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系統識別號 U0002-2907200809082700
中文論文名稱 染料敏化太陽能電池組成及性質分析
英文論文名稱 Component and Property Analysis of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 莊家昌
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Cheng Chuang
學號 695370352
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-18
論文頁數 89頁
口試委員 指導教授-林清彬
委員-張子欽
委員-劉文欽
中文關鍵字 染料敏化太陽能電池  銀電極  對電極  反射率 
英文關鍵字 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell  Silver grid  Counter electrode  Reflectivity 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 本研究係以銀膠利用壓印技術在ITO導電玻璃上製作銀電極,再以旋轉塗佈機將TiO2溶液塗佈在ITO導電玻璃上,製作成含有銀電極的多孔性薄膜電極。對電極基材選用經由噴砂處理後的不鏽鋼片,與ITO導電玻璃分別鍍上Pt之後,製作成本研究的對電極。以是否含有銀電極,來探討對轉換效率的影響。太陽能電池中的銀電極,會與電解液中的碘發生反應,形成碘化銀後而導致短路。此外,不鏽鋼片對電極經由噴砂處理後,以增加其光反射率來探討對轉換效率的影響。不鏽鋼片厚度達1 mm,因此大多數的光電子會被不鏽鋼片吸收,因而降低了轉換效率。
英文摘要 In this study, the silver gird was made by printing method with silver paste on the ITO glass. The mesoporous TiO2 film was grown on ITO glass by spin coater via layer-by-layer deposition. The substrates of counter electrode were sandblasted stainless steel and ITO glass. The counter electrode was made by plating Pt on the stainless steel and ITO glass respectively. The influence of silver grid on conversion efficiency was discussed. The silver grid of the solar cell reacted with the iodine of the electrolyte formed AgI. The AgI leads to short circuit in the solar cell. In addition, the sandblasted stainless steel increase reflectivity to explore the impact of the conversion efficiency. The thickness of Stainless steel is 1 mm, so most of the photoelectrons were absorbed by stainless steel, therefore reduce the conversion efficiency.
論文目次 摘要‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧Ⅰ
Abstract‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧II
總目錄‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧Ⅲ
圖目錄‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧Ⅵ
表目錄‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧IX
壹、導論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧1
1-1 前言‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧1
1-2 文獻回顧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧2
1-2.1 太陽能電池基本結構介紹‧‧‧‧‧‧2
1-2.2 太陽能電池分類‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
1-2.3 染料敏化太陽能電池簡介‧‧‧‧‧‧8
1-2.3.1 染料敏化太陽能電池工作原理‧‧‧‧8
1-2.3.2 染料敏化太陽能電池組成結構簡介‧‧‧‧10
1-2.4 二氧化鈦薄膜電極‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧10
1-2.5 導電玻璃之表面電阻‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧12
1-2.6 二氧化鈦薄膜電極面積形式‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧13
1-2.7 對電極基材之選用‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧13
1-2.8 液態電解質與封裝問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧14
1-3 研究範疇‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧14
貳、實驗方法與設備‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧24
2-1實驗藥品器材與實驗設備‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧24
2-1.1 實驗藥品與器材‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧24
2-1.2 實驗設備及分析儀器‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧25
2-2 實驗程序‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧26
2-2.1 ITO導電玻璃之潔淨程序‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧26
2-2.2 銀電極之製作‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧27
2-2.3 奈米二氧化鈦膠體溶液配製‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧27
2-2.4 奈米二氧化鈦薄膜電極之熱處理‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧28
2-2.5 電解液調配‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧28
2-2.6 染料吸附‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧29
2-2.7 金屬片噴砂加工‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧29
2-2.8 鉑電極製作‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧30
2-2.9 元件組裝與封裝‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧30
2-3 分析儀器及試片製作‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧31
2-3.1 表面輪廓儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧31
2-3.2 四點探針量測系統‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧31
2-3.3 紫外-可見光光譜儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧32
2-3.4 浸泡電解液測試‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧32
2-3.5 垂直取向角度分析儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧32
2-3.6 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧33
2-3.7 X光繞射分析儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧34
2-3.8 太陽能光電I-V特性測試系統‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧34
參、結果與討論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧38
3-1 表面輪廓儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧38
3-2 四點探針量測系統‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧39
3-3 紫外-可見光光譜儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧40
3-4 浸泡電解液測試‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧41
3-5 垂直取向角度分析儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧42
3-6 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧44
3-7 X光繞射分析儀分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧46
3-8太陽能光電I-V特性測試系統分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧47
肆、結論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧79
伍、參考文獻‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧83

圖目錄
圖1-2.1、傳統矽晶型太陽能電池構造‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧17
圖1-2.2、太陽能電池之分類‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧18
圖1-2.3、 p型、n型半導體示意圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧18
圖1-2.4、太陽能電池發電原理‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧19
圖1-2.5、多接面III-V族太陽電池之構造圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧19
圖1-2.6、 CIGS電池之基本構造圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧20
圖1-2.7、典型CdTe電池構造圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧20
圖1-2.8、N3染料結構圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧21
圖1-2.9、黑染料結構圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧21
圖1-2.10、染料敏化太陽能電池原理示意圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧22
圖1-2.11、染料敏化太陽電池結構示意圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧22
圖1-2.12、光散射層之結構圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧23
圖2-2.1、銀電極模型圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧36
圖2-2.2、染料敏化太陽電池元件示意圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧36
圖2-3.1、紫外-可見光光譜儀內部圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧37
圖3-3.1(a)、鍍Pt之ITO導電玻璃反射率…………‧‧‧‧‧‧52
圖3-3.1(b)、鍍Pt不鏽鋼片之反射率………………‧‧‧‧‧‧53
圖3-3.1(c)、鍍Pt鋁片之反射率……………………‧‧‧‧‧‧53
圖3-3.1(d)、鍍Pt銅片之反射率……………………‧‧‧‧‧‧54
圖3-4.1(a)、浸泡過電解液不鏽鋼片之SEM圖……‧‧‧‧‧‧56
圖3-4.1(b)、浸泡過電解液鋁片之SEM圖…………‧‧‧‧‧‧56
圖3-4.1(c)、浸泡過電解液銅片之SEM圖…………‧‧‧‧‧‧57
圖3-6.1(a)、不鏽鋼片之SEM圖(#30);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍
Pt後…………………………………………………62
圖3-6.1(b)、不鏽鋼片之SEM圖(#50);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍
Pt後…………………………………………………63
圖3-6.1(c)、不鏽鋼片之SEM圖(#150);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍
Pt後…………………………………………………64
圖3-6.2(a)、鋁片之SEM圖(#30);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍Pt後………………………………………………………65
圖3-6.2(b)、鋁片之SEM圖(#50);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍Pt後………………………………………………………66
圖3-6.2(c)、鋁片之SEM圖(#150);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍Pt後………………………………………………………67
圖3-6.3(a)、銅片之SEM圖(#30);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍Pt後………………………………………………………68
圖3-6.3(b)、銅片之SEM圖(#50);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍Pt後………………………………………………………69
圖3-6.3(c)、銅片之SEM圖(#150);(a)噴砂後;(b)鍍Pt後………………………………………………………70
圖3-6.4、銀電極熱處理後之SEM圖;600℃;倍率600倍‧‧‧‧‧‧‧71
圖3-6.5(a)、雙層TiO2薄膜電極SEM圖(surface);(a)10萬倍;
(b)20萬倍……………………………………………72
圖3-6.5(b)、雙層TiO2薄膜電極SEM圖(cross section);
(a)10萬倍;(b)20萬…………………………73
圖3-7.1(a)、X光繞射儀分析圖;(a)浸泡過電解液之不鏽鋼片;
(b)Pt特徵繞射峰值倍………………………………74
圖3-7.1(b)、X光繞射儀分析圖;(a)浸泡過電解液之鋁片;
(b)Pt特徵繞射峰值倍…………………………………75
圖3-7.1(c)、X光繞射儀分析圖;(a)浸泡過電解液之銅片;
(b)Pt特徵繞射峰值倍…………………………………76
圖3-8.1、X光繞射儀分析圖;(a)浸泡過電解液之銀電極;
(b)AgI特徵繞射峰值倍………………………………78

表目錄
表1、傳統能源之使用年限‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧17
表2、銀電極厚度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧49
表3、雙層TiO2薄膜電極厚度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧49
表4、噴砂處理後金屬片之表面粗糙度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧50
表5、鍍Pt後金屬片之表面粗糙度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧51
表6、銀電極與ITO導電玻璃之表面電阻值‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧52
表7、鍍Pt金屬片與ITO導電玻璃浸泡電解液後重量變化‧‧‧‧‧55
表8(a)、金屬基材對電極浸泡電解液前之接觸角‧‧‧‧‧‧‧58
表8(b)、鍍Pt之ITO導電玻璃浸泡電解液前之接觸角‧‧‧‧‧‧59
表9(a)、金屬片對電極浸泡電解液後之接觸角‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧60
表9(b)、鍍Pt之ITO導電玻璃浸泡電解液後之接觸角‧‧‧‧‧‧61
表10、光電轉換效率‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧77
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