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系統識別號 U0002-2907201921385500
中文論文名稱 ATR72全機在惡劣情境下之氣動力性能分析
英文論文名稱 The Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of a Full ATR72 Aircraft under Adverse Scenario
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aerospace Engineering
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 張榮哲
研究生英文姓名 Jung Che Chang
學號 706430013
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2019-06-27
論文頁數 98頁
口試委員 指導教授-宛同
委員-潘大知
委員-官文霖
中文關鍵字 計算流體力學  全機  螺旋槳  空氣動力學  飛行安全 
英文關鍵字 CFD  Full Configuration  Propeller  Aerodynamics  Flight Safety 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文旨在探討ATR72全機受到颱風外圍環流下的氣動力影響,其中包含陣風以及降雨的影響。使用CATIA繪圖軟體將ATR72全機與螺旋槳建模;匯入模擬軟體後,在推力與阻力平衡下取出巡航時的氣動力參數,並與Seeckt [1] 比較做為全機驗證;接著使用數個橋接模擬將巡航與進場做連結,每次更變一組參數,並用定量或定性的方式分析之;之後在進場模擬中加入單一飛安事件的黑盒子資料,並獲取飛機進場期間不受風雨時的氣動力參數;接著在模擬中加入當時機場自動天氣觀測系統所記錄的陣風以及雨的參數;對兩者進行分析與討論,其中飛機姿態與側向力的結果與飛安失事調查報告相符,並且飛機姿態的變化受到向上左後方翻滾的力,因此間接證明獲取氣動力參數的方法是可行的,而飛機的外型亦是極為接近的;最後,如我們所知,當飛機使用高升力裝置以及用較低的速度飛行時容易受到側風的影響,而我們藉由此研究得到該飛安事件中飛機之側向力係數與滾轉係數受側風影響的量化結果並提出建議。
英文摘要 This thesis discusses the aerodynamic performance of a full ATR72 configuration under the scenarios, with or without gusts and rain, which affected by the outer rain bands of a typhoon. Combined with learning concepts in the aircraft design courses and related information in aircraft manuals, the full scale ATR72 geometry with rotating propellers in clean and landing configurations are built with software, CATIA. Under the force equilibrium condition in cruising, a specific method to obtain the performance parameters is found. At first, parameters in cruising are validated with Seeckt [1] and followed by several linking cases in advance of the approaching cases with stable descent rate. One group of parameters is replaced from one to another for linking and connecting each other with qualitative and quantitative analysis. Afterward, the realistic weather data refer to the flight data recorder (FDR) and take into simulating a specific event about ATR72. Thus the approaching parameters are obtained. For gusty winds and rain conditions, this information is taken from the data of Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) and inputted. The corresponding parameters can be compared between approaching cases with or without crosswinds and rain and providing the basis for analysis. By comparison, the parameters are changing with gusty winds and rain, and further the results of the side force and attitude are consistent with the event investigation. Then it indirectly proves that both the method for data acquisition and our ATR72 geometry are valid. Lastly, as we know, the aircraft is easier to be affected by the crosswinds while HLDs extending, and flying at a lower speed. The results of the side-force coefficient and the rolling moment coefficient are quantified to show how much it is in the situation of this event.
論文目次 Contents

Abstract III
Contents V
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures IX
List of Abbreviations XIII
List of Symbols XV
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background and Purpose 1
1.2 Case Study 3
1.3 Framework 6
Chapter 2 Literature Review 11
Chapter 3 Theoretical Foundations 16
3.1 Governing Equations 16
3.2 Multiple Rotating Frame 17
3.3 Wind Manipulation 20
3.4 DPM Model 25
3.5 Assumptions 27
Chapter 4 Numerical Modeling 30
4.1 Research Tools 30
4.2 Validation Cases 30
4.3 Geometric Modeling 39
4.4 Grid Generation 45
4.5 Flight Environment 48
4.6 Boundary Conditions 49
4.7 Solver 50
4.8 Turbulence Model 51
4.9 Method of Data Aquisition 51
Chapter 5 Results and Disccusions 54
Chapter 6 Conclusions 70
References 72
Appendix I 79
Appendix II 80
Appendix III 81
Appendix IV 82

List of Figures

Fig. 1 The ATR72-500 photograph 4
Fig. 2 The pilot’s operation and flight track, flight no. GE-222 [3] 5
Fig. 3 The runway 20 VOR approach chart, Makung airport [3] 5
Fig. 4 The (a) clean and (b) landing configuration, ATR72 7
Fig. 5 The flow chart for all cases in this study 7
Fig. 6 Surface mesh, Boeing 747-200 [4] 12
Fig. 7 Pressure contours, Boeing 747-200 [4] 12
Fig. 8 Surface grid, F-111/TACT [5] 13
Fig. 9 The force and moment coefficients for M=1.6, F-111/TACT [5] 13
Fig. 10 AX-1 models of deformed and un-deformed configurations [6] 14
Fig. 11 The actuator disk model [7] 15
Fig. 12 The rotating mesh and fixed mesh [8] 15
Fig. 13 The stationary and moving reference frame [9] 17
Fig. 14 The multiple reference frame approach [9] 19
Fig. 15 The coordinate system of computational domains 20
Fig. 16 Total velocity and each component, sustained crosswind 23
Fig. 17 The output of total pure fluctuations 24
Fig. 18 Total velocity and each component, pure fluctuations 24
Fig. 19 Total velocity and each component, gusty crosswinds 25
Fig. 20 The NASA experimental model of helicopter rotor in hover [14] 31
Fig. 21 Pressure coefficient at 0.50 (a) lower and (b) upper, steady 32
Fig. 22 Pressure coefficient at 0.68 (a) lower and (b) upper, steady 32
Fig. 23 Pressure coefficient at 0.80 (a) lower and (b) upper, steady 32
Fig. 24 Pressure coefficient at 0.89 (a) lower and (b) upper, steady 33
Fig. 25 Pressure coefficient at 0.96 (a) lower and (b) upper, steady 33
Fig. 26 Pressure coefficient at 0.50 (a) lower and (b) upper, transient 33
Fig. 27 Pressure coefficient at 0.68 (a) lower and (b) upper, transient 34
Fig. 28 Pressure coefficient at 0.80 (a) lower and (b) upper, transient 34
Fig. 29 Pressure coefficient at 0.89 (a) lower and (b) upper, transient 34
Fig. 30 Pressure coefficient at 0.96 (a) lower and (b) upper, transient 35
Fig. 31 Velocity magnitude at X/C =0.96, steady 35
Fig. 32 Velocity magnitude viewed form top, steady 35
Fig. 33 The experiment model of ONERA M6 wing [15] 36
Fig. 34 The coefficient of pressure at (a) 0.20 and (b) 0.44, steady 37
Fig. 35 The coefficient of pressure at (a) 0.65 and (b) 0.80, steady 37
Fig. 36 The coefficient of pressure at (a) 0.90 and (b) 0.95, steady 37
Fig. 37 The coefficient of pressure at 0.99, steady 38
Fig. 38 Mach number at a wing section 38
Fig. 39 Mach (left) and C_p (right) distribution at upper wing 38
Fig. 40 The whole computational domains 40
Fig. 41 The full-size ATR72 configuration 40
Fig. 42 The span length of the main wing, ATR72 42
Fig. 43 The (a) drag polar and (b) lift coefficient to AOA, ATR72SM-IL 42
Fig. 44 The airfoil of main wing, ATR72SM-IL 42
Fig. 45 The airfoil of stabilator, NACA 63012A 43
Fig. 46 The diameter of a set of propellers 44
Fig. 47 The span length of the flaps, ATR72 44
Fig. 48 Mesh of the whole domain 45
Fig. 49 Refined mesh near the aircraft 45
Fig. 50 Neighbor mesh of the main wing and HLDs 46
Fig. 51 Mesh of the propeller section 47
Fig. 52 Mesh along the wingspan section 47
Fig. 53 Mesh located near the fuselage and lower wing surface 47
Fig. 54 The six named surfaces of the outer domain 49
Fig. 55 The method of data acquisition 52
Fig. 56 Pressure distribution at (a) 129.74 m/s (b) 62.69 m/s, side view 57
Fig. 57 Velocity magnitude at (a) 129.74 m/s (b) 62.69 m/s, side view 57
Fig. 58 Pressure distribution at (a) 129.74 m/s (b) 62.69 m/s, side view 57
Fig. 59 Velocity magnitude at (a) 129.74 m/s (b) 62.69 m/s, side view 57
Fig. 60 Pressure distribution at (a) 129.74 m/s (b) 62.69 m/s, front view 58
Fig. 61 Velocity magnitude at (a) 129.74 m/s (b) 62.69 m/s, front view 58
Fig. 62 Pressure distribution, (a) calm (b) sustained crosswind, front view 59
Fig. 63 Velocity magnitude, (a) calm (b) sustained crosswind, front view 59
Fig. 64 Q-criterion at 4e-5, (a) calm (b) sustained crosswind, front view 59
Fig. 65 Q-criterion at 4e-5, (a) calm (b) sustained crosswind, top view 60
Fig. 66 The changes of C_L, C_D and C_SF affected by gusty winds, case 8 61
Fig. 67 The changes of C_L, C_M and C_ℵ affected by gusty winds, case 8 62
Fig. 68 Difference between extreme value and average value, case 8 63
Fig. 69 (a) pressure contour, (b) velocity magnitude at 1.0 sec, case 8 63
Fig. 70 (a) pressure contour, (b) velocity magnitude at 1.1 sec, case 8 64
Fig. 71 (a) pressure contour, (b) velocity magnitude at 1.2 sec, case 8 64
Fig. 72 pressure contour viewed from (a) top (b) bottom, 1.0 sec, case 8 64
Fig. 73 pressure contour viewed from (a) top (b) bottom, 1.1 sec, case 8 64
Fig. 74 pressure contour viewed from (a) top (b) bottom, 1.2 sec, case 8 65
Fig. 75 Q-criteria at 1.7e-5, 1.0 sec, case 8 65
Fig. 76 Q-criteria at 1.7e-5, 1.1 sec, case 8 65
Fig. 77 Q-criteria at 1.7e-5, 1.2 sec, case 8 65
Fig. 78 Velocity magnitude of raindrops, case 9 67
Fig. 79 The changes of C_L, C_D and C_SF affected by gusty winds, case 9 68
Fig. 80 The changes of C_L, C_M and C_ℵ affected by gusty winds, case 9 68
Fig. 81 Rain affects the aircraft performance, case 9 69


List of Tables

Table 1 The replaced variables in the different cases 8
Table 2 The x, y, z components of wind at different AOA 21
Table 3 The ATR72 geometric parameters 39
Table 4 The flight environmental setup in all cases 49
Table 5 The comparison from case 1 to Seeckt [1] 54
Table 6 Computational results for the steady state cases 55
Table 7 Computational results for the transient state cases 55
Table 8 The average and extreme values in case 8 62
Table 9 The average and extreme values in case 9 69

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