||An Examination of Online Advertising
Effectiveness: A Neuropsychological Investigation
||Department of Information Management
Online advertising effectiveness
Attitude toward advertising
||多感官行銷(multisensory marketing)在社會科學、神經科學以及行銷學文獻中已被視為能夠增強廣告效果之方法。過去研究大多著重在視覺與聽覺的廣告設計效果，鮮少探討網路廣告亦能帶給消費者嗅覺與味覺之影響。因此，為了探討視覺與聽覺感官刺激所產生出對廣告產品的嗅覺與味覺之聯覺影響，本研究發展出網路廣告的設計元素：理性／感性訴求(視覺)與快／慢節奏(聽覺)。透過EEG(electroencephalogram)腦波圖觀察消費者嗅覺／味覺之誘發情形，進而探討不同網路情境廣告對於消費者情緒、廣告態度與行為意圖之影響。本研究採取事件相關電位(event-related potentials)之準實驗法，共蒐集166個有效樣本以驗證本研究模型。根據EEG(electroencephalogram)腦波圖與SEM(Structural Equation Modeling)結構方程模型之分析結果說明，在理性情境廣告中能夠誘發消費者的嗅覺感官，並使消費者情緒愉悅度與激發度對於廣告態度具有正向顯著之影響；在感性情境廣告中能夠同時誘發消費者的嗅覺與味覺感官，並使消費者情緒愉悅度對於廣告態度具有正向顯著之影響；而理性與感性之情境廣告皆能夠使消費者的廣告態度對於口碑與購買意圖具有正向顯著之影響。本研究透過網路廣告設計與聯覺認知神經機制之了解，提供廣告設計商與行銷者針對不同的客群與產品來擬定更完善的廣告策略。
||Multisensory marketing has been seen as an approach improving advertising effect in the social science, neuroscience, and marketing literatures. For examining visual/audio synesthesia, the effect of smelling (olfactory) and tasting (gustatory) an online product, this study first developed design elements of digital video advertising: rational/emotional appeals (visual) and fast/slow tempo (audio). Moreover, it strived to investigate empirically the effects of various online advertisement contexts on consumer emotion, attitude toward advertising, and behavioral intention. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) in a scenario-based laboratory experiments. Data collected from 166 customers provide strong support for the research model. Through EEG (Electroencephalogram) and SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) analyses, in rational advertisings, consumers’ olfactory was triggered and both arousal and pleasure of the emotions affected the attitudes; in emotional advertisings, not only olfactory but gustatory were triggered and only pleasure affected the attitudes. By understanding online advertising design and neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia, the insights from the findings can benefit designers and marketers in implementing more effective marketing strategies.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究程序 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
2.1 腦波的嗅覺、味覺 4
2.2 廣告與聯覺 5
2.3 情緒量表(愉悅度-激發度-支配度, P-A-D) 6
2.4 廣告態度 8
2.5 口碑 8
2.6 購買意圖 9
第三章 研究方法 10
3.1 研究模型 10
3.2 研究流程 11
3.3 研究假說 12
3.3.1 使用者情緒對於廣告態度之影響 12
3.3.2 廣告態度對於口碑之影響 13
3.3.3 廣告態度對於購買意圖之影響 14
3.4 研究設計 15
3.4.1 線上廣告設計的分類架構 15
3.4.2 實驗流程設計 18
3.4.3 實驗對象 19
3.4.4 腦波分析設計與信度 20
3.4.5 情境廣告與腦波分析 22
3.5 問卷設計與變數測量 24
3.5.1 本研究問卷 24
3.5.2 問卷題項 24
3.5.3 問卷的前測與試測 26
3.6 構面操作型定義 27
第四章 資料分析與結果 28
4.1 資料分析方法 28
4.2 樣本結構描述 28
4.3 模型假說與驗證 31
4.3.1 量測模型分析 31
4.3.2 結構模型分析 35
第五章 結論與建議 40
5.1 研究結果與討論 40
5.2 理論意涵 44
5.3 實務意涵 45
5.4 研究限制與建議 47
表 3-1：研究流程 11
表 3-2：廣告情境分類 16
表 3-3：四種情境廣告之β波功率分布頻譜圖 23
表 3-4：四種情境廣告之嗅味覺分類結果 23
表 3-5：消費者情緒P-A之量表問項 25
表 3-6：廣告態度之衡量問項 25
表 3-7：口碑衡量問項 26
表 3-8：購買意圖之衡量問項 26
表 3-9：各研究構面操作型定義 27
表 4-1：受測者之一般性統計資料-1(N=166) 30
表 4-2：受測者之一般性統計資料-2(N=166) 31
表 4-3：四種情境廣告之敘述性統計 32
表 4-4：理性情境廣告之PLS驗證性因素分析與各指標交叉負荷量值 33
表 4-5：感性情境廣告之PLS驗證性因素分析與各指標交叉負荷量值 34
表 4-6：四種情境廣告之各構面間之相關係數與AVE的平方根值 35
表 4-7：本研究假說與驗證結果 39
圖 1-1：研究程序 3
圖 3-1：研究模型 10
圖 3-2：理性訴求的情境廣告畫面 17
圖 3-3：感性訴求的情境廣告畫面 17
圖 3-4：實驗流程 19
圖 4-1：SEM主要效果模式-理性訴求快節奏(R-F) 37
圖 4-2：SEM主要效果模式-理性訴求慢節奏(R-S) 37
圖 4-3：SEM主要效果模式-感性訴求快節奏(E-F) 38
圖 4-4：SEM主要效果模式-感性訴求慢節奏(E-S) 38
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