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中文論文名稱 多媒體示例教學法對增進問題解決能力之成效研究
英文論文名稱 A Research of the Effectiveness of Multimedia Worked Example Instruction on Problem Solving Skill
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 教育科技學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Educational Technology
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 蔡蕙君
研究生英文姓名 Hui Chun Tsai
學號 796730165
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-06-08
論文頁數 121頁
口試委員 指導教授-沈俊毅
委員-鄭宜佳
委員-劉旨峰
中文關鍵字 多媒體示例法  問題解決能力  認知負荷 
英文關鍵字 Multimedia worked example  Problem solving skill  Cognitive load 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學教育學
中文摘要 本研究透過電腦模擬遊戲safecracker,比較多媒體示例法(影片+旁白 VS. 圖片+文字)對增進學習者問題解決能力之成效差異,以及這兩種示例法對於學習者有無造成認知負荷上的差異,以供未來示例法的設計參考。
本研究參照CRESST問題解決模式,此模式由內容的理解、問題解決的策略和自我調整這三個部份所組成,故研究者藉由1、知識圖(測內容理解),2、問題解決策略的保留和遷移題目(測問題解決策略),3、自我調整量表(測自我調整),來測量受試者的問題解決能力有無增進。
研究發現:
影片+旁白組的問題解決能力沒有顯著優於圖+文組,且影片+旁白組的認知負荷也沒有顯著低於圖+文組,另外,自我調整和知識圖、問題解決策略也沒有顯著相關。但是雖然兩組在問題解決能力及認知負荷上,皆沒有顯著差異,但兩組的問題解決能力皆有顯著增加,可知示例法對增進問題解決能力確有其成效。
既知兩組的差異不大,則以後教學者在設計教材時,可不用執著教材一定要做成動畫,以免花費了許多時間,卻沒有使學習者達到更好的學習效果。
未來研究方向:
一、可針對不同教學策略進行探究。
二、可拉長研究時間、做成一系列課程。
三、可開發或選用適宜的本國解謎遊戲來做研究。

英文摘要 This research is through computer simulation game“safecracker”, comparing multimedia worked example instruction ( the film + aside VS. The picture + word) to promoting the effect difference on learner's problem solving skill , and these two kinds worked examples cause the difference on cognitive load to the learners, for the future of the worked examples design is consulted .
CRESST problem solving solution containing three parts that the content of understanding , problem solving strategies and self regulation , the researcher by 1. knowledge graph (examine the content of understanding), 2 . the retainment and the migration topic of the problem solving strategies (examine the problem solving strategies), 3. self regulation form (examine self regulation), measuring the problem solving solution of experimenters promoting or not .
The conclusion of the research suggests the followings:
The problem solving solution of the film + aside group is not superior to the picture + word group, and The cognitive load of The film + aside is not superior to The pictures + words. Beside, Self regulation, the knowledge map and the problem solving strategies are not correlated with each other.Although the problem solving solution and the cognitive load of the film + aside group is not superior to the picture + word group, but the problem solving solution is apparently the problem solving solution.
The way of the future:
一、The future researchers can uses different teaching strategies.
二、Elongating study time.
三、The future researchers can select the suitable solving games to study.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機……………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的與問題……………………………………………4
壹、研究目的…………………………………………………4
貳、研究問題與假設…………………………………………………4
第三節 研究範圍與限制……………………………………………5
壹、研究範圍……………………………………………………………5
貳、研究限制……………………………………………………………5
第四節 名詞釋義……………………………………………………6
壹、問題解決能力………………………………………………………6
貳、示例教學法…………………………………………………………6
參、電腦模擬遊戲………………………………………………………6
肆、認知負荷……………………………………………………………6
伍、多媒體學習認知理論…………………………………7
第五節 預期貢獻……………………………………………………8
壹、學術研究……………………………………………………………8
貳、應用方面……………………………………………………………8
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 問題解決……………………………………………………9
壹、問題的概念…………………………………………………………9
貳、問題解決的概念…………………………………………………15
第二節 示例教學法…………………………………………………27
壹、示例的定義………………………………………………………27
貳、示例教學法的應用………………………………………………27
參、示例法的教學設計原則…………………………………………33
肆、相關的理論………………………………………………………37
第三節 電腦模擬遊戲……………………………………………43
壹、遊戲的概念………………………………………………………43
貳、模擬遊戲的概念…………………………………………………49
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究問題與假設…………………………………………53
第二節 研究架構與設計…………………………………………54
壹、研究架構…………………………………………………………54
貳、研究設計說明……………………………………………………54
第三節 研究對象………………………………………………55
第四節 研究工具………………………………………………55
壹、電腦模擬遊戲……………………………………………………56
貳、示例之設計………………………………………………………59
參、基本資料調查表…………………………………………64
肆、自我調整量表………………………………………64
伍、知識圖………………………………………………64
陸、 問題解決策略……………………………………………66
柒、 認知負荷量表計分方式……………………………67
第五節 研究流程與甘特圖…………………………………………67
壹、研究流程圖………………………………………………………68
貳、研究流程…………………………………………………………69
參、甘特圖……………………………………………………………74
第六節 統計方法………………………………………………75
第四章 研究結果與討論
第一節 問題解決能力…………………………………………76
壹、知識圖……………………………………………78
貳、問題解決策略……………………………………79
參、保險箱破關數……………………………………83
第二節 認知負荷………………………………………………85
壹、 實驗組與控制組在認知負荷量表的比較………………85
第三節 自我調整量表、知識圖和問題解決策略……………86
壹、 自我調整量表與知識圖的相關情形……………………86
貳、自我調整量表與問題解決策略的相關情形………87
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論……………………………………………………89
第二節 建議…………………………………………………………91
壹、 實務應用上的建議…………………………………………91
貳、 未來研究方向………………………………………………92
參考文獻 .……………………………………………………………94
附錄
附件一:專家審核意見表………………………………………106
附件二:根據專家審核意見表而做的修正…………………………107
附件三:基本資料調查表……………………………………………108
附件四:自我調整量表…………………………………………110
附件五:知識圖…………………………………………………112
附件六:問題解決策略問題……………………………………113
附件七:認知負荷量表…………………………………………114
附件八:專家地圖1……………………………………………115
附件九:專家地圖2……………………………………………116
附件十:專家地圖3……………………………………………117
附件十一:專家對保留問題的答案…………………………118
附件十二:專家對遷移問題的答案…………………………120
附件十三:遊戲及滑鼠使用說明……………………………121
表次

表2-1-1 問題的分類………………………………………………………………10、11
表2-1-2 結構良好的問題之問題類型分類………………………………………12、13
表2-1-3 結構模糊的問題之問題類型分類……………………………………………14
表2-1-4 一般性問題解題取向…………………………………………………………19
表2-2-1 示例法運用現況………………………………………………………………31
表2-2-2 多媒體學習認知理論之三項假設……………………………………………40
表3-3-1 遊戲特徵………………………………………………………………………56
表3-3-2 知識圖使用說明………………………………………………………………64
表3-3-3 知識圖系統的特徵……………………………………………………………65
表3-3-4 知識圖的計分方式……………………………………………………………66
表3-4-1 研究程序………………………………………………………………………71
表4-1-1 實驗組與控制組在遊戲第一回合保險箱破關數統計量……………………77
表4-1-2 實驗組與控制組在遊戲第一回合保險箱破關數獨立樣本t檢定…………77
表4-1-3 實驗組與控制組在知識圖得分前後測的敘述統計…………………………78
表4-1-4 實驗組與控制組在知識圖得分前後測的單因子共變數分析………………78
表4-1-5 實驗組與控制組在知識圖得分的成對樣本統計量…………………………79
表4-1-6 實驗組與控制組在知識圖得分的成對樣本t檢定…………………………79
表4-1-7 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略保留問題前後測的敘述統計……………79
表4-1-8 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略保留問題前後測的單因子共變數分析..80
表4-1-9 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略遷移問題前後測的敘述統計……………80
表4-1-10 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略遷移問題前後測的單因子共變數分析…81
表4-1-11 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略保留問題的成對樣本統計量……………81
表4-1-12 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略保留問題的成對樣本t檢定……………82
表4-1-13 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略遷移問題的成對樣本統計量……………82
表4-1-14 實驗組與控制組在問題解決策略遷移問題的成對樣本t檢定……………82
表4-1-15 實驗組與控制組在保險箱破關數前後測的敘述統計………………………83
表4-1-16 實驗組與控制組在保險箱破關數的單因子共變數分析……………………83
表4-1-17 實驗組與控制組在保險箱破關數的成對樣本統計量………………………84
表4-1-18 實驗組與控制組在保險箱破關數的成對樣本t檢定………………………84
表4-2-1 實驗組與控制組認知負荷量表統計量………………………………………85
表4-2-2 實驗組與控制組在認知負荷量表獨立樣本t檢定…………………………86
表4-3-1 自我調整量表與知識圖得分的Pearson相關………………………………87
表4-3-2 自我調整量表與問題解決策略保留問題的Pearson相關…………………87
表4-3-3 自我調整量表與問題解決策略遷移問題的Pearson相關…………………88
















圖次
圖2-1-1 問題解決模式…………………………………………………………………17
圖2-1-2 加州大學CRESST學習模式………………………………………………… 23
圖2-1-3 問題解決步驟…………………………………………………………………26
圖2-2-1 多媒體學習認知理論模型……………………………………………………41
圖3-2-1 研究架構圖……………………………………………………………………54
圖3-3-1 SafeCracker的一樓平面圖…………………………………………………58
圖3-3-2 SafeCracker地下室平面圖…………………………………………………58
圖3-3-3 第一回合廚房升降櫃保險箱示例圖…………………………………………60
圖3-3-4 第二回合貯存室水壓鎖保險箱示例圖………………………………………60
圖3-3-5 第一回合遊戲間密碼鎖保險箱示例圖………………………………………61
圖3-3-6 第二回合餐廳保險箱示例圖…………………………………………………61
圖3-3-7 第一回合頂樓管線保險箱示例圖……………………………………………62
圖3-3-8 第二回合地下室入口保箱示例圖……………………………………………62
圖3-3-9 廚房保險箱示例步驟的第一步………………………………………………63
圖3-3-10 知識圖範例……………………………………………………………………65
圖3-4-1 研究流程圖……………………………………………………………………68
圖3-4-2 第一回合平面圖………………………………………………………………69
圖3-4-3 第一回合平面圖-1……………………………………………………………70
圖3-4-4 第一回合平面圖-2……………………………………………………………70
圖3-4-2 甘特圖…………………………………………………………………………74


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