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系統識別號 U0002-2807200614053300
中文論文名稱 人類是“猴子”嗎? 檢視瑪格麗特.愛特伍之《末世男女》中 對簡化論生物觀的諷刺性批判
英文論文名稱 Are Humans “Monkeys”? Margaret Atwood’s Satirical Criticism of Biological Reductionism in Oryx and Crake
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 顏淑君
研究生英文姓名 Shu-chun Yen
學號 691010135
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-23
論文頁數 116頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃逸民
委員-宋美王華
委員-阮秀莉
中文關鍵字 瑪格麗特.愛特伍  末世男女  諷刺性批判  簡化論科學觀  簡化論生物觀  基因簡化論  基因神話  生物決定論  演化理論  社會生物學 
英文關鍵字 Margaret Atwood  Oryx and Crake  Satirical Criticism  Scientific Reductionism  Biological Reductionism  Genetic reductionism  Gene myth  Biological determinism  Evolutionary theories  Sociobiology 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本論文旨在以一種較為科學的角度來解析瑪格麗特.愛特伍的小說《末世男女》,並主張愛特伍藉由此小說批判當代流行的簡化論生物觀。
本論文分為四章。第一章先簡介瑪格麗特.愛特伍,她最新的小說《末世男女》,以及他們和科學的關係。之後再對此小說的學術文章做簡明的整理與摘要,進而帶出本論文的研究動機。另外並對何謂簡化論科學觀做一扼要的解釋。
第二章先追溯當今流行之簡化論生物觀的起源。二十世紀初基因和DNA (去氧核糖核酸)結構的發現大大影響了生物學及演化理論的發展,進而使簡化論生物觀成為主流。接著介紹兩種常因其簡化論生物觀而被批評的生物學觀點:一是基因簡化論,露絲.哈伯德及泰德.彼得將之稱為「基因神話」;二則是由愛德華.威爾森所創立的社會生物學。最後我將論述克雷科—《末世男女》中最主要的科學家角色—如何展現出這兩種簡化論生物學觀點,進而成為簡化論生物觀的代表。另外我也將闡明為何克雷科所創造出的克雷科人是其簡化論生物觀的具體呈現。
第三章則先論述克雷科的好友吉米所代表的人文意涵,並藉著其著重人獸之異與人類的獨特性來批判並抵抗克雷科所擁護的簡化論生物觀。再者愛特伍也藉由顛覆許多克雷科人預先被克雷科所設定好的特徵來表達她對極度簡化論生物觀的反對及批判。我將會討論一些克雷科以為他已去除但卻仍逐漸出現於克雷科人身上的特點,如好奇心的表現、臆測及推理能力的形成、宗教藝術和領導人的出現來證明此一論點。
本論文的最後一章闡述《末世男女》的結局暗示愛特伍對於人類面對被簡化論生物觀降級的危機仍抱持著相對樂觀的態度。藉由小說的開放式結局,愛特伍提供的多種可能性取代了克雷科所冀望之單一絕對的未來,因而有力地表達了她對極度簡化論生物觀及科學觀的批判,並促使她的讀者對此一議題進行嚴肅的思考與反省。
英文摘要 This thesis endeavors to examine Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake from a more scientific angle, proposing that Atwood actually criticizes the biological reductionism prevailing in the contemporary society by writing Oryx and Crake.
This thesis is divided into four chapters. In the first chapter, I will present a brief introduction to Margaret Atwood, her latest novel Oryx and Crake, and their relationship to science. I will also offer the concise reviews and summaries of the academic critiques of this novel, and the motivation and argument of my thesis. Moreover, a condensed account of what scientific reductionism is will be given, too.
In Chapter Two, I will trace the origin of the biological reductionism prevailing in the present days. I will illustrate how the discovery of genes and DNA structure in the beginning of 20th century influences the development of biology, including evolutionary theories, which formulate the mainstream of biological reductionism. Then, I will introduce two biological concepts that are often criticized for their biological reductionism: one is genetic reductionism, or gene myth in Ruth Hubbard and Ted Peters’ term, and the other is sociobiology founded by Edmund O. Wilson. Lastly, I will prove how Crake, the main scientist in Oryx and Crake, displays these two reductionist biological notions and hence becomes the representative of biological reductionism. In addition, I will also clarify why the Crakers created by Crake are the reification of Crake’s reductionist view of biology.
In Chapter Three, I will firstly explain how Jimmy, the best friend of Crake, symbolizes the humanist conception that stresses the difference between humans and other creatures as well as the uniqueness of human beings to resist and criticize Crake’s biological reductionist attitude. Then, I will demonstrate how Atwood reveals her criticism and objection to extreme biological reductionism through subverting the Crakers’ features predestinated by Crake. I will discuss the emergence of curiosity, speculating ability, and deductive reasoning of the Crakers as well as the appearance of religion, art, and leadership among them that are all unforeseen by Crake.
The last chapter will elucidate how the end of Oryx and Crake implies Atwood’s relatively optimistic attitude to human crisis of being reduced by reductionist view of biology. Through the open ending of the novel, Atwood provides more possibilities instead of the only absolute future determined by Crake, and hence enunciates her criticism against the extreme biological reductionism and scientific reductionism, which impels her readers to reflect seriously on this issue, too.
論文目次 Table of Contents

Chapter One: Introduction …………………………………………………………………1


Chapter Two: Crake and Biological Reductionism…………………………………..20

Ⅰ. How Does Biological Reductionism Become Popular? ………………………..20

Ⅱ. The Criticism of Biological Reductionism ……………………………………..28

Ⅲ. Crake as an Advocate of Genetic Reductionism ………………………………32

Ⅳ. Crake as an Adherent of Sociobiology ………………………………………...42


Chapter Three: Jimmy/Snowman and the Subversion of Biological Reductionism …..66

Ⅰ. Jimmy/Snowman: the Critic against Crake’s Biological Reductionist View ...66

Ⅱ. The Out-of-Crake’s-Control Crakers: the Subversion of Biological Reductionism …………………………………………………………………….83


Chapter Four: Conclusion

The Open Ending: Atwood’s Relative Optimism toward Human Crisis of Being Reduced by Biological Reductionism……………………………………………...105


Works Cited ……………………………………………………………………………….112

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