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系統識別號 U0002-2908200811294500
中文論文名稱 《奧賽羅》中的獸性研究
英文論文名稱 A Touch of Monstrosity in Othello
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 吳緯中
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Chung Wu
學號 693010323
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-07-17
論文頁數 76頁
口試委員 指導教授-麥迪摩
委員-黃逸民
委員-林明澤
中文關鍵字 莎士比亞  獸性  奧賽羅  種族言論  種族展演  精神分析 
英文關鍵字 Shakespeare  monstrosity  Othello  racial discourse  racial performance  psychoanalysis 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文針對奧賽羅中出現的獸性進行研究。在第一章裡,我引用了漢特、紐曼與歐波立的許多論證闡述奧賽羅的獸性,即他野性的源頭和相異的族類使他自然在白性霸權的社會成為一個野蠻的化外者。我做出兩個結論,第一我認為在奧賽羅中頻頻出現獸性的片段表現了當代誤以黑人為野獸的思維,第二我提出依阿高道出了英國伊利莎白時期對摩爾人的刻版成見,而依阿高的種族言論正引出野獸奧賽羅的出現。
在第二章裡,我試著論證依阿高如何使用他操縱的言語來破壞他的對談者。我也引用了亞歷山卓 G. 崗索拉對奧賽羅中語言模式的研究來指出依阿高口中「獸性誕生」(monstrous birth)在全劇中的地位。在引論了奧賽羅的獸性是依阿高動物化言語的結果後,在第三章我進一步回歸探究依阿高的獸性。在這一章內,亞德曼與史密斯關於黑白種族展演(racial performance)的思想幫助了我,而帶出了我最後的結論:藉著賦予依阿高許多摩爾人的特質,莎士比亞使這個角色成為異邦的野獸,不斷的威嚇、威脅人類文明。
英文摘要 This thesis offers a critical study to the monstrosity in Othello. In the first chapter, I use Hunter’s, Newman’s, and Aubrey’s works to illustrate Othello’s monstrosity: his savage origin and alien race would immediately mark him as a barbarian outcast in the white dominated society. And finally I come to two crucial conclusions: first, I think the frequent references to monstrosity in Othello fit the popular imagination in associating blacks with monsters in that time, and second, I argue that Iago voices the Elizabethan’s stock prejudices against the Moors, and Iago’s racial discourse directly leads to the birth of the monster Othello.
In my second chapter, I try to unfold how Iago uses his manipulative language, his mental production, to corrupt his interlocutors. And I borrow Alexander G. Gonzalez’s study of the language pattern in Othello, in order to show how Iago’s favorite metaphor “monstrous birth” works throughout the play. After probing how Othello’s monstrosity and barbarism are chiefly bestowed by Iago’s deliberate animalizing language, I make an attempt to inquire into Iago’s monstrosity in chapter three. In this chapter, Adelman and Smith’s thoughts particularly enlighten me, especially in their study upon the exchange of racial performances between blacks and whites. And I conclude that by endowing Iago with the Moor’s traits, Shakespeare characterized this role with many monstrous aspects, making him less a human yet more a monster alienated from society, and forming him as someone who keeps threatening, mocking, and trivializing the splendor of human civilization.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Introduction
Attempts in Compiling Iago’s Scholarship 1

Chapter One
The Geographical Placement in Othello and Othello’s Monstrosity 17

Chapter Two
The Operating of Iago’s racial discourse, or Iago’s Monstrous Birth 30

Chapter Three
Iago’s Monstrosity 48

Conclusion
Revisiting Monstrosity in Othello 69

Works Cited 73
參考文獻 Works Cited

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Adelman, Janet. “Iago’s Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello.” Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1997. 124-44.
Adamson, Jane. “Iago’s Place in the Play.” Othello as Tragedy. Cambridge U. P., 1980. 64-90.
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Aronson, Alex. Psyche & Symbol in Shakespeare. Indiana UP, 1972.
Auden, W. H. “Iago as the Practical Joker.” Shakespeare's Major Tragedies. Ed. Harold Bloom. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House Publishers, 2000. 47 - 51.
Aubrey, James R. “Race and the Spectacle of the Monstrous in Othello.” Clio, 22:3, 1993. 221-38.
Bartels, Emily C.. “Making More the Moor: Aaron, Othello, and Renaissance Refashionings of Race.” Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 4, winter, 1990. 433-54.
Bloom, Harold. “Othello.” Shakespeare, The Invention of the Human. NY: Riverhead Books, 1998. 432-75.
Bradley, A. C.. “Othello.” Shakespearean Tragedy. New York: St. Martin’s P., 1981. 207-42.
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Driscoll, James P.. “Change in Othello.” Identity in Shakespearean Drama. Associated U. P., 1983. 70-89.
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--- “The Improvisation of Power.” Renaissance Self-Fashioning, From More to Shakespeare. U of Chicago P, 1980. 222-54.
Habib, Imtiaz. “Speak me as I am.” Shakespeare and Race, Postcolonial Praxis in the Early Modern Period. U. P. of America, 2000.
Heilman, Robert B.. “Iago: Beyond the Grievances.” Magic in the Web, Action & Language in Othello. Kentucky Paperbacks: U of Kentucky P, 1956. 25-44.
--- “The Iago World: Styles in Deception.” Magic in the Web, Action & Language in Othello. Kentucky Paperbacks: U of Kentucky P, 1956. 45-98.
--- “The Iago World: Styles in Revelation.” Magic in the Web, Action & Language in Othello. Kentucky Paperbacks: U of Kentucky P, 1956. 99-136.
Hinshelwood, Robert, Susan Robinson, and Oscar Zarate. Introducing Melanie Klein. Ed. Richard Appignanesi. UK: Icon Books, 1999.
Hunter, G. K.. Catherine M. S. Alexander and Stanley Wells, eds. “Elizabethans and foreigners.” Shakespeare and Race. Cambridge U. P, 2000.
Kernan, Alvin. “Barbarism and the City.” Othello: Critical Essays. Ed. Susan Snyder. Garland P., 1988. 201-12.
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Klein, Melanie. Envy and Gratitude: A Study of Unconscious Sources. NY: Basic Books, 1957.
Klein, Melanie. Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963. London: The Hogarth Press, 1984.
Leavis, F. R.. “Diabolic Intellect and the Noble Hero: or the Sentimentalist’s Othello.” Othello: Critical Essays. Ed. Susan Snyder. Garland P., 1988. 101-26.
Newman, Karen. “’And wash the Ethiop white’: Femininity and the Monstrous in Othello.” Shakespeare Reproduced, The Text in History and Ideology. Ed. Jean E. Howard and Marion F. O’Connor. London: Methuen, 1987.
Onions, C. T.. A Shakespeare Glossary. Enlarged and Revised Throughout by Robert D. Eagleson. Oxford U. P., 1986.
Ribner, Irving. “The Pattern of Moral Choice: Othello.” Patterns in Shakespearian Tragedy. Robert Cunningham and and Sons, 1960. 91-115.
Rosenberg, Marvin. “In Defense of Iago.” The Mask of Othello, The Search for the Identity of Othello, Iago, and Desdemona by Three Centuries of Actors and Critics. Newark: U. P. of DeLaware Press, 1972. 166-84.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Anti-Semite and Jew. Trans, George Becker. New York: Schocken, 1967.
Schreiner, Susan E.. “Appearances and Reality in Luther, Montaigne, and Shakespeare.” The Journal of Religion. Vol. 83, No. 3, 2003. 345-80.
Sanders, Norman. “Introduction.” Othello. Ed. Norman Sanders. Cambridge U. P., 1984.
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Smith, Ian. “Barbarian Errors: Performing Race in Early Modern England.” Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol, 49, No. 2, Summer, 1998. 168-86.
Spivack, Bernard. “Iago.” Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil, The History of a Metaphor in Relation to His Major Villains. New York: Columbia UP, 1958. 3-27.
--- “The Family of Iago.” Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil, The History of a Metaphor in Relation to His Major Villains. New York: Columbia UP, 1958. 28-59.
--- “Iago Revisited.” Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil, The History of a Metaphor in Relation to His Major Villains. New York: Columbia UP, 1958. 415-54.
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West, Fred. “Iago the Psychopath.” South Atlantic Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 2, 1978. 27-35.
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