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中文論文名稱 知識管理之知識的獲得之研究
英文論文名稱 The study of the knowledge acquisition of the knowledge management
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 沈宏明
研究生英文姓名 Hung-Ming Shen
學號 793190223
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-07
論文頁數 95頁
口試委員 指導教授-莊淇銘
委員-林慧珍
委員-羅光志
中文關鍵字 知識管理  知識獲得  學習型組織  曼陀羅觀想法 
英文關鍵字 knowledge management  knowledge acquire  learning type organization  mandalart 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 知識經濟時代已經來臨,企業需要不斷的累積與獲得知識,才可為組織創造競爭優勢(Porter, 1985)。近年來知識管理的議題受到相當重視,Holan 等(2004)認為組織中最有價值的知識通常是被隱藏在組織中的內隱性及非正式的知識,並且是由員工透過許多的方法所創造出來。Wijnhoven(1999)認為內隱知識通常是組織記憶的主要成份,例如個人的技術或難以表達的經驗等。組織必須透過資訊處理的過程將個人所擁有的內隱知識存入組織記憶中。
知識的獲是是經由學習而來的,除了個人的學習外,團隊的學習也很重要,管理學大師彼得杜拉克Peter Drucker 亦曾說:「在競爭激烈而快速變遷的世界中,只有學習型組織,才能得到生存與發展」。學習型組織不只有能力學習,還要能夠學習如何學習(Swieringa & Wierdsma, 1992)
本研究針對知識獲取做探討,以醫管顧問公司為研究對象,透過文獻探討與個案研究,分析該公司如何藉由曼陀羅觀想法,應用在做為第五項修練、、人脈網路。使獲取的知識在組織中擴散、累積並成為有價值的資產,進而提昇知識管理績效。提供企業在進行相關活動之參考。
英文摘要 The times of the knowledge-based economy has already come, the enterprise needs a continuous accumulation and acquires knowledge, just can create competitive advantage for the organization.(Porter,1985)
The knowledge manages in recent years of the subject is rather valued, the Holan waits for (2004) to think in the organization have the knowledge of the value most is usually concealed in the organization of inside the recessiveness and the informal knowledge, and by employee through many methods create.The Wijnhoven(1999) think to usually is the main ingredient of the organization memory inside the tacit knowledge, for example experience etc. of personal technique or hard expression.
Organization have to through the process of the information processing will personal own of inside the tacit knowledge deposit organization to remember to win.
Knowledge's getting is since then through the learning, in addition to personal learning, the learning of the team is also very important, the management learns master, Peter,'s Drucker's Peter Drucker to have ever said as well:"only have the learning type organization in the world competing vigorous and fast change, can get existence and development".the learning type organize to don't only have the ability learning, also have to learn how to learn(Swieringa& Wierdsma,1992)
This research obtains to do a study to knowledge, taking curing the tube adviser company as a research object, through the cultural heritage study and the case study, how analytical that company is by the mandalnet view viewpoint, apply Be being used as ego to examine,the life programming,the work progress,person's vein network,budget establish,the enterprise examine a patient. make the knowledge for obtaining spread and accumulate and become the property that has value in the organization, then promote the knowledge management results.provide an enterprise Be carrying on the reference of the related activity.

論文目次 第一章 緒論.............................................................................………..….....................1
1.1 研究動機...............……….............................................................….......................1
1.2 研究目的......................………....................................................….........................2
1.3 研究流程.……………........................................………...........…...........................3
1.4 論文架構.......................................................……….............…...............................3
第二章 文獻探討.................................................………..........….................................4
2.1 知識管理..................................…..............………...................................................4
2.1.1 知識的定義..............................……..........………................................................4
2.1.2 知識的四大架構...............................………….....................................................5
2.1.3 知識的分類....................….......………............………….....................................6
2.1.4 知識創造的模式...............................………….....................................................8
2.1.5 內隱知識移轉方式...............................…………...............................................10
2.1.6軟體的生命週期...............................…………….........................................…....12
2.1.7知識生命週期....................….......………............………….................................14
2.1.7.1知識的選擇....................….......………............………….....…..............….......15
2.1.7.2知識的獲得....................….......………............………….........................….....15
2.1.7.3知識的儲存..…...............….......………............………….................................15
2.1.7.4知識的運用與分享.....................….......…........………….................................15
2.1.7.5知識的萃取與建構....................….......………............…………......................16
2.1.7.6創意開發....................….......………............…………..................……............16
2.1.7.7知識的維護....................….......………............………….............................….16
2.2 學習型組織...................................................………..............................................16
2.2.1學習型組織的定義....................….......………...………….............................….17
2.2.2學習型組織的特徵....................….......…….......………….............................….19
2.2.3學習型組織的終極目標....................….......…….......………….....................….22
2.2.4學習型組織的要素....................….......…….......……………….....................….22
2.2.5學習型組織的建構....................….......…….......……………….....................….23
2.2.6學習型組織的第五項修練....................….......…….......……………….........….25
2.3曼陀羅觀想法….……......................................………........................................…30
2.3.1曼陀羅的原義..............................................………..............................................30
2.3.2曼陀羅的真諦...................................................……….........................................30
2.3.3曼陀羅的由來...................................................……….........................................30
2.3.4曼陀羅圖觀想法技巧...................................................……….............................31
2.4創意式思考方法.........................….......................………...................................…33
2.4.1腦力激盪法(Brainstorming)...…..........................……................................…......33
2.4.2六六討論法(Phillips 66 Techn.ique) ................................................….................34
2.4.3心智圖法(Mind Mapping).….............................……................................…......35
2.4.4分合法(Synectics) ...................................................………..................................36
第三章 系統設計...................................................…...................................................39
3.1 曼陀羅編排原則...........................................………..............................................39
3.2 編排模式.................................................…………................................................39
3.2.1 無特定時序或旋轉順序之編排模式....................….............................….........39
3.2.2 有時間上的優先順序或迴轉之編排模式................................................…......43
3.2.3 有關聯性編排模式...........................................……….......................................46
第四章 實驗設計與結果.............................................….............................................47
4.1 實驗流程...................................................………..........................................…....47
4.2 個案公司簡介........................................…………………….......…......................48
4.3 曼陀羅應用案例一:第五項修練...................................................…..................49
4.4 曼陀羅應用案例二:人脈管理......................................….............…..................55
4.5 曼陀羅應用系統…………………...................................................…..................63
4.5.1系統環境…………………...................................................…...………..............63
4.5.2曼陀羅系統………………….............................................…….....…..................63
4.5.2.1主畫面…………………...................................................…........…………......63
4.5.2.2曼陀羅系統-十字型…………………...............................................................64
4.5.2.3曼陀羅系統-放射型…………………...........................................................…64
4.5.2.4曼陀羅系統-萬字型…………………...........................................................…65
4.5.2.6曼陀羅系統-螺旋型…………………...........................................................…65
4.5.2.7曼陀羅系統-十字擴張型…………………...................................................…66
4.5.2.8曼陀羅系統-萬花筒模式…………………..................................................….69
4.5.2.9曼陀羅系統-關聯性編排…………………..................................................….70
4.5.2.10曼陀羅系統-四段技法(順時鐘)….……………….....................................…71
4.5.2.11曼陀羅系統-四段技法(逆時鐘)….……………….....................................…72
4.5.2.12曼陀羅系統-八段技法(順時鐘)….……………….....................................…72
4.5.2.13曼陀羅系統-八段技法(逆時鐘)….……………….....................................…73
第五章 結論與建議..............………......................…….............................................75
5.1 結論..................................…..............…..........…………......................................75
5.2 建議..............................……............................………………..............................76
參考文獻................................................................…...................................................77
中文部份.................................................................………..........................................77
英文部份.................................................................………..........................................78
附錄
英文論文稿The study of the knowledge acquisition
of the knowledge management …………………………. 80
表目錄

表2-1內隱知識的定義......................................…..…......................………....……7
表2-2內隱知識與外顯知識的區別.......……...................……………..………...8
表2-3為學者對內隱知識移轉方式之看法................................…..….............11

圖目錄

圖1-1本研究流程......................................…..…......................………............…...…3
圖2-1知識管理重要元素架構............…..…...............…......……….......…........…4
圖2-2資料、資訊、知識、智慧之層級概念...........…….....……....…........…..5
圖2-3知識創造的模式圖........................................................……….....…..........…9
圖2-4知識螺旋圖......................................…..…......................………....….............10
圖2-5軟體的生命週期......................................…..…....……..………...….............13
圖2-6知識的生命週期......................................…..…...……..………....….............14
圖2-7 Marquardt(1996)提出之系統性學習型組織模型.......….…........24
圖2-8曼陀羅九宮格圖.................................................…….....………....…............31
圖2-9曼陀羅立體化思考........................................................………......…...........32
圖2-10圖像的功能........................................................……….........…………........32
圖3-1十字型.......................…………….............……..…………….….................…39
圖3-2放射型.......................…………….............……................……….......….........40
圖3-3萬字型.......................…………….............……................……….....…...........40
圖3-4螺旋型.......................…………….............……................……….…..…….....40
圖3-5萬花筒型..................…………….............……................………........……….41
圖3-6十字擴散型..................…………............……................………................….42
圖3-7混合交叉模式1..................…………….............…........………................….43
圖3-8混合交叉模式2..................…………….........................……….......…....…..43
圖3-9四段技法-順時鐘..................……………..........................…….............…..43
圖3-10四段技法-逆時鐘..................…………….........................…….................44
圖3-11八段技法-順時鐘..................…………….........................…….................44
圖3-12八段技法-逆時鐘..................…………….........................……................45
圖3-13 5w Mandal變相法..................…………….........................……..............45
圖3-14有關聯性編排模式..................……………............…….……..................46
圖3-15有關聯性編排模式-權重..................……………...................................46
圖4-1實驗流程..................……………...........……………………….…................47
圖4-2 自我檢視.................…………...........……………………………….….......49
圖4-3 優點.................………….....…....……………………………………….......50
圖4-4 缺點.................…………...........……………………………………..….......50
圖4-5運用優點來彌補缺點自我超越.................………….....…….………….50
圖4-6優點帶動缺點.................…………...........……………………………....….51
圖4-7物質.................…………...........………………………………………...….…52
圖4-8心靈.................…………...........………………………………………..……..52
圖4-9用物質條件強化心靈.................…………...........………..…………....….52
圖4-10物質帶動心靈.................……………………..........………..…………......53
圖4-11建立共同願景.................……………………..........………..…………......54
圖4-12人脈管理.................…………...........………..…………..………………....55
圖4-13打開現有人際網路.................…………...........………..…………..……..56
圖4-14規劃未來人際網路.................…………...........………..…………..……..56
圖4-15 拓展現有人脈.......……..........…………...........………..………..….....…57
圖4-16 拓展現有人脈-展開圖.................…………...........……….….........…58
圖4-17 拓展現有人脈-同學.................…………...........………..……..…...…59
圖4-18 規劃未來人際網路-流程.................…………...........……….….......…60
圖4-19 規劃未來人際網路-展開圖.................…………...........………..….…61
圖4-20 規劃未來人際網路-資訊業.................…………...........…………...…62
圖4-21 曼陀羅觀想法主畫面.................…………...........………………….....63
圖4-22曼陀羅系統-十字型.................…………...........………..………………64
圖4-23曼陀羅系統-放射型.................…………...........………..………..……..64
圖4-24曼陀羅系統-萬字型.................…………...........………..………..……..65
圖4-25曼陀羅系統-螺旋型.................…………...........………..………..……..65
圖4-26曼陀羅系統-十字擴張型........….......…………...........………..………66
圖4-27曼陀羅系統-十字擴張型二階展開A.................…..………......……..66
圖4-28曼陀羅系統-十字擴張型二階展開B.................……..……......……..67
圖4-29曼陀羅系統-十字擴張型二階展開C.................……..……......……..67
圖4-30曼陀羅系統-十字擴張型二階展開D.................…..………......……..68
圖4-31曼陀羅系統-十字擴張型展開圖.................………..….……....……..68
圖4-32曼陀羅系統-萬花筒模式.................………….…..………..…....……..69
圖4-33曼陀羅系統-萬花筒展開圖.................………….…..…….…....……..69
圖4-34曼陀羅系統-關聯性編排.................………….…..….………….……..70
圖4-35曼陀羅系統-關聯性編排交叉分析1...............….…………….……..70
圖4-36曼陀羅系統-關聯性編排交叉分析2.................………….…...……..71
圖4-37曼陀羅系統-四段技法順時鐘.................………….……..……….…..71
圖4-38曼陀羅系統-四段技法逆時鐘.................………….…….….………...72
圖4-39曼陀羅系統-八段技法順時鐘.................………….…….….………...72
圖4-40曼陀羅系統-八段技法順時鐘展開圖.................………….………...73
圖4-41曼陀羅系統-八段技法逆時鐘.................………….…….….………...73
圖4-42曼陀羅系統-八段技法逆時鐘展開圖.................………….………...74
參考文獻 中文部份
1.莊淇銘著,創意總比別人多-活用知識管理開發創意,台北,如何出版社,民國92年。
2.王復蘇著,天地人曼陀羅,台北,復御管理股份有限公司出版,民國91年。
3.Arthur Andersen Business Consulting (1999). Zukai Knowledge Management. Tokyo:Toyo Keizai. /劉京偉(2000)。知識管理的第一本書。台北市:商周。
4.彼得•聖吉,郭進隆 譯,第五項修練-學習型組織的藝術與實務,天下文化出版,民國83 年。
5.台北,高美琴,師徒間認知差異對知識移轉績效之影響:調節模式的驗證,國立東華大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,2002。
6.台北,程意詔,市場導向與內隱知識移轉對績效之影響,國立臺北科技大學商業自動化與管理研究所碩士學位論文,2004。
7.莊素玉、張玉文等著(2000),台積董事長張忠謀與台積的知識管理,遠見出版社。
英文部份
1.Alavi, M. and Leidner, D. E., “Knowledge Management Systems: Issues, Challenges,and Benefits”, Communications of the AIS, Vol. 1, No. 7, 999.
2.Alavi, Maryam, Leidner, Dorothy E., “Review: Knowledge anagement and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues” , MIS Quarterly, 2001, Vol. 25, No.1, pp.107-133.
3.Beckamn,T. J. (1999). The current state of knowledge management. In J. Liebowitz (Ed.) Knowledge management handbook (pp. 1-22). Boca Raton,CRC Press。
4.Carley, Kathleen, “Organizational Learning & Personal Turnover”, Organization Science,Vol.3, Iss. 1, 1992, pp.20-46.
5.Hayes-Roth,F., Waterman, D., & Lenat, D. (1983). Building expert systems. Reading,MA: Addison-Wesley。
6.Huber, G. (1991). Organization learning: The contributing process and literature. Organizational Science,2,88-115。
7.Kidd, A. L. (1987). Knowledge acquisition- An introductory framework. In Kidd,A. L. (Ed). Knowledge acquisition for expert system: A practical handbook. New York: Plenum Press。
8.Malhotra, Y. (2000). Knowledge management and virtual organizations. London: IDEA group Publishing。
9.Mcgraw, K. L., & Harbison-Briggs, K. (1989). Knowledge acquisition – Principles and guidelines. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International,Inc。
10.Michalski, R. S., Carbonell, J. G., & Mitchel, T. M. (1983). Machine learning- An artificial intelligence approach. Los Altos,CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers。
11.Nickols, F. (2000). “What is” in the world of work and working: Some implications of the shift to knowledge work. In J.W. Cortada & J. A. Woods (Ed.) The knowledge management yearbook 2000-2001 (pp. 3-11). Woburn,MA: Butterworth-
Heinemann。
12.Turban, E. (1988). Decision support and expert systems: Managerial perspective. New York: Macmillan。
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