||The Construction of Innovation Ecosystem: The Case of TED
||Master's Program, Department Of International Business
Corporate Innovation Strategy
|| 世界正由知識經濟轉型成內容(或創意)經濟。創新的重要性也因而一直逐漸被重視與珍視。提到創新，就想到TED。截至2012年底，TED Talks觀看次數已累積有十億。TED吸引那些願意學習與分享點子的人。這些人集結起來成為一個群體，我們稱之為TED社群。TED社群成為TED創新中強而有力的基石。本研究意圖從生態系統的角度來探討創新。這方面的先驅者非英國BOP Consulting主席John Howkins莫屬，其於2009年提出創意生態的概念。由於目前針對創新生態系統的研究仍然屈指可數，因此本研究試著以TED為例子建構創新生態系統。
本研究採用質化研究中個案研究的方法。資料蒐集的方法有觀察法、次級資料法、訪談法。研究者藉由參加TEDx活動獲得TED體驗以及聆聽John Howkins講座來進行現場觀察。此外，研究者找尋所有TED相關資料以刻劃出本研究之研究架構。最後，從被訪談人身上蒐取相關初級資料。被訪談人及單位包含了John Howkins、兩位TEDx活動的策展人、一位TED的高階主管以及HP公司。
|| The knowledge economy is shifting into the content (or creative) economy. The importance of innovation has been increasingly accentuated and valued. When it comes to innovation, TED is what pops into everyone’s mind. At the end of 2012, TED Talks have hit one billion views. TED draws those who are willing to learn and share ideas into its community, the so-called TED community. The TED community, therefore, becomes the solid foundation of TED’s innovation. The study attempts to study innovation from the perspective of ecosystem. John Howkins (2009), the Chairman of BOP Consulting and the forerunner in that regard, advanced the creative ecologies. In addition to his theory, there is little research on innovation ecosystem. With a view to this, the research essays to construct the innovation ecosystem, based on TED.
This study accepts the case study method of the qualitative research, ergo. Also, this study collected the relevant materials by means of observation, second data study, and interview. The researcher proceeded on-spot observation for acquiring a TED experience by attending TEDx events and gaining insight for creative ecologies by participating in one John Howkins’ speech. Also, the researcher searched for every possible piece of information about TED to carve out frameworks of the research. In the end, the researcher obtained the primary data from the interviewees, pertaining to the research. They include John Howkins, two organizers of TEDx events, one executive officer of TED, and Hewlett-Packard.
Finally, the research established the TED-centered innovation ecosystem. The researcher believes that three elements - crowd, light, and desire - back up the innovation ecosystem of TED. It is interesting that six roles of the crowd provide the organisms in TED's innovation ecosystem. The ecosystem is self-fueling, self-organizing and self-restoring, and develops talents. The research framework is oriented toward TED. The researcher wondered whether this perspective can be applied to the cooperation between TED and enterprises, so both the extensional structure of TED and TED’s application to the corporate innovation strategy were also discussed. First, the researcher holds that the enterprise can reach out to the TED community via TED and to the non-TED communities directly or indirectly via the TED community. Second, the researcher drew on the IPO (Input-Process-Output) model and had faith in the presumption that an enterprise can successfully merge TED into its corporate strategy on innovation.
||I. Introduction 1
1.1 General Background Information 1
1.2 Establishing a Niche 4
1.3 Research Purpose 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Value of Research 6
1.6 Overview 6
1.7 Research Flow Chart 6
II. Literature Review 8
2.1 Innovation 8
2.1.1 Definition of Innovation 8
2.1.2 Sources of Innovation 10
2.1.3 Types of Innovation 11
188.8.131.52 Management Innovation 11
184.108.40.206 Disruptive Innovation 12
220.127.116.11 Value Innovation 12
18.104.22.168 Open Innovation 13
22.214.171.124 Democratizing Innovation 13
126.96.36.199 Others 14
2.2 Ecosystem 17
2.2.1 Definition of Ecosystem 17
2.2.2 Definition of Business Ecosystem 18
2.2.3 Definition of Innovation Ecosystem 21
III. Methodology 25
3.1 Research Design 25
3.2 Interviewees 27
3.3 Instruments 28
3.3.1 Interview Outline for John Howkins 28
3.3.2 Interview Outline for TEDxTokyo 28
3.3.3 Interview Outline for TED, TEDxTaipei and Enterprise 29
3.4 Data Collection Procedure 30
3.4.1 Observation 30
3.4.2 Second Data Study 32
3.4.3 Interview 32
3.5 Conceptual Framework 33
IV. Research Results and Analysis 34
4.1 TED Conferences, LLC 34
4.1.1 Background 34
4.1.2 TED Initiatives 36
4.1.3 TED Partnerships 40
4.1.4 Development of TED 43
4.1.5 TED’s Magic for Attracting Eager Minds 44
4.1.6 Comments about TED 46
4.1.7 Crowd-Accelerated Innovation and the Online Videos 46
4.2 Results 50
4.2.1 TED-Centered Innovation Ecosystem 50
4.2.2 Extension Structure of TED 54
4.2.3 Application to Corporate Innovation Strategy 61
4.3 Analysis 70
4.3.1 TED-Centered Innovation Ecosystem 70
4.3.2 Extension Structure of TED 73
4.3.3 Application to Corporate Innovation Strategy 78
V. Discussion and Conclusions 83
5.1 Conclusions 83
5.2 Limitations of the Study 84
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research 85
Appendix A: Interview Outline for John Howkins, the Chairman of BOP Consulting 94
Appendix B: Interview Outline for Patrick Newell, the Cofounder of TEDxTokyo 95
Appendix C: Interview Outline for Jason Hsu, the Curator of TEDxTaipei 97
Appendix D: Interview Outline for Ronda Carnegie, the Head of Global Partnership of TED 100
Appendix E: Interview Outline for Enterprise 104
Appendix F: Photo with Patrick Newell, the Cofounder of TEDxTokyo 106
Appendix G: Photo with Jason Hsu, the Curator of TEDxTaipei 106
Appendix H: Observation of TEDxTaipei Event Themed with “City with Heartbeats” 107
List of Figures
Figure 1-1: Research flow chart 7
Figure 2-1: Elements of the innovation ecosystem 22
Figure 2-2: The innovation ecosystem by Wang 24
Figure 4-1: TED conference attendees by occupation 37
Figure 4-2: Crowd-accelerated innovation 49
Figure 4-3: The framework of TED-centered innovation ecosystem 72
Figure 4-4: Extensional structure of TED 77
Figure 4-5: TED’s application to the corporate innovation strategy 82
List of Tables
Table 3-1: Interviewees whom the research targeted 27
Table 3-2: TEDx Events that the researcher observed 31
Table 3-3: John Howkins’ speech that the researcher observed 31
Table 4-1: 10 things that a partner enterprise can do 41
Table 4-2: TED’s major development 43
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