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系統識別號 U0002-2807201010140300
中文論文名稱 直升機葉片在大雨下之空氣動力效應分析
英文論文名稱 Aerodynamic Analysis of Helicopter Rotor Blades in Heavy Rain
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aerospace Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 關香君
研究生英文姓名 Hsiang-Chun Kuan
學號 698430096
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-06-30
論文頁數 73頁
口試委員 指導教授-宛 同
委員-潘大知
委員-劉登
中文關鍵字 直升機  轉子葉片  大雨  空氣動力分析  MRF 
英文關鍵字 Helicopter  Rotor blades  Heavy rain  Aerodynamic analysis  MRF 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學航空太空
中文摘要 近年來,溫室效應和全球暖化的影響越來越嚴重,造成降雨率持續攀升打破各地紀錄。直升機或旋翼機也是飛機的一種,是利用兩片或是多片的水平主旋翼葉片旋轉推動以產生升力,有懸停和垂直起降特性,利於台灣極端溫差天氣的救災狀況,因而在空中勤務總隊裡廣泛使用,所以大雨中直升機的性能探討分析和發展值得我們深入研究。隨著研究大雨的物理現象,我們利用CFD方法成功估算出標準主旋翼葉片受到大雨時所造成的不利影響現象,因此建議直升機飛行員應該藉此訊息事先加以防範,或增加訓練科目,相信本研究結論能為直升機在惡劣天氣下救援能有所幫助。
英文摘要 In recent years, the greenhouse and global warming effects are becoming more and more severe, that partially explains why rainfall rates keep breaking record in all parts of the world. In general, helicopter or rotorcraft is an aircraft that is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal main rotors, and it can take off and land vertically. Currently, helicopter has widespread utilization by air rescue unit in Taiwan during disaster situation under extreme weather situations. For this reason the understanding and improvement of helicopters under heavy rain condition is the main theme of this research. With our understanding of heavy rain physics, a CFD tool has first been developed and successfully tested on the standard helicopter blade. Once the heavy rain droplets are added, it is observed that rainfall indeed will decrease the total lift and might induce some detrimental effects on the main rotor blades performance. Therefore, it is highly recommended that every helicopter pilot should be aware of the information gained in this work and accepts extensive training in simulating heavy rain situations.
論文目次 Contents
Abstract II
Contents IV
List of Figures VI
List of Table XI
Nomenclature XII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Research Background 5
2.1 Literature Review 5
2.2 Heavy Rain 14
Chapter 3 Numerical Modeling 19
3.1 Overview 19
3.2 Geometry Model Construction 20
3.3 Grid Generation 22
3.4 Governing Equations 25
3.5 Turbulence Modeling 25
3.6 Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) Capability 27
3.7 Flow Solver 29
3.8 Eulerian Model Capability 32
3.9 Discrete Phase Model (DPM) Capability 34
3.10 Verification 36
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 42
4.1 Eulerian Model 43
4.2 Discrete Phase Model (DPM) 44
Chapter 5 Conclusions 67
References 70

List of Figures
Figure 2-1 Historical attempts of helicopter and airplane flight test. [1] 5
Figure 2-2 NACA 0012 airfoil. 6
Figure 2-3 The NASA model and experiments set-up. [5] 8
Figure 2-4 The NASA model profile. [5] 8
Figure 2-5 The UH-1H helicopter profile. 13
Figure 2-6 Characteristics of four surface water flow regions : 1.Droplet-Impact Region; 2. Film-Convection Region; 3. Rivulet-Formation Region; 4. Droplet-Convection Region. [15] 14
Figure 2-7 The droplet impact from film hole. [15] 15
Figure 2-8 Sketch of water behavior on top of wing surface. [16] 16
Figure 3-1 The NACA 0012 airfoil section profile. 20
Figure 3-2 The rotor blades profile. 20
Figure 3-3 The inside rotation profile. 21
Figure 3-4 The outside cube profile. 21
Figure 3-5 The far mesh of the rotor blades. 23
Figure 3-6 The rotation mesh of the rotor blades. 23
Figure 3-7 The near mesh of the rotor blades. 24
Figure 3-8 The near mesh of the blade face. 24
Figure 3-9 The solution loops of the pressure-based solver. [19] 31
Figure 3-10 The rotor blades use MRF situation. 37
Figure 3-11 The upper and lower surface result in inviscid and viscous of steady and unsteady condition compare with NASA experiment [5] in y/R=0.50. 38
Figure 3-12 The upper and lower surface result in inviscid and viscous of steady and unsteady condition compare with NASA experiment [5] in y/R=0.68. 39
Figure 3-13 The upper and lower surface result in inviscid and viscous of steady and unsteady condition compare with NASA experiment [5] in y/R=0.80. 39
Figure 3-14 The upper and lower surface result in inviscid and viscous of steady and unsteady condition compare with NASA experiment [5] in y/R=0.89. 40
Figure 3-15 The upper and lower surface result in inviscid and viscous of steady and unsteady condition compare with NASA experiment [5] in y/R=0.96. 40
Figure 4-1 The Discrete Phase Model global view of rain. 47
Figure 4-2 The Discrete Phase Model local view of rain droplets near rotor blades. 47
Figure 4-3 The two capabilities lift force comparison. 49
Figure 4-4 The upper and lower surface result at 650 rpm in y/R=0.50. 50
Figure 4-5 The upper and lower surface result at 650 rpm in y/R=0.68. 50
Figure 4-6 The upper and lower surface result at 650 rpm in y/R=0.80. 51
Figure 4-7 The upper and lower surface result at 650 rpm in y/R=0.89. 51
Figure 4-8 The upper and lower surface result at 650 rpm in y/R=0.96. 52
Figure 4-9 The upper and lower surface result at 1500 rpm in y/R=0.50. 52
Figure 4-10 The upper and lower surface result at 1500 rpm in y/R=0.68. 53
Figure 4-11 The upper and lower surface result at 1500 rpm in y/R=0.80. 53
Figure 4-12 The upper and lower surface result at 1500 rpm in y/R=0.89. 54
Figure 4-13 The upper and lower surface result at 1500 rpm in y/R=0.96. 54
Figure 4-14 The upper and lower surface result at 2400 rpm in y/R=0.50. 55
Figure 4-15 The upper and lower surface result at 2400 rpm in y/R=0.68. 55
Figure 4-16 The upper and lower surface result at 2400 rpm in y/R=0.80. 56
Figure 4-17 The upper and lower surface result at 2400 rpm in y/R=0.89. 56
Figure 4-18 The upper and lower surface result at 2400 rpm in y/R=0.96. 57
Figure 4-19 Top view of the blade velocity magnitude at 650 rpm with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 57
Figure 4-20 Top view of the blade velocity magnitude at 1500 rpm with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 58
Figure 4-21 Top view of the blade velocity magnitude at 2400 rpm with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 58
Figure 4-22 The blade velocity magnitude at 650 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 59
Figure 4-23 The blade velocity magnitude at 1500 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 59
Figure 4-24 The blade velocity magnitude at 2400 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 60
Figure 4-25 The blade vorticity magnitude at 650 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 60
Figure 4-26 The blade vorticity magnitude at 1500 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 61
Figure 4-27 The blade vorticity magnitude at 2400 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 61
Figure 4-28 The blade pressure contours at 650 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 62
Figure 4-29 The blade pressure contours at 1500 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 62
Figure 4-30 The blade pressure contours at 2400 rpm in r/R = 0.96 (approaches the tip) with no rain and 4 mm droplet. 63
Figure 4-31 The lift force comparison. 65
Figure 4-32 The lift force degradation rate comparison. 66


List of Table
Table 1 The Eulerian Model set parameters in FLUENT. 43
Table 2 The Eulerian Model lift force effect. 43
Table 3 The Discrete Phase Model (DPM) set parameters in FLUENT. 46
Table 4 The Discrete Phase Model (DPM) lift force effect. 46
Table 5 The Discrete Phase Model (DPM) lift force effect at different rotatational speed. 65

參考文獻 References
[1] Leishman, J. G., Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2000.
[2] Landgrebe, A. J., R. Moffett, and Clark, D., “Aerodynamics Technology for Advanced Rotorcraft,” Journal of the American Helicopter Society, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr. 1977.
[3] Summa, J. M. and Clark, D. R., “A Lifting-Surface Method for Hover/Climb Loads,” Presented at the 35th Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, Washington, D. C., Preprint 79-1, May 1979.
[4] Caradonna, F. X., “The Transonic Flow on a Helicopter Rotor,” Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford U., Stanford, Calif., March 1978.
[5] Caradonna, F. X., and Tung, C., “Experimental and Analytical Studies of a Model Helicopter Rotor in Hover,” NASA TM-81232, 1981.
[6] Agarwal, R. K., “Euler Calculations for Flowfield of a Helicopter Rotor in Hover,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol.24, No.4, April 1987, pp. 231-238.
[7] Srinivasan, G. R., and McCroskey, W. J., “Navier-Stokes Calculations of Hovering Rotor Flowfields,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 25, No.10, 1988, pp. 865-874.
[8] Ng, N.L., and Hillier, R., “Numerical Simulation of the Transonic Blade -Vortex Interaction,” Proceedings of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Conference, London, Royal Aeronautical Society, 1996, pp. 8.1-8.11.
[9] Mineck R. E. and Gorton S. A., "Steady and Periodic Pressure Measurements on a Generic Helicopter Fuselage Model in the Presence of a Rotor," NASA TM-2000-210286, 2000.
[10] Yang, Z., Sankar, L. N., Smith, M., and Bauchau, O., “Recent Improvement to a Hybrid Method for Rotors in Forward Flight,” AIAA Paper 2000-0260, 2000.
[11] 王聖涵, “利用可調有限體積法探討穿音速旋翼葉片流場及噪音,” 國立成功大學航空太空工程學系碩士論文, 2005年八月。
[12] Gagliardi, A., “CFD Analysis and Design of a Low-Twist, Hovering Rotor Equipped with Trailing-Edge Flaps,” Presented at Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, 2007.
[13] Marcel, I., “Numerical Study of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Mechanism of Interaction Using Large-Eddy Simulation,” Computers and Structures, Jun. 2009, pp.758-768.
[14] Wan, T. and Pan, S. P., “Aerodynamic Efficiency Study under the Influence of Heavy Rain via Two-Phase Flow Approach,” Proceedings of the 27th International Congress of Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), Nice, France, September 19-24, 2010.
[15] Thompson, B. E., Jang, J. and Dion, J. L., “Wing Performance in Moderate Rain,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 32, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1995, pp.1034-1039.
[16] Valentine, J. R., “Airfoil Performance in Heavy Rain,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1428, Jan. 1994, pp. 26-35.
[17] Dunham, R. E., Jr., “The Potential Influence of Rain on Airfoil Performance,” von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, 1987.
[18] Markowitz, A. M., “Raindrop Size Distribution Expression,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 15, 1976, pp.1029-1031.
[19] Fluent’s User Guide
[20] “NASA Will Study Heavy Rain Effect on Wing Aerodynamics”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, Feb. 13, 1989.
[21] Thompson, B. E., and Jang, J., “Aerodynamic Efficiency of Wings in Rain,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 33, No. 6, 1996, pp.1047-1053.
[22] Algermissen, G., and Wagner, S., “Computation of Helicopter BVI Noise by Coupling Free-Wake, Euler and Kirchhoff Method,” AIAA-1998-2238, 1998.
[23] Kang, H. J., and Kwon, O. J., “Unstructured Mesh Navier-Stokes Calculations of the Flow Field of a Helicopter Rotor in Hover,” Journal of the American Helicopter Society, Vol. 47, No. 2, April 2002.
[24] Adriano, G., “CFD Analysis and Design of a Low-Twist, Hovering Rotor Equipped with Trailing-Edge Flaps,” University of Glasgow Thesis, 2007.
[25] Seddon, J., Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington D.C., 1990.
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