation through ALBA …………….........…….. 57
1.1 ALBA’s cooperation with Nicaragua 2005-2007 ……...... 57
1.2 Nicaraguan-Venezuelan bilateral cooperation through ALBA (2007-2012) ... 58

2.ALBA’s Companies in Nicaragua (Venezuela’s Investment) ………………...…….. 67
3.Third Parties Involvement in the Nicaraguan-Venezuelan Relations ………………. 73
4. Goals, results, perception and reality of the relations between Nicaragua and Venezuela through ALBA …………………………………….…………………...….. 81
5.Summary of Chapter III ……………………………………………………………. 85

Chapter IV: Future of ALBA, Nicaragua and Venezuela …………………….…..…….. 87
1. Scenario of Venezuela ……………..……………………...…………………..….… 89
2. Scenario of ALBA ………………………………...………………...………..…..… 96
3. Scenario of Nicaragua ……………………………………..…………………..…… 98
4. Summary and conclusion of chapter IV ……………………………………………100

Chapter V: Conclusion ……………………………………......………………...……….. 102
1. Major Research Findings ………………………………………………..………… 103
2. Suggestions for future research …………………………………………………… 105

Bibliography …………………………………………..…………………………….…… 106


List of Figures

Figure 2.1 Structure of ALBA-TCP ……………………………………………………….. 39


List of Tables

Table 2.1 Frequency of Meetings Based on the Structure of ALBA ……………………..… 41
Table 3.1 Distribution of Venezuelan cooperation in Nicaragua in Millions of United States Dollar (US$) (2007-2012) ………………………………………………………………….. 61
Table 3.2 Imports (via CIF) of Nicaragua in millions of United States Dollar (US$) ……... 66
Table 3.3 Corruption Perception Index for ALBA countries ……………………………..... 80
Table 4.1 Petroleum Industry of Venezuela …………………………………… 93
Table 4.2 Daily and cumulative crude oil production of OPEC members ………………..... 94

List of Graphics

Graphic 2.1 Latin America and the Caribbean public investment in education as % in their GDP ………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
Graphic 2.2 Latin-American and the Caribbean Public Investment in Health, % according their GDP ………………………………………………………………………………….... 48
Graphic 2.3 Some world countries investment in health, % according their GDP (this is 2011 data) ………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
Graphic 2.4 Percentage of Population that lives below the poverty line in Venezuela …….. 50
Graphic 2.5 Percentage of population that lives below the poverty line in Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua ………………………………………………………………………………. 51
Graphic 3.1 Venezuelan Cooperation (investment) to Nicaragua, in millions of US$ dollars, (2012 represents only the first semester, Jan-Jul) ………………………………………….. 60
Graphic 3.2 Exports (of merchandise via FOB) of Nicaragua in millions of United States Dollar (US$) ………………………………………………………………………………... 65
參考文獻 Bibliography

Journals

Bendana, Alejandro; Chamorro, Carlos; Jarquin, Edmundo (Authors); Arnson, Cynthia; Stubits, Adam (Editors). “Understanding Populism and Political Participation: The Case of Nicaragua”, Democratic Governnance and the “New Left”, Woodrow Wilson Center Update on the Americas No. 4, June 2009: 1-16 http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/Nicaragua.pdf

Research Reports, Working Papers and Seminar Papers

Altmann, Josette. “ALBA Insttutions and mechanisms” Flacso, Secretaria General, Enero 2008 http://www.plataformademocratica.org/Publicacoes/22406.pdf

Arellano, Felix Gerardo. “Nacimiento, Evolucion y Perspectivas de la Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra America”, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (October 2009). http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/quito/06815.pdf

Jacobs, Karla. “ALBA – what it spells for Nicaragua” Tortilla con Sal collective (November 2008). http://www.tortillaconsal.com/alba_summary.pdf

Jacome, Francine. “Petrocaribe: the current phase of Venezuela’s oil diplomacy in the Caribbean” Programa de cooperacion en seguridad Regional, Policy paper 40, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (November 2011). http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/la-seguridad/08723.pdf

Muhr, T. (forthcoming) Counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all: Venezuela and the ALBA, published by the Centre for Globalisation, Education and Societies, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1JA, UK at:
http://www.bris.ac.uk/education/research/centres/ges/post-doc-fellows/thomas-muhr/papers.html


Muhr, T. (forthcoming) Nicaragua: Constructing the Bolivarian alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)’. Published by the Centre for Globalisation, Education and Societies, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1JA, UK at: http://www.bris.ac.uk/education/research/centres/ges/post-doc-fellows/thomas-muhr/010.pdf

Revello, Ernesto. “Venezuela Case Study, Bolivarian Alternative for the People of Our America” (2010). http://www.emergingcountries.org/pdf/Alba.pdf

Tashin, Emine. “Looking to the Future: Examining the dynamics of ALBA” Published by the Department of Economics, Istanbul University (Turkey, December 2009). http://networkideas.org/alt/dec2009/ALBA.pdf

Newspapers and online information media (TV, blogs, online news, online press)

Aljazeera, “teleSUR keen on Aljazeera link up” July 28, 2005 http://english.aljazeera.net/archive/2005/07/20084913206800824.html

Baca, Lucydalia; agencias. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Nicaragua asilaria a los Gadhafi” March 3,2011 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2011/03/03/politica/53753-nicaragua-asilaria-a-gadafi

BBC, “Ortega declarado president electo” November 8, 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_6127000/6127100.stm

Biografias y Vidas, “Rafael Correa” http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/c/correa_rafael.htm

Cadena 3, “El president Hugo Chavez confirm que es maligno el tumor que le extriparon en Cuba” March 4, 2012 http://www.cadena3.com/contenido/2012/03/04/93234.asp

Canales, Gisella. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “A 20 anos de la pinata” April 24, 2010 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2010/04/24/nacionales/22663-a-20-anos-pinata



Canales, Gisella; Martinez, Moises. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Albanisa sube como la espuma” January 24, 2011 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2011/01/24/nacionales/49992-albalinisa-sube-espuma
Canales, Gisella. La Prensa, “Supremo Sueno de Bolivar costara US$ 6,620 millones” September 9, 2012 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/09/09/activos/115653-supremo-sueno-bolivar-costara

Caracas/EFE. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Uruguay solicita adhesion al Sucre” March, 2013 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2013/03/24/activos/139492-uruguay-solicita-adhesion-al

Castillo, Jennifer; Morales, Roberto. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Carros Lada para taxis por llegar” November 6, 2010 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2010/11/06/nacionales/42812-carros-lada-taxis-llegar

Colmenares, Martha. “Hugo Chavez confirma tener cancer desde Cuba. Texto de alocucion y video” July 1, 2011 http://www.marthacolmenares.com/2011/07/01/hugo-chavez-confirma-tener-cancer-desde-cuba-texto-de-alocucion-y-video/

EFE, El Nuevo Diario, “Cierran Albanic” April 26, 2007 http://impreso.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2007/04/26/nacionales/47249

EFE. La Prensa de Nicaragua. “Plantas electricas arriban manana a Managua” December 28, 2006 http://archivo.laprensa.com.ni/archivo/2006/diciembre/28/noticias/ultimahora/


EFE. El Nuevo Diario, “Taiwan donara plantas electricas para paliar crisis” June 13, 2007 http://impreso.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2007/06/13/nacionales/51219

Enriquez, Octavio. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Albanisa avista millones con muelle en Bilwi” September 6, 2010 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2010/09/06/nacionales/36830-albanisa-avista-millones-muelle



Estepa, Hector. El Mundo, “Ni el FSLN ni los Pellas: Los Chamorro venden “El Nuevo Diario” a un banquero” May 15, 2011 http://www.elmundo.es/america/2011/05/15/noticias/1305471020.html

Gonzalez Sevilla, Luis; recopilaciones de La Prensa, La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Proyectos en Papel” http://www.laprensa.com.ni/infografia/283

Huerta, Juan. El Nuevo Diario, “FSLN controla asamblea” November 7, 2011 http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/232509

Investigaciones de La Prensa y Adolfo Acevedo, La Prensa de Nicaragua “El imperio bajo la sobra de Ortega” January 24, 2012 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/infografia/1837

Martinez, Moises. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “2009: Corrupcion Presidente” December 1, 2009 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2009/12/21/nacionales/10942/imprimir

Martinez, Moises. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Albalinisa afianza su imperio agropecuario” January 31, 2012 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/01/31/portada/89058-albalinisa-afianza-imperio-agropecuario

Miranda, G. La Prensa de Nicaragua. “La madera del Felix” April 23, 2010 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2010/04/23/nacionales/22585-madera-felix

Morales, Roberto. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Buses rusos son chatarra” May 26, 2010 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2010/05/26/nacionales/25745-buses-rusos-son-chatarra

Potosme, Ramon. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Carretera a Bosawas suspendida” April 4, 2012 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/04/11/poderes/97543-carretera-bosawas-suspendida

Postome, Ramon. La Prensa de Nicaragua, “Nicaragua dentro del Sucre” September 29, 2012 http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/11/29/activos/125510-nicaragua-sucre



Radio Nederland Wereldomroep Latinoamerica, “Nicaragua: Los Ortega acapan una sexta television” June 21, 2011 http://www.rnw.nl/espanol/article/nicaragua-los-ortega-acaparan-una-sexta-televisi%C3%B3n

Russia Today, “Petrolera BP: Venezuela es el lider mundial por reservas de petroleo”. June 14, 2012 http://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/view/46867-Petrolera-BP-Venezuela-es-lider-mundial-por-reservas-de-petroleo

TeleSUR, “Bolivia expulsa a la USAID de su territorio” May 1, 2013 http://www.telesurtv.net/articulos/2013/05/01/bolivia-expulsa-a-la-usaid-de-su-territorio-834.html

TeleSUR, “Fallecio el presidente Chavez tras batallar contra el cancer” http://www.telesurtv.net/articulos/2013/03/05/presidente-chavez-ha-fallecido-luego-de-batallar-con-el-cancer-que-lo-aquejaba-8188.html

TeleSUR, “Presidente Hugo Chavez debe someterse a otra intervencion quirurgica” http://www.telesurtv.net/articulos/2012/12/08/presidente-hugo-chavez-debe-someterse-a-una-nueva-intervencion-quirurgica-3801.html
TeleSUR TV “Venezuela Invierte mas del 7% de su PIB en Educacion” February 17, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvhZSNr2wVY

Worldpress Organization, “Cuanto gasta el gobierno en la salud para su poblacion” August 28, 2012 http://mercadoidea.wordpress.com/2012/08/28/cuanto-gasta-el-gobierno-en-la-salud-de-su-poblacion/









Official Documents and official websites

ALBA-TCP, “ALBA-TCP” (Information extracted on February 20, 2013). http://www.alba-tcp.org/en/contenido/alba-tcp-eng

Building an Inter-Polar World 2004-2010 summits (English Version) (Caracas: Communication and Information of the Executive Secretariat of the ALBA-TCP, August 2011). http://www.alba-tcp.org/public/documents/pdf/Ingles/BuildinganInterPolarWorld.pdf

Central Bank of Nicaragua, “Nicaragua en Cifras 2006” http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/economicas_anuales/nicaragua_en_cifras/2006/Nicaragua_en_cifras_2006.pdf

Central Bank of Nicaragua, “Nicaragua en Cifras 2007” http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/economicas_anuales/nicaragua_en_cifras/2007/Nicaragua_en_cifras_2007.pdf

Central Bank of Nicaragua, “Nicaragua en Cifras 2008” http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/economicas_anuales/nicaragua_en_cifras/2008/Nicaragua_en_cifras_2008.pdf

Central Bank of Nicaragua, “Nicaragua en Cifras 2009” http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/economicas_anuales/nicaragua_en_cifras/2009/Nicaragua_en_cifras_2009.pdf

Central Bank of Nicaragua, “Nicaragua en Cifras 2010” http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/economicas_anuales/nicaragua_en_cifras/2010/Nicaragua_en_cifras2010.pdf

Central Bank of Nicaragua, “Nicaragua en Cifras 2011” http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/economicas_anuales/nicaragua_en_cifras/2011/Nicaragua_cifras_2011.pdf


Central Bank of Nicaragua, “Nicaragua en Cifras 2012” http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/economicas_anuales/nicaragua_en_cifras/2012/Nicaragua_cifras_2012.pdf

CETREX, “Exportaciones autorizadas de productos periodo: Enero- Diciembre 2011-2012” http://www.cetrex.gob.ni/website/servicios/tproduc12.html

Comision Economica para America Latina y el Caribe, “America Latina y el Caribe: Perfil Socio-Demografico Regional” http://estadisticas.cepal.org/cepalstat/WEB_CEPALSTAT/Perfil_regional_social.asp?idioma=e

Consejo Nacional Electoral de Venezuela, “divulgacion electoral 2012” http://www.cne.gob.ve/resultado_presidencial_2012/r/1/reg_000000.html

Concejo nacional electoral de Venezuela, “divulgacion presidenciales 2013” http://www.cne.gob.ve/resultado_presidencial_2013/r/1/reg_000000.html

International Court of Justice, “Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America)” (Information extracted on May 5, 2013) http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/?sum=367&code=nus&p1=3&p2=3&case=70&k=66&p3=5

International Monetary Fund (IMF): M. Ayhan Kose (RES, head), Issouf Samake (WHD), Linda Kaltani (SRP), Asmaa Adel ElGanainy (FAD), Ezgi Ozturk (RES) International Moneraty Fund, World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank; 2012 International Monetary Fund, “Nicaragua: Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement” IMF Country Report No. 12/258, (Washington, D.C. September). http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12258.pdf

Ministerio de Educacion de Venezuela, “Venezuela Invierte el 7% del PIB en Educacion” (Published on April 11, 2009, information extracted on March 18, 2013) http://www.ipasme.gob.ve/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=179:venezuela-invierte-el-7-del-pib-en-educacion&catid=56:gobierno-educacion

Ministerio de relaciones exteriores de Venezuela, “sobre Venezuela, economia y comercio” (Information extracted on May 6, 2013) http://www.venezuela.org.cn/venezuela%5Cecoycom.html

OPEC, “Annual statistical bulletin 2012” http://www.opec.org/opec_web/static_files_project/media/downloads/publications/ASB2012.pdf

Petrocaribe, “Chronology” (information Extracted on March 31, 2013) http://www.petrocaribe.org/index.php?tpl=interface.sp/design/union/readmenu_acerca2.tpl.html&newsid_obj_id=632&newsid_temas=4

Transparency International “Corruption perception index 2013” http://www.transparency.org/cpi2012/results

The World Factbook, The CIA, “Nicaragua” (Information extracted on April 13, 2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html

The World Factbook, The CIA, “Venezuela” (Information extracted on May 6, 2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ve.html

United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, “Homicide Statistics 2012” (Information extracted on May 5, 2013) http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/homicide.html
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