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系統識別號 U0002-2912201115581600
中文論文名稱 烏力貝執政期間(2002-2010)哥倫比亞與美國政經關係之研究
英文論文名稱 A study of the political and economic relations between Colombia and the U.S. in the Uribe's presidency (2002-2010)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 李魁德
研究生英文姓名 Qua-Te Lee
學號 698310124
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-12-23
論文頁數 110頁
口試委員 指導教授-林欽明
委員-熊建成
委員-向駿
中文關鍵字 烏力貝  毒品  游擊隊  民兵組織  哥倫比亞計畫  自由貿易協定 
英文關鍵字 Á  lvaro Uribe  Drug  Guerilla  Paramilitary  Plan Colombia  Free Trade Agreement 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在拉美國家新左派崛起之際,哥倫比亞烏力貝總統旗幟鮮明的極右派引人注目,尤其在任期間(2002-2010)執行「哥倫比亞計畫」及簽署哥美自由貿易協定,凸顯出哥美兩國政經合作的密切性。哥國內部的暴力衝突來源-毒品、游擊隊、民兵組織-係美國於反共、反毒、反恐戰爭中,一再得以干預哥國的最佳理由,為何美國願意挹注高援助金額協助哥國?為何烏力貝執政期間哥美兩國政經關係如此密切?
本研究發現美國擬藉由與哥國簽署自由貿易協定及通過「哥倫比亞計畫」企圖解決哥國衝突,以維護美國能源安全及跨國公司的利益。同樣,烏力貝在缺乏政黨奧援,以獨立身分參選贏得總統選舉後,亦藉由前述計畫鞏固其政權,成為哥國第一位經修憲後得以連選連任的總統,並有意再參加第三次總統大選。
但是「哥倫比亞計畫」中過於強調軍事手段對付毒品及游擊隊,造成與周邊國家關係緊張,忽略以經濟及社會計畫解決哥國內部糾結複雜的問題,而哥美自由貿易協定生效後的獲利者將為跨國公司或財團,並非普羅大眾,對於哥國民眾最渴望的和平,解決社會不平等問題似乎遙遙無期。本文亦發現哥國與美國未來政經關係走向不僅繫於美國,同時取決於哥國如何在繼續尋求美國支持與改善周邊左派國家關係作選項,以及毒品撲滅係採軍事策略與社經計畫兩者中取得最佳平衡點。
英文摘要 In comparison with the rise of the neo-left wing in Latin America, Álvaro Uribe, the president of Colombia (2002-2010), represented a clear-cut image of the right wingers, especially, the implementation of "Plan Colombia" and the Colombia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement during his tenure, highlighted the closely political and economic relations between the two countries. Drugs, guerrillas and paramilitary groups, which were generally acknowledged as the origin of the Colombian internal conflicts, formed the best excuses for the U.S. to intervene in Colombia in the fields of anti-communist, anti-drugs and anti-terrorism war. Why was the U.S. willing to inject a high amount of financial aid to assist Colombia? Why did the political and economic relations between the two countries remain so close during the Uribe’s administration?
Through this thesis, we can find that the U.S. intended to safeguard the U.S. energy security and the interests of multinational corporations via the free trade pact and the "Plan Colombia" attempting to solve the domestic conflicts in Colombia. On the other hand, Uribe, as an independent candidate, won a first-round presidential election, and promised to crack down hard on rebel groups through the American aid; he also became the first president who was consecutively re-elected by constitution amendment in Colombia, and intended to participate in the third presidential election.
However, the "Plan Colombia" put too much emphasis on military means to deal with drugs and guerrillas, it resulted in strained relations with the neighboring countries, and ignored economic and social programs to tackle Colombia’s complex internal problems. If Colombia Free Trade Agreement enters into force, the multinational companies or consortia will be benefited instead of the general public. Therefore, Colombian desiring peace and solving the problem of social inequality will not be easily realized in the near future. Furthermore, this study also found that the development of Colombia-U.S. political and economic relations toward the future not only depends on the United States, but also on how Colombia government seeks U.S. support, improves relations with the left-wing neighboring countries, and achieves balance in adopting the military strategy and socio-economic projects in the drug eradication.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與架構 4
第三節 研究範圍與限制 6
第四節 文獻回顧 7
第二章 烏力貝執政期間的國內衝突與和解 11
第一節 哥國暴力衝突起源 11
第二節 哥國毒品的發展 14
第三節 左右游擊隊的衝擊 20
第四節 烏力貝對國內暴力衝突所採取的對策 26
第五節 小結 34
第三章 烏力貝執政期間哥美經濟關係 37
第一節 哥國進行自由化改革及經濟危機 38
第二節 哥美經貿關係 42
第三節 哥美自由貿易協定 48
第四節 小結 63
第四章 從「哥倫比亞計畫」檢討烏力貝執政期間哥美政經關係 67
第一節 全面反毒作戰 67
第二節 「哥倫比亞計畫」的發展 71
第三節 「哥倫比亞計畫」的成效 81
第四節 「哥倫比亞計畫」對哥國的影響 89
第五節 小結 94
第五章 結論 97
參考書目 103

圖表次
圖目次
圖1-1 研究架構圖 6
圖4-1 玻利維亞、哥倫比亞與秘魯2000至2009年古柯葉種植面積 83

表目次
表3-1 烏力貝執政期間哥國全年貿易及與主要國家進出口金額統計表 44
表4-1 原版與新版「哥倫比亞計畫」比較表 74
表4-2 「哥倫比亞計畫」援助項目、金額及百分比 77
表4-3 「哥倫比亞計畫」中對哥倫比亞的援助項目、金額及百分比 78
表4-4 美國對「安地斯反毒行動」各國援助金額及百分比 80
表4-5 哥倫比亞2002至2010年各項經濟指標 85
參考文獻 參考書目
一、中文部分
(一)書籍
方天賜、孫國祥。2007。〈民族主義與恐怖主義〉,張亞中主編,《國際關係總論》,頁193-218,台北:揚智文化。
克勞塞維茨(Karl Von Clauswitz)著,楊南芳等譯校。民90。《戰爭論-上冊》,台北:貓頭鷹出版社。
克勞塞維茨(Karl Von Clauswitz)著,楊南芳等譯校。民90。《戰爭論-下冊》,台北:貓頭鷹出版社。
劉碧珍、陳添枝、翁永和。2002。《國際貿易理論與政策》,台北:雙葉。
(二)期刊
白鳳森。2001。〈哥倫比亞計畫是怎麼回事〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,期2,頁46-48。
徐寶華。2001。〈90年代末哥倫比亞經濟衰退的原因〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,期6,頁18-21。
陳鴻鈞。民97。〈美國貿易授權法時期FTA的簽訂策略〉,《問題與研究》,47(4),12月,頁141-166。
(三)論文及報告
許偉君。民98。〈哥倫比亞和平進程之研究:游擊隊活動對哥倫比亞國家與區域安全之影響及政府政策(1998-2008)〉,碩士論文,淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,6月。
魏佐安。民99。〈美國對哥倫比亞的反毒外交—以哥倫比亞計畫為例〉,碩士論文,國立政治大學外交研究所,2月。
蔡明彥。民99。〈美國毒品問題與歐巴馬政府反毒戰略走向〉,「2010非傳統安全-反洗錢、不正常人口移動、毒品、擴散」學術研討會,7月2日,頁21-35。
(四)網路資料
陳宗嚴。2003。〈複雜又難解的課題考驗哥倫比亞〉, http://globalobserver.net/web/myblog/detail.php?w_id=49&w_country=Colombia.
蔡靜怡、黃暖婷、許峻賓。民100。〈TPP的最新發展與建議〉,跨太平洋戰略經濟夥伴協定(TPP),137,2月,http://www.ctasc.org.tw/02publication/APEC-137-p05-07.pdf.
齊峰田。2007。〈美國對哥倫比亞的政策:幫手還是兇手〉,《世界新格局下的拉美研究》,http://ilas.cass.cn/u/qifengtian/%7BFC502160-8170-41BA-BF20-865ED56FAFDD%7D.pdf.
滕建群。2009。〈美國租用哥倫比亞軍事基地—奧巴馬拉美政策的昭示〉,http://www.wyzxsx.com/Article/Class20/200910/107645.html.

二、外文部分
(一)書籍
Avramovic, Dragoslav. 1972. Economic Growth of Colombia: Problems and Prospects. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Contreras, Joseph and Fernando Garavito. 2002. Biografía no autorizada de Álvaro Uribe Vélez. Editorial Oveja Negra.
Crandall, Russell. 2008. Driven by Drugs: U.S. Policy Toward Colombia, 2nd ed., Lynne Riener Publishers.
DeShazo, Peter, Tanya Primiani and Philip McLean. 2007. Back from the Brink: Evaluating Progress in Colombia, 1999-2007. Washington, D. C.: CSIS Press.
Edwards, Sebastian. 2001. The Economics and Politics of Transition to an Open Market Economy: Colombia. Paris: OECD.
Escudé, Carlos. 1998. “An introduction to Peripheral Realism and Its Implications for the Interstate System: Argentina and the Condor II Missile Project,” in Stephanie G. Neuman ed., International Relations Theory and the Third World, 55-75. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Fukumi, Sayaka. 2008. Cocaine Trafficking in Latin America: EU and US Policy Responses. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Garay Salamanca, Luis Jorge, Fernando Barberi Gómez and Iván Cardona Landínez. 2009. Impact of the US-Colombia FTA on the small farm economy in Colombia. Oxfam International.
Hristov, Jasmin. 2009. Blood and Capital: The Paramilitarization of Colombia. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Hylton, Forrest. 2006. Evil Hour in Colombia. London : Verso.
Kline, Harvey F. 2007. Chronicle of a failure foretold: The Peace Process of Colombian President Andrés Pastrana. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Kline, Harvey F. 2009. Showing Teeth to the Dragons: State-Building by Colombian President Álvaro Uribe Vélez, 2002-2006. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Livingstone, Grace. 2004. Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy and War. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Murillo, Mario Alfonso. 2004. Colombia and the United States: War, Unrest and Destabilization. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Pécaut, Daniel. 2008. Las Farc: ¿una guerrilla sin fin o sin fines? Bogotá: Grupo Editorial Norma.
Petras, James. 2003. “The Geopolitics of Plan Colombia,” in Rebeca Toledo ed., War in Colombia: Made in U.S.A. New York: International Action Center.
Preston, Charles. 2009. Drugs and conflict in Colombia: A policy analysis of Plan Colombia. Saarbruecken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
Rojas, Cristina and Judy Meltzer, eds. 2005. Elusive peace: international, national, and local dimensions of conflict in Colombia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Romero, Mauricio. 2007. Parapolítica: La Ruta de la Expansión Paramilitar y los Acuerdos Políticos, Corporación Nuevo Arco Iris.
Schott, Jeffrey Joseph. 2006. Trade relations between Colombia and the United States, Institute for International Economics.
Stokes, Doug. 2005. America’s Other War: Terrorizing Colombia. London; New York: Zed Books.
Thomet, Jacques. 2006. Íngrid Betancourt: ¿Historia del coazón o razón de Estado? Bogotá: Editorial Planeta Colombiana.
Thoumi, Francisco E. 1995. Political economy and illegal drugs in Colombia. Boulder: Lynne Riener Publishers.
Torres, Juan Carlos Torres. 2008. Operación Jaque: La Verdadera Historia. Bogotá: Editorial Planeta Colombiana.
(二)期刊
Ballvé, Teo. 2009. “The Dark Side of Plan Colombia,” The Nation, 288(23), June 15, 22-32
Barefoot, Kevin B. and Marilyn Ibarra-Caton. 2011. “Direct Investment Positions for 2010: Country and industry detail,” Survey of Current Business, July, 125-141.
Buatamante, Michael and Sebastian Chaskel. 2008. “Colombia’s Precarious Progress,” Current History, 107(706), February, 77-83.
Emerson, R. Guy. 2010. “Radical Neglect? The War on Terror and Latin America,” Latin American Politics and Society, 52(1), Spring, 33-62.
Galvis, Juan Pablo. 2009. “Developing Exclusion: The Case of the 1961 Land Reform in Colombia,” Development and Change, 40(3), 509-529.
Garay Salamanca, Luis Jorge. 2009. “Tragedia humanitaria del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia,” Instituto de Estudios Políticos, Universidad de Antioquia, Estudios Políticos, 35, June-December, 153-177.
Griswold, Daniel and Juan Carlos Hidalgo. 2008. “A U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Strengthening Democracy and Progress in Latin America,” CATO Institute, Center for Trade Policy Studies, Free Trade Bulletin, 32, February 7, 1-5.
Hanson, Heater and Rogers Romero Penna. 2005. “The Failure of Colombia’s Democratic Security,” NACLA Report on the Americas, May/June, 22-24
Henderson, James D. 2011. “Plan Colombia’s Place in the Democratic Security Program of Álvaro Uribe Vélez,” The Latin Americanist, 55(1), March, 3-15.
Hristov, Jasmin. 2009. “Legalizing the Illegal: Paramilitarism in Colombia’s Post-Paramilitary’s Era,” NACLA Report on the Americas, July/August, 12-19.
Holmes, Jennifer S. and Sheila Amin Gutiérrez de Piñeres. 2006. “The Illegal Drug Industry, Violence and the Colombian Economy: A Department Level Analysis,” Bulletin of Latin American Research, 25(1), January, 104-118.
Notisur. 2004. “Colombia: Uribe Seeks Extension of Plan Colombia,” NACAL Report on the Americas, 37(6), May/June, 45.
Pombo Vejarano, Carlos. 2002. “Industrialization and Industrial Policy in Colombia: A Tale of Economic Development “ Economía, Universidad de Rosario, 31, November, 1-19.
Rivas Nieto, Pablo and Pedro Rey García. 2008. “Las autodefensas y el paramilitarismo en Colombia (1964-2006),” Confines, 4(7), enero-mayo, 43-52.
Shifter, Michael. 2007. “Latin America’s Drug Problem,” Current History, 106(697), February, 58-63.
Toft, Monica Duffy. 2010. “Ending Civil Wars: A Case for Rebel Victory?” International Security, 34(4), Spring, 7-36.
Walcott, Judith. 2002. “Spraying Crops, Eradicating People,” Cultural Survival Quarterly, 26(4), Winter, 28-35.
(三)論文及報告
Amnesty International. 2007. Colombia killings, arbitrary detentions, and death threats-the reality of trade unionism in Colombia. AMR/23/001/2007, July.
Beittel, June S. 2011. “Colombia: Issues for Congress,” CRS Report for Congress, RL32250, March 18.
Bolle, Mary Jane. 2009. “Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues,” CRS Report for Congress, RL34759, January 15.
Cook, Colleen W. 2007. “Mexico’s Drug Cartels,” CRS Report for Congress, RL34215, October 16.
Cronin, Audrey Kurth. 2004. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations,” CRS Report for Congress, RL32223, February 6.
Dietz, Eva et al. 2001. Drugs and Development in Latin America: Strategies, Experiences and Project Examples from the Work of GTZ. Eschborn, Germany: Drugs and development Programme, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, September.
Godoy, Horacio. 2003. Plan Colombia’s Strategic Weaknesses. Paper presented at the Meeting of Latin American Studies Association, Dallas, Texas, March 27-29.
Gomez-Gonzalez, José E. and Nicholas M. Kiefer. 2006. Bank failure: Evidence from the Colombian financial crisis. Cornell University, Center for Analytic Economics Working Paper No. 06-12, October 27.
Healey, Declan. 2010. The U.S. - Colombia free trade agreement – A historical placement of the FTA. Theses and Dissertations, Paper 10, DePaul University.
Human Rights Watch. World Report 2011.
International Federation for Human Rights. 2007. Colombia:La desmovilización paramilitar, en los caminos de la Corte Penal International, N°481/3, Octubre.
Isacson, Adam and Abigail Peo. 2009. “After Plan Colombia: Evaluating Integrated Action the next phase of U.S. assistance,” International Policy Report, December.
Jasper, Miranda Louise and Clare Ribando Seelke. 2008. “Peru: Political Situation, Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations,” CRS Report for Congress, RS22715, January 15.
Marcella, Gabriel. 2001. Plan Colombia: The Strategic and Operational Imperatives. Strategic Studies Institute, April.
Marcella, Gabriel. 2003. “The United States and Colombia: The Journey from Ambiguity to Strategic Clarity,” Shaping the regional security environment in Latin America, Special series, May.
Marcella, Gabriel. 2008. War without borders: the Colombia-Ecuador crisis of 2008, Strategic Studies Institute, December.
Martí, Andreu. EEUU: capitalismo, drogas y control social. Rebelión, August 3.
Panetta, Linda. 2002. “Plan Colombia…Plan of Death,” Christian Forum, February 11.
Parra, Clara Elena and Natalia Salazar. 2000. La crisis financiera y la experiencia internacional, DNP, Colombia, January.
Posada Carbó, Eduardo. 2005. Colombia ante la reforma que permite la reelección presidencial. Real Instituto Elcano de Estudios Internacionales y Estratégicos, ARI Nº 11/2005, January 24.
Rangel, Alfredo. 2005. ¿Adónde van los paramilitares? Fundación Seguridad & Democracia, July.
RECALCA. 2007. Plan Colombia and the FTA: Compounding the destruction and misery in rural Colombia. March.
Restrepo Ramírez, Andrea , 2001. Las reformas financiera y de capitales en Colombia: Su evolución y alcance la luz del crecimiento económico. GestioPolis, December.
Rojas, Cristina. 2008. Colombia’s Regime of Governance: Securitization by Dispossession. Paper presents at the Meeting of the International Studies Association, San Francisco, March 26-29.
Seelke, Clare Ribando, Liana Sun Wyler, June S. Beittel and Mark P. Sullivan. 2011. “Latin America and the Caribbean: Illicit Drug Trafficking and U.S. Counterdrug Programs,” CRS Report for Congress, R41215, May 12.
Spagat, Michael. 2006. “La desmovilización y el desarme paramilitar en Colombia: Éxito provisional y silencioso,” Hechos del callejón, UNDP Colombia, 17, August.
The American Center for International Labor Solidarity. 2006. Justice for All: The Struggle for Workers Rights in Colombia. Washington, D.C.
“The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement,” Report of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy, October 4, 2006,
Taft-Morales, Maureen. 2009. “Peru: Current Conditions and U.S. Relations,” CRS Report for Congress, R40716, July 21.
Tarnoff, Curt and Marian Leonardo Lawson. 2011., “Foreign Aid: An Introduction U.S. Programs and Policy,” CRS Report for Congress, RL40213, February 10.
UNCTAD. 2006. Investment Policy Review: Colombia. Geneva: United Nations, July.
United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2010.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2010. World Drug Report 2010, United Nations Publication, Sales No.E.10.XI.13.
Veillette, Connie. 2005. “Plan Colombia: A progress report,” CRS Report for Congress, RL32274, June 22.
Veillette, Connie. 2006. “Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2006 Assistance,” CRS Report for Congress, RL33253, January 27.
Villarreal, M. Angeles. 2006. “Andean-U.S. Free Trade Agreement Negotiations,” CRS Report for Congress, RL32770, January 4.
Villarreal, M. Angeles. 2009. “ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues,” Congressional Research Service, CRS Report for Congress, RS22548, April 14.
Villarreal, M. Angeles. 2010. “The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications,” CRS Report for Congress, RL34470, April 16.
Villarreal, M. Angeles. 2011. “Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues,” CRS Report for Congress, RL34470, July 8.
(四)網路資料
Equipo Nizkor. 2000. ”Plan Colombia: A strategy without a solution,” Ofinica International de Derechos Humanos Acción Colombia, February 2000. http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/colombia/doc/oidhaco2e.html.
El Portafolio. 2007. “TLC con E.U. pasó raspando en la votación en el Senado,” June 15, http://www.portafolio.co/archivo/documento/MAM-2529628.
FIDH. 2007. “Colombia, la desmovilización paramilitar, en los caminos de la Corte Penal Internacional,” http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Colombiejustice481-32007.pdf.
Giraldo, Javier. 2002. “Álvaro Uribe, nuevo president de Colombia, El hombre de los paramilitares,” Solidaridad para el Desarrollo y la Paz, http://www.scribd.com/doc/2230924/Alvaro-Uribe-El-hombre-de-los-paramilitares.
ILO CEACR. 2008. “Individual Observations concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize, Convention 87, Colombia.” http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/deve/dv/committeeofexpertsc872008_/committeeofexpertsc872008_en.pdf.
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). 2010. “Colombia: Government response improves but still fails to meet needs of growing IDP population,” December 10, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4d05d94f2.html.
Leech, Garry. 2006. “Uribe’s New Economic Reforms Benefit Corporations, Not Colombians,” Colombia Journal, July 31, http://colombiajournal.org/uribes-new-economic-reforms-benefit-corporations-not-colombians.htm.
Martínez, Helda. 2006. “Colombia: Concern over U.S. free trade deal and tariff benefits,” Inter Press Service, November 22, http://www.bilaterals.org/spip.php?article6539&lang=en.
Palmer, Doug. 2010. “Uribe pushes for U.S. trade vote before leaving office,” Reuters, April 21, http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/04/21/us-usa-colombia-trade-idUSTRE63K5J220100421.
Primera Maye and David Alandete. 2010. “Chávez rompe relaciones diplomáticas con Colombia y pone en alerta la frontera,” El País, July 22, http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/Chavez/rompe/relaciones/diplomaticas/Colombia/pone/alerta/frontera/elpepuint/20100722elpepuint_9/Tes.
Sánchez, Linda. 2011. “Linda Sánchez Speaks Out on Colombia Free Trade Agreement,” Congresswoman Linda Sánchez, July 14, http://lindasanchez.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=642:linda-sanchez-speaks-out-on-colombia-free-trade-agreement-july-14-2011&catid=32:2011-press-releases.
Solidaridad para el Desarrollo y la Paz. 2002. “Álvaro Uribe, nuevo president de Colombia, El hombre de los paramilitares,” http://www.scribd.com/doc/2230924/Alvaro-Uribe-El-hombre-de-los-paramilitares.
Trujillo, Manuel. 2007. “Delegative Democracy: The Case of Colombia,” Council on Hemispheric Affairs, October 3, http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/2949.cfm.
(五)政府及國際組織相關網站
Banco de la República de Colombia (哥倫比亞中央銀行) http://www.banrep.gov.co/
Comisión Económica para América Latina el Caribe (拉丁美洲暨加勒比海經濟委員會) http://www.eclac.cl/
Departamento Nacional de Planeación de Colombia (哥倫比亞計畫署) http://www.dnp.gov.co/
Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales de Colombia (哥倫比亞賦稅署) http://www.dian.gov.co/
Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo (哥倫比亞商工暨觀光部) http://www.mincomercio.gov.co/
Office of the United States Trade Representative (美國貿易代表署) http://www.ustr.gov/
Proexport Colombia. (哥倫比亞外銷推廣基金會) http://www.proexport.com.co/
United Nations Development Programme (聯合國開發總署) http://www.undp.org/
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (聯合國毒品暨犯罪辦公室) http://www.unodc.gov/
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