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中文論文名稱 態度、動機和溝通意願之研究:以某台灣雙語中學為例
英文論文名稱 Effects of Attitudes and Motivation on Willingness to Communicate: A case study of a Taiwanese Bilingual Middle School
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 109
學期 1
出版年 110
研究生中文姓名 蔣友涓
研究生英文姓名 Alexandra Chiang
學號 606116019
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2021-01-15
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-林怡弟
委員-羅艾琳
委員-劉宇挺
中文關鍵字 溝通意願、台灣雙語學制、L1溝通意願、L2溝通意願、語言學習態度、語言學習動機 
英文關鍵字 willingness to communicate, Taiwanese bilingual program, L1 WTC, L2 WTC, language learning attitude, language learning motivation 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 習得第二語言的重要性在全球化迅速發展的二十世紀中無可辯駁。由於溝通意願(WTC)是獲得溝通能力的先驅,與其相關的研究也引起了廣泛關注。在2000年代初期,台灣教育部(MOE)調整了國家教育課綱,允許各校在小學階段實施英語教育。許多學校也隨後開始研發從小學至中學的九年雙語教育學程,學齡兒童也成為台灣最大的語言學習群之一。
本研究結合質與量的數據收集與分析,旨在(a)探討雙語學生對中文(L1)和英文(L2)的學習態度、動機與WTC之間的相關性;(b)評估WTC是否會因對象、學習情境之不同而有所差異。此研究之量化研究部分於2017年春季首先進行,實施對象為台灣北部一所私立中小學的58名七年級雙語班學生。研究工具包含一份36題的問卷調查。本研究的第二部分基於第一部分的量化研究結果,而有後續的訪談研究。訪談的目的為詳細了解雙語EFL學生的溝通交流習慣。本研究的結果顯示學習態度對中文WTC沒有影響,但學習態度與L2 WTC有正相關性,並受到教育之影響。此外,學生的溝通交流意願在給予明確任務時彰顯最高。此研究的第一部分於2019年5月17日在亞洲語言學習會議上首次發表,並在其2019年會議記錄中登載。
有鑑於此,本文將為促進年輕語言學習者的WTC提供見解。其中包括增進學生與同儕用第二語言聊天的意願,使他們靈活運用語言。最後,調查結果也揭示學生在不同情境下所展現的WTC,並提供可能之教學方法。
關鍵字:溝通意願、台灣雙語學制、L1溝通意願、L2溝通意願、語言學習態度、語言學習動機
英文摘要 The importance of speaking a second language is now irrefutable with rapid 20th century globalization. Subsequently, willingness to communicate (WTC), a theoretical precursor to attaining communicative competency, has also gained widespread attention. In the early 2000s, Taiwan’s Ministry of Education (MOE) adjusted the National curriculum to begin English education in grade school. Soon after the announcement, private schools nationwide started introducing 9 year bilingual educational tracks from lower to middle school. As more and more parents saw the benefits of learning a second language, school aged children quickly became one of the largest language learning demographic in Taiwan.
Nonetheless, despite the shift in demand, most local studies still target university students. Noting such knowledge gap, this study focuses on young bilingual learners that study in a EFL environment. Utilizing a combination of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis processes, this study aims to (a) examine correlations between attitudes and WTC for both Chinese (L1) and English (L2); and (b) to evaluate how their WTC and communicative habits compare across different situational contexts in scenarios among peers and with adults in the classroom.
The quantitative part 1 of the study was conducted during the Spring of 2017 and informs half of the thesis (Chiang, 2019). Part 1was first presented in 2019 at The Asian Conference on Language Learning on May 17, 2019 and published in their 2019 conference proceedings.
In the fall of 2017, a 36 question 4 point-Likert survey was given to 58 seventh grade students at a private Elementary and Middle School in Northern Taiwan; results indicate that L1 WTC is more determined by trait influences while L2 WTC is comparably more malleable and influenced by education (attitude has a moderate positive correlation to WTC in L2 but not in L1). Additionally, participants are more WTC in task-based activities in L2, which is consistent with findings on how students are generally more WTC in classes taught in L2 at the private school, regardless of their trait dispositions.
This thesis heavily references part 1 of the study and builds upon its findings with a follow up qualitative interview study (part 2). Elaborating on Taiwanese bilingual EFL students’ communicative habits, the qualitative interviews explains that L1 WTC is more trait based because students are expected to stay quiet during class and defer communication to social settings where trait dispositions largely determines their L1 WTC. L2 WTC on the other hand, is more encouraged in the classroom and more influenced by affective reasons relating to culture, convenience, and individual fluency. Informed with the above, this paper will provide insights to ways educators can better promote young learners’ WTC in the classroom. Furthermore, findings will also reveal differences in WTC across various contexts such as with teachers vs. peers or in different academic vs. social constructs. Finally, teaching techniques will be discussed in response to key findings.


論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE............................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................1
1.1 Background......................................................................................................1 1.2 Bilingual L2 programs and the Taiwanese context..........................................4 1.2.1 Bilingual L2 programs..........................................................................4 1.2.2 Bilingual schools in Taiwan..................................................................5 1.3 Purpose of the study.........................................................................................7 1.4 Research questions...........................................................................................7 1.5 Significance of the study..................................................................................8 1.6 Outline of thesis...............................................................................................9 1.7 Definition of terms.........................................................................................11
CHAPTER TWO .........................................................................................................12
LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................12
2.1 Willingness to communicate..........................................................................12 2.1.1 McCroskey’s willingness-to-communicate (WTC) model.................13 2.1.2 Clement’s and MacIntyre’s willingness-to-communicate model .......14 2.1.3 Wen and Clément’s (2003) WTC model.............................................17
2.2 Language learning and motivation.................................................................21 2.2.1 Gardner’s socio-educational model ....................................................22 2.2.2 Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory ........................................25 2.2.3 Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system...............................................28
2.3 Foreign language anxiety...............................................................................29 2.3.1 Second language learning anxiety ......................................................30 2.3.1 Sources of second language learning anxiety ..................................... 34 2.3.2 Foreign language anxiety and young learners ....................................35
CHAPTER THREE .....................................................................................................38
METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................38
3.1 Overview........................................................................................................38 3.2 Participants.....................................................................................................39 3.3 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................40
VII
3.3.1 Questionnaire......................................................................................41
3.3.2 Student interview ................................................................................43 3.4 Data collection ...............................................................................................45 3.5 Data analysis ..................................................................................................47
3.5.1 Statistical analysis in SPSS.................................................................48 3.5.2 Content analysis..................................................................................49
CHAPTER FOUR........................................................................................................50
RESULTS..................................................................................................................... 50
4.1 The effects of attitude on L1 and L2 WTC....................................................50 4.1.1 Quantitative results .............................................................................51 4.1.2 Qualitative results ...............................................................................57
4.2 Effects of situational context on L1 and L2 WTC.........................................62 4.2.1 Quantitative results .............................................................................63 4.2.2 Qualitative results ...............................................................................66
CHAPTER FIVE .........................................................................................................75
DISCUSSION..............................................................................................................75
5.1 Discussion on the effects of attitudes toward L1 and L2 on WTC ................ 76 5.2 Discussion on the effects of situational context on L1 and L2 WTC ............82
CHAPTER SIX............................................................................................................90
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................90
6.1 Summary........................................................................................................90 6.2 Pedagogical implications ...............................................................................92 6.3 Limitations of the study .................................................................................94 6.4 Suggestions for future studies........................................................................96
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................98 APPENDICES ........................................................................................................... 110
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