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系統識別號 U0002-2807201113581900
中文論文名稱 直接甲醇燃料電池微幫浦與輕量化集電片之設計與製作
英文論文名稱 Design and Fabrication of micro pumps and light weight current collectors applied on the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 宋旻峰
研究生英文姓名 Min-Feng Sung
學號 895370020
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-13
論文頁數 153頁
口試委員 指導教授-李世鳴
共同指導教授-管衍德
委員-吳宗信
委員-牛仰堯
委員-陳增源
委員-陳慶祥
委員-李世鳴
中文關鍵字 直接甲醇燃料電池  微機電  微幫浦  FR4玻璃纖維  輕量化 
英文關鍵字 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  Micro Electro Mechanical Systems  Micro Pump  FR4 Glass/Epoxy  Lightweight 
學科別分類
中文摘要 直接甲醇燃料電池(Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC)使用甲醇溶液為液態燃料,為了維持DMFC穩定性與效能,常使用主動式液態幫浦將燃料輸送至DMFC中。然而幫浦所消耗的功率將影響DMFC系統的總輸出效率,因此本研究擬設計與製作出適合應用至DMFC之磁力式與隔薄膜氣液式兩款微幫浦,其中磁力式微幫浦的低操作電壓與電流,在應用至微型燃料電池充電系統,可以有效地降低系統對幫浦消耗功率的需求,進而提升整體系統的效率。隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦則可以同時帶動陽極的液體燃料與陰極的氣體,若將其應用在小型DMFC系統時,有助於系統的微型化。
此外,DMFC所使用之集電片或雙極板的材質與重量,影響了DMFC系統的體積與微型化,因此本論文擬應用微機電製程(Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, MEMS)中常見的熱蒸鍍技術(Thermo coater technique),將FR4玻璃纖維基材表面鍍上金屬薄層,以製作出圓盤狀輕量化集電板。研究中所開發出的圓盤狀輕量化集電板具有低成本、輕量化、與設計多樣性等優點,相當適合應用至微型燃料電池。最後本論文將結合所開發出的微幫浦、圓盤狀輕量化集電板與直流升壓電路,完成一款可攜式DMFC充電系統。
英文摘要 Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) adopt a methanol solution as the liquid fuel. To maintain the stability and performance of DMFCs, an active liquid pump is typically used to supply fuel to the DMFCs. However, the power consumption of the pump affects the total efficiency of a DMFC system. Therefore, this research aims to design and fabricate both a magnetic micro pump and a diaphragm liquid/air micro pump suitable for direct use with methanol fuel cells. When applied to small DMFC charger systems, the low operation voltage and low current characteristics efficiently reduce the power consumption of the system and increase the efficiency of the entire system.
The diaphragm liquid/air micro pump can drive anode liquid fuel and cathode air simultaneously. If applied to small DMFC systems, it can facilitate system miniaturization.
Additionally, the material and weight of the current collector on the bipolar plates adopted in DMFCs will affect the volume and miniaturization of DMFCs. Therefore, this thesis applies the thermal coating technique, which is widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), to construct the circular lightweight current collectors by coating thin films on FR4 glass/epoxy substrate surfaces.
The current collector developed in this research has the advantages of being low cost and lightweight with a flexible design, making it suitable for micro fuel cell applications. Finally, this thesis integrates the developed micro pumps, the circular light weight current collectors, and the boost circuit to construct a DMFC charge system.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 序論
1-1 前言.............................................. 1
1-2 問題探討與研究方法................................ 3
第二章 燃料電池背景與文獻回顧
2-1 微型燃料電池...................................... 6
2-1.1 PCB製程......................................... 6
2-1.2 被動式微型燃料電池.............................. 9
2-1.3 具微機電製程之微型燃料電池...................... 11
2-1.4 微型燃料電池搭配升壓電路的運用.................. 13
2-1.5 小結............................................ 14
2-2 微機電製程應用於燃料電池之相關研究................ 16
2-3 微幫浦之種類與運作原理............................ 23
2-3.1 磁力式微幫浦.................................... 23
2-3.2 熱致動式微幫浦.................................. 27
2-3.3 隔薄膜式微幫浦.................................. 30
2-3.4 氣致動式微幫浦.................................. 31
2-3.5 小結............................................ 34
2-4 集電板製程回顧.................................... 36
2-4.1 PCB製程之雙極板或集電片......................... 36
2-4.2 金屬材質之集電片或雙極板........................ 38
2-4.3 複合材料材質集電片或雙極板...................... 41
2-4.4 小結............................................ 42
第三章 圓盤狀輕量化集電板的設計與製作
3-1 集電板之構造...................................... 44
3-2 單電池集電板設計與製作............................ 46
3-2.1 基板與幾何設計.................................. 46
3-2.2 導電層與抗腐蝕層製作............................ 48
3-3 電池組集電板設計與製作............................ 55
3-3.1 幾何設計........................................ 55
3-3.1.1 第一款集電版.................................. 55
3-3.1.2 第二款集電版.................................. 59
3-3.1.3 第三款集電版.................................. 63
3-3.1.4 第四款集電版.................................. 66
3.3.2 疊層設計........................................ 67
3-3.3 PDMS墊片製作.................................... 71
第四章 適用於DMFC之微幫浦設計與製作
4-1 磁力式微幫浦設計與製作............................ 73
4-1.1 第一款磁力式微幫浦.............................. 73
4-1.2 第二款磁力式微幫浦.............................. 76
4-1.3 磁力式微幫浦運作原理............................ 77
4-2 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦設計與製作....................... 79
4-2.1 微幫浦製作流程.................................. 79
4-2.2 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦運作原理....................... 83
第五章 實驗原理與方法
5-1 實驗平台架設...................................... 88
5-2 圓盤狀輕量化集電板之電性測量...................... 90
5-2.1 輕量化圓盤狀單電池集電板效能驗證................ 90
5-2.2 輕量化圓盤狀電池組集電板效能驗證................ 94
5-3 磁力式微幫浦性能測量與單電池效能探討.............. 96
5-4 隔膜氣液式微幫浦性能測量與單電池效能探討.......... 100
5-5 可攜式燃料電池充電系統效能與轉換效率測試.......... 101
第六章 實驗結果與討論
6-1 圓盤狀輕量化集電板之效能探討...................... 103
6-1.1 單電池效能測試.................................. 103
6-1.2 電池組效能測試.................................. 105
6-2 磁力式微幫浦之效能探討............................ 114
6-2.1 第一款磁力式微幫浦性能測試...................... 114
6-2.2 第二款磁力式微幫浦性能測試...................... 118
6-2.3 具磁力式微幫浦之燃料電池單電池/電池組效能測試... 119
6-3 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦之效能探討...................... 122
6-3.1 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦性能測試...................... 122
6-3.2 具隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦之燃料電池單電池/電池組效
能測試.......................................... 124
6-4 具兩款微幫浦之電池組搭配升壓晶片之測試............ 126
第七章 結論與未來展望
7-1 結論.............................................. 129
7-2 未來展望.......................................... 135
參考文獻.............................................. 136
著作目錄.............................................. 147
附錄
附錄1本論文所製作的磁力式微幫浦參加2010台北國際發明展
獲銀牌獎........................................ 152
附錄2本論文所製作的磁力式微幫浦參加2010德國紐倫堡國際
發明展獲銀牌獎.................................. 153

表目錄
表6-1 圓盤狀輕量化單電池集電板的面電阻之阻抗量測結果.. 105
表6-2 3Cell電池組使用一般導線之各顆電池負載電壓差異表..110
表6-3 3Cell電池組使用銅導片之各顆電池負載電壓差異......111
表6-4 第一款磁力式微幫浦消耗功率表.................... 115
表6-5 第二款磁力式微幫浦消耗功率表.................... 118
表6-6 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦在不同電容組合下所產生的時間差 123
表6-7 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦在不同電容搭配所產生的流量.... 124
表6-8 磁力式微幫浦搭配升壓晶片TPS61202的轉換效率...... 126
表6-9 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦搭配升壓晶片TPS61202的轉換效率 126
表7-1 圓盤狀輕量化集電板與其他集電板比較表............ 130
表7-2 磁力式與隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦的流量與操作電壓一覽表 132

圖目錄
圖1-1 本研究之研究架構圖.............................. 4
圖3-1 輕量化集電板構造圖.............................. 45
圖3-2 複合材料照片.................................... 45
圖3-3 銅與鎳靶材顆粒.................................. 45
圖3-4 圓盤狀輕量化集電板幾何設計圖.................... 46
圖3-5 圓盤狀輕量化集電板照片.......................... 47
圖3-6 圓盤狀輕量化集電板製作流程...................... 47
圖3-7 鎢舟照片........................................ 49
圖3-8 熱蒸鍍機照片.................................... 50
圖3-9 熱蒸鍍機之中的高真空腔體照片.................... 50
圖3-10 熱蒸鍍機開機流程............................... 52
圖3-11 熱蒸鍍機關機流程............................... 54
圖3-12 第一款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板成品............. 56
圖3-13a 第一款圓盤狀輕量化電池組之陽極集電板.......... 57
圖3-13b 第一款圓盤狀輕量化電池組之陰極集電板.......... 58
圖3-14 第一款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板遮罩板........... 58
圖3-15a 第二款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板之陽極幾何設計.. 60
圖3-15b 第二款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板之陰極幾何設計.. 60
圖3-16 第二款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板構造示意圖....... 61
圖3-17 第二款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板遮罩板圖片....... 62
圖3-18a 第二款圓盤狀輕量化電池組的陽極集電板成品...... 62
圖3-18b 第二款圓盤狀輕量化電池組的陰極集電板成品...... 63
圖3-19 第三款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板的幾何設計....... 64
圖3-20 第三款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板之遮罩板圖片..... 65
圖3-21a 第三款圓盤狀輕量化電池組陽極集電板之實體照片.. 65
圖3-21b 第三款圓盤狀輕量化電池組陰極集電板之實體照片.. 66
圖3-22 第四款圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板成品............. 67
圖3-23 具開放式陰極的DMFC電池組之疊層分解圖......... 68
圖3-24 具開放式陰極的DMFC電池組燃料流動示意圖....... 69
圖3-25 具主動式陰極的DMFC電池組之疊層分解圖......... 70
圖3-26 具主動式陰極的DMFC電池組之燃料流動示意圖..... 70
圖3-27 常用於燃料電池防漏性的組件-PTFE墊片............ 72
圖3-28 PDMS墊片製作流程圖............................ 72
圖4-1 第一款磁力式幫浦分解圖.......................... 74
圖4-2 第一款磁力式微幫浦製作流程...................... 75
圖4-3 第一款磁力式幫浦實體照片........................ 76
圖4-4 第二款磁力式幫浦分解圖.......................... 77
圖4-5 第二款磁力式幫浦實體照片........................ 77
圖4-6 第一磁力式微幫浦運作示意圖...................... 78
圖4-7 第二磁力式幫浦運作示意圖........................ 79
圖4-8 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦之壓縮腔體立體分解圖............81
圖4-9 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦之壓縮腔體平面分解圖............82
圖4-10 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦之壓縮腔體製作流程圖...........82
圖4-11 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦之壓縮腔體實體照片.............83
圖4-12 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦之壓縮腔體運作示意圖...........84
圖4-13 隔膜氣/液式微幫浦閥門開關與空氣幫浦做動的時間圖.85
圖4-14 無穩態多諧振盪器電路圖......................... 86
圖4-15 改良後的無穩態多諧振盪器電路實體照片........... 87
圖4-16 包含電路之隔膜氣/液式微幫浦照片.................87
圖5-1 單電池原始效能(基準組)之實驗架設圖...............89
圖5-2 四點式探針表面電阻測試儀........................ 91
圖5-3 四點式探針表面電阻測試流程...................... 91
圖5-4 破壞式表面輪廓量測儀............................ 92
圖5-5 圓盤狀輕量化單電池集電板之實驗架構圖............ 93
圖5-6 圓盤狀輕量化單電池集電板之實驗架設照片.......... 94
圖5-7 圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板之實驗架構圖............ 95
圖5-8 圓盤狀輕量化電池組集電板之實驗架設照片.......... 96
圖5-9 銣鐵硼磁鐵數量與磁性流體吸附關係圖.............. 97
圖5-10 銣鐵硼磁鐵轉盤................................. 98
圖5-11 磁力式微幫浦實驗架構圖......................... 99
圖5-12 第一款磁力式微幫浦實驗架設照片................. 99
圖5-13 第二款磁力式微幫浦實驗架設照片................. 99
圖5-14 隔膜氣液式微幫浦運用至DMFC實驗架設照片....... 100
圖5-15 TPS61200升壓晶片............................... 101
圖5-16 TPS61200升壓晶片通用電路....................... 101
圖5-17 TPS61202升壓晶片轉換效率曲線................... 102
圖6-1 圓盤狀輕量化集電板在不同導電層與抗腐蝕層厚度之影
響.............................................. 104
圖6-2 3Cell電池組使用的MEA之原始效能測試.............. 107
圖6-3 3Cell電池組之效能................................108
圖6-4 電極面積影響電池效能之原因...................... 108
圖6-5 3Cell電池組之各顆電池負載電壓....................109
圖6-6 電池組用銅導片串聯之實驗架設照片................ 110
圖6-7 3Cell電池組使用銅導片與傳統導線之效能比較圖......111
圖6-8 6Cell電池組之防水墊片使用PTFE與PDMS的效能比較圖 113
圖6-9 6Cell電池組之MEA原始效能曲線圖.................. 113
圖6-10 常見液體幫浦與所需的消耗功率................... 115
圖6-11 第一款磁力式微幫浦搭配兩顆銣鐵棚磁鐵之流量與操
作電壓關係圖................................... 116
圖6-12 第一款磁力式微幫浦搭配四顆銣鐵棚磁鐵之流量與操
作電壓關係圖................................... 117
圖6-13 磁力式微幫浦轉速與磁性液體吸附高度之關係圖..... 117
圖6-14 第二款磁力式微幫浦搭配兩顆銣鐵棚磁鐵之流量與電
壓關係圖....................................... 119
圖6-15 第一款磁力式微幫浦應用至DMFC單電池之實驗結果 120
圖6-16 第二款磁力式微幫浦應用至DMFC單電池之實驗結果 120
圖6-17 磁力式微幫浦與蠕動式幫浦之較佳DMFC效能比較圖 121
圖6-18 磁力式微幫浦應用至3Cell電池組之實驗結果.........122
圖6-19 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦可更換電容之位置............. 123
圖6-20 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦應用至單電池之實驗結果....... 125
圖6-21 隔薄膜氣液式微幫浦應用至6Cell電池組之實驗結果...125
圖6-22 TPS61202升壓晶片之輸出電壓與電流關係圖......... 128
圖7-1 具銅/鎳與銅/金兩種圓盤狀輕量化集電板長時間效能測
試.............................................. 131
圖7-2 具圓盤狀輕量化集電板與磁力式微幫浦之可攜式充電系
統.............................................. 134
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