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中文論文名稱 臺灣大學生輕動詞連用語詞使用之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of Light Verb Collocations Involving Have, Make, and Take Used by Taiwanese University Students
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 劉振蘋
研究生英文姓名 Chen-Pin Liu
電子信箱 hxfs@ms21.hinet.net
學號 889010053
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-23
論文頁數 214頁
口試委員 指導教授-林春仲
委員-林啟一
委員-姚崇昆
委員-陳秀潔
委員-陳秋蘭
中文關鍵字 字彙連用詞  文法連用詞  輕動詞 
英文關鍵字 lexical collocations  syntactic collocations  light verbs 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討台灣大學生寫出含有輕動詞have、make及take的字彙及文法連用詞的能力。總共有二百名台灣北部某大學的學生參與本研究,他們依照外語能力測驗的分數分成三組。本研究所使用的測試工具有三,一是連用詞的翻譯測驗,二是一份有關個人語言背景的問卷,第三份問卷採書面作答,請受測者回憶錯誤部分在翻譯時所使用的策略。本研究所探討的連用詞類型有三:一為動詞+名詞的字彙連用詞,二為動詞+名詞+介系詞+名詞的文法連用詞(即第一種文法連用詞),三為動詞+名詞+修飾用的片語或子句的文法連用詞(即第二種文法連用詞)。本研究結果顯示,學習者使用含有have、make及take的連用詞的能力與其英文程度有正相關性。而受測者在字彙連用詞上表現最佳,在第二種文法連用詞上表現次之,在第一種文法連用詞上表現最差。受測者在連用詞次類型上的表現不一,大致與關鍵字的熟悉度、母語對各次類型所產生的影響、語義及語法的限制,以及學習者對這些限制的知覺有關。錯誤類型顯示,在含有輕動詞have、make及take的字彙及文法連用詞中,介系詞和冠詞比動詞及修飾用的片語或子句困難。最後,錯誤的直覺和記憶造成大多數錯誤的產生。
英文摘要 This study aimed to investigate Taiwanese university learners’ production of lexical and syntactic collocations of have, make, and take. A total of two hundred university students in a northern Taiwan university participated in the study. They were divided into three groups according to their scores in Foreign Language Proficiency Test. A collocation translation test, a questionnaire on learners’ linguistic background, and a written retrospective questionnaire were used as materials for the study. The results of the study indicated a positive relationship between the learners’ English proficiency and their competence in using collocations of have, make, and take. Besides, the learners as a whole performed best in lexical collocations composed of a verb and a noun; second in the syntactic collocations composed of a verb, a noun, and a modifying phrase or clause; and worst in the syntactic collocations composed of a verb, a noun, and a prepositional phrase. But they differed in their performances in the subtypes in accordance with the difficulty of the key word given, the degree of semantic and syntactic constraints imposed on each subtype, the learners’ awareness of the constraints, and the different degrees of L1 influence in each subtype. The error patterns revealed that prepositions and articles were more difficult than verbs and modifying elements in collocations of have, make, and take. Finally, reliance on wrong intuition and wrong memory contributed to most errors.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………… i
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………… iii
English Abstract…………………………………………………………………iv
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………… v
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………… x
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………… xiii
List of Appendices……………………………………………………………….. xiv
Chapter One Introduction……………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………… 2
1.2 Statement of the Purpose………………………………………………… 6
1.3 Research Questions……………………………………………………… 7
1.4 Definitions of Terms…………………………………………………….. 7
1.4.1 Collocation as a Phenomenon…………………………………… 7
1.4.2 Collocation as a Lexical Phrase………………………………… 8
1.4.3 Light Verb……………………………………………………….. 8
1.4.4 Markedness……………………………………………………… 9
1.4.5 Overgeneralization………………………………………………. 9
1.4.6 Range……………………………………………………………. 9
1.4.7 Syntagmatic vs. Paradigmatic…………………………………… 10
1.4.8 Transfer………………………………………………………….. 11
1.5 Significance of the Study………………………………………………... 11
Chapter Two Review of the Literature………………………………………… 14
2.1 Two Linguistic Concepts………………………………………………... 14
2.1.1 The Concept of Collocation……………………………………... 15
2.1.1.1 The Lexical Composition Approach…………………….. 18
2.1.1.2 The Semantic Approach…………………………………. 21
2.1.1.3 The Structural Approach………………………………… 23
2.1.1.4 The Phraseological Approach…………………………… 26
2.1.2 The Concept of Light Verbs……………………………………... 28
2.1.2.1 Have, Make, and Take in Collocations…………………... 29
2.1.2.2 Empirical Studies on the L2 Use of Hake, Make, and Take in Collocations……………………………………... 32
2.2 The Study of Learner Language…………………………………………. 35
2.2.1 Contrastive Analysis…………………………………………….. 35
2.2.2 Error Analysis…………………………………………………… 38
2.2.3 Interlanguage Theory of Second Language Acquisition………… 43
2.2.3.1 Processes of Interlanguage Construction………………... 44
2.2.3.2 The Nature of the Interlanguage Continuum……………. 55
2.2.3.3 Fossilization……………………………………………... 56
2.3 The Collocationist Model of Language…………………………………. 57
2.4 A Model of Second Language Production………………………………. 59
2.5 Theories of How Words Are Stored in the Lexicon……………………... 59
2.6 Lexical Access and Word Organization…………………………………. 61
2.7 Comprehension of L1 and L2 Idioms…………………………………… 64
2.8 Explicit and Implicit Knowledge………………………………………... 66
2.9 The Role of Attention in Second Language Acquisition………………... 68
2.10 The Role of Explicit Instruction……………………………………… 69
2.11 Theoretical Framework of This Study…………………………………... 72
Chapter Three Methodology…………………………………………………… 74
3.1 Participants……………………………………………………………… 74
3.1.1 Measurement of Participants’English Proficiency……………… 77
3.1.2 Student Grouping……………………………………………… 80
3.2 Language Patterns Under Study…………………………………………81
3.3 Materials…………………………………………………………………82
3.3.1 A Collocation Translation Test…………………………………84
3.3.2 A Questionnaire on the Learners’Linguistic Background………88
3.3.3 A Written Retrospective Questionnaire…………………………88
3.4 Procedures……………………………………………………………… 89
3.5 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………. 90
3.6 Scoring of the Collocation Translation Test…………………………… 91
3.7 Statistical Analysis of the Scores……………………………………… 94
3.8 Statistical Analysis of the Error Occurrence Frequencies………………95
Chapter Four Results…………………………………………………………… 96
4.1 English Proficiency vs. Competence in Producing Collocations of Have,
Make, and Take………………………………………………………… 96
4.2 Production of the Three Types of Collocations of Have, Make, and Take 98
4.2.1 Production of the Lexical Collocation Subtypes………………102
4.2.2 Production of Type I Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………106
4.2.3 Production of Type II Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………111
4.3 Error Types in Lexical Collocations of Have, Make, and Take…………114
4.3.1 Error Types in Lexical Collocation Subtypes……………………115
4.4 Error Types in Type I Syntactic Collocations of Have, Make, and Take...117
4.4.1 Error Types in Type I Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………118
4.5 Error Types in Type II Syntactic Collocations of Have, Make, and Take..122
4.5.1 Error Types in Type II Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………124
4.6 Relationship Between the Performance in Collocation Translation Test and
Twelve Factors…………………………………………………127
4.7 Three Types of Strategy Use Involved in the Production of Unacceptable
Collocations of Have, Make, and Take……………………128
4.8 Major Findings…………………………………………………………... 130
Chapter Five Discussion……………………………………………………… 139
5.1 English Proficiency and Competence in Producing Collocations………139
5.2 Performance in the Three Types of Collocations………………………140
5.3 Performance in the Subtypes of Each Type of Collocations of Have, Make, and Take…………………………………………………………144
5.3.1 Lexical Collocation Subtypes…………………………………… 144
5.3.2 Type I Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………………………146
5.3.3 Type II Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………………………149
5.4 Error Types in the Learners’ Production of Collocations of Have, Make, and Take…………………………………………………………………151
5.4.1 Errors in Lexical Collocations of Have, Make, and Take……… 151
5.4.2 Errors in Type I Syntactic Collocations of Have, Make, and Take 153
5.4.2.1 The Use of Prepositions…………………………………. 153
5.4.2.2 The Use of Articles……………………………………… 155
5.4.2.3 The Use of Verbs………………………………………… 157

5.4.3 Errors in Type II Syntactic Collocations of Have, Make, and Take……………………………………………………………… 158
5.4.3.1 The Use of Verbs………………………………………… 158
5.4.3.2 The Use of Articles……………………………………… 160
5.4.3.3 The Use of Modifiers……………………………………. 161
5.5 Linguistic Awareness and the Storage and Retrieval of Collocations……163
Chapter Six Conclusions……………………………………………………… 165
6.1 Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………. 169
6.2 Limitations of the Study……………………………………………... 172
6.3 Recommendations for Further Research……………………………173
References………………………………………………………………………174
Appendices………………………………………………………………………192

List of Tables
Table 3.1 Student Grouping According to Their Scores in FLPT……………… 80
Table 3.2 Three Types of Collocations of Have, Make, and Take……………81
Table 4.1 Correlation Between Collocation Translation Scores and the FLPT Scores……………………………………………………………97
Table 4.2 Mean Scores in the Collocation Translation Test…………………98
Table 4.3 One-way ANOVA ─ Comparing the Mean Scores in Collocation
Translation Test of Different Groups……………………99
Table 4.4 Cross Comparison of the Mean Scores of Different Groups in Collocation Translation Test and Its Parts…………………………… 100
Table 4.5 Comparison of the Performances in the
Three Parts of the Collocation Translation Test……102
Table 4.6 Mean Scores in the Lexical Collocation
Subtypes…………………103
Table 4.7 One-way ANOVA ─ Comparing the Mean Scores of Different Groups in the
Lexical Collocation Subtypes…………………………104
Table 4.8 Cross Comparison of the Mean Scores of Different Groups in
Lexical Collocation Subtypes…………………………………104
Table 4.9 Paired Comparison of the Performances in the Lexical Collocation Subtypes………………………………………………………………106
Table 4.10 Mean Scores of Type I Syntactic Collocation Subtypes……………107
Table 4.11 One-way ANOVA ─ Comparing the Mean Scores of Different Groups on
Type I Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………………108
Table 4.12 Cross Comparison of the Mean Scores of Different Groups in Type I
Syntactic Collocation Subtypes……………………………109
Table 4.13 Comparison of Mean Scores in Type I Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………………………………………………………110
Table 4.14 Mean Scores in Type II Syntactic Collocation Subtypes……………111
Table 4.15 One-way ANOVA ─ Comparing the Mean Scores of Different Groups in
Type II Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………………112
Table 4.16 Comparison of the Mean Scores of Different Groups in Type II Syntactic Collocation Subtypes………………………………………113
Table 4.17 Paired Comparison of the Performance in Type II Syntactic Collocations Subtypes………………………………………………114
Table 4.18 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Lexical Collocations…………………………………………………116
Table 4.19 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Type I Syntactic Collocations…………………………………………………117
Table 4.20 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in
Type I Syntactic Collocations of Have………………119
Table 4.21 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Each Type I Syntactic Collocations of
Make…………………………………………………120
Table 4.22 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Type I Syntactic
Collocations of Take…………………………………122
Table 4.23 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Type II Syntactic Collocations……………………………………………123
Table 4.24 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Type II Syntactic
Collocations of Have…………………………………124
Table 4.25 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Type II Syntactic
Collocations of Make…………………………………125
Table 4.26 Comparison of Error Occurrence Frequencies in Type II Syntactic
Collocations of Take…………………………………126
Table 4.27 Relationships Between the Participants’
Scores in Collocation Translation
Test and Twelve Factors……………………………127
Table 4.28 Mean Frequency of the Three Types of Strategy Use in Producing
Unacceptable Collocations of Have, Make, and Take…129
Table 4.29 Performance Patterns in the Production
of the Three Types of Collocations of Have, Make, and Take………………………………131
Table 4.30 Performance Patterns in the Production of Lexical Collocation Subtypes………………………………131
Table 4.31 Performance Patterns in the Production of Type I Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………………………………………………132
Table 4.32 Performance Patterns in the Production of Type II Syntactic Collocation Subtypes…………………………………………………133
Table 4.33 Error Patterns in the Production of Lexical Collocations of Have, Make,
and Take…………………………………………………134
Table 4.34 Error Patterns in the Production of Type I Syntactic Collocations…135
Table 4.35 Error Patterns in the Production of Type II Syntactic Collocations…136
Table 4.36 Patterns of Strategy Use in Four Types of Errors in Lexical and Syntactic Collocations of Have, Make, and Take……………………138

List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Four Types of Lexical Phrases by Wood………………………………16
Figure 2.2 Five Types of Lexical Combinations by Benson et al.………………… 16
Figure 2.3 Idioms and Habitual Collocations……………………………………18

List of Appendices
Appendix A Semantics of Have, Make, and Take……………………………192
Appendix B Syntactic Structures of Collocations of Have, Make, and Take…195
Appendix C Part 1 of the Collocation Translation Test: Lexical Collocations of Have, Make, and Take………………………………………… 198
Appendix D Part 2 of the Collocation Translation Test: Type I Syntactic Collocations of
Have, Make, and Take…………………………201
Appendix E Part 3 of the Collocation Translation Test: Type II Syntactic Collocations of
Have, Make, and Take…………………………205
Appendix F A Questionnaire on Personal Linguistic Background……………208
Appendix G A Retrospective Questionnaire…………………………………209
Appendix H Error Types in Lexical and Syntactic Collocations of Have, Make, and Take…………………………………………………212
Appendix I Correlation Between the Participants’
Scores in the Collocation Test and
Their Interest in English…………………………214
Appendix J Correlation Between the Participants’
Scores in the Collocation Test and
Their Feelings of Deficiency in Vocabulary……214
Appendix K Correlation Between the Participants’
Scores on the Collocation Test and
Their Feelings of Deficiency in Grammar…………214
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