淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2806201813280400
中文論文名稱 以整合性科技模式及沉浸經驗探討高等教育學生對遊戲化之接受度
英文論文名稱 Using UTAUT and Flow Theory to Explore the Acceptance of Higher Educational Students with Gamification
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 教育科技學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Educational Technology
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 邱妤甄
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Zhen Qiu
學號 605730091
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2018-06-07
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 指導教授-鍾志鴻
委員-卓美秀
委員-沈俊毅
中文關鍵字 遊戲化  整合性科技接受模式  沉浸經驗  偏最小平方法結構方程式模組  重要績效分析法 
英文關鍵字 Gamification  UTAUT  Flow Theory  PLS-SEM  IPMA 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學教育學
中文摘要 遊戲化的學習可以引起學習者的動機,激勵及吸引學習者提高學習表現。然而,卻較少的研究著重在高等教育學生使用遊戲化學習方式的行為意圖。本研究利用問卷調查法蒐集問卷探討遊戲化運用於高等教育並且討論影響遊戲化運用於高等教育的主要影響因素。根據PLS-SEM的結果得知:在設計遊戲化課程時,建議對於學生先導入遊戲化的內容來增加學生的熟悉度與正面自主性的融入經驗,學生會對遊戲化的績效與付出預期提升,進而提升學生對於遊戲化課程的接受程度。績效預期為影響學生接受遊戲化之最重要因素,其餘因素如付出預期、社會影響、促成條件、參與度、技巧、控制感也占了重要的地位,因此,課程設計師也需針對社群的互動性加以琢磨,進而提升學生的學習績效。期望透過本研究結果,對於課程設計師在規劃課程內容時有實質性的幫助,並提升效率及有效性。
英文摘要 Gamification provides a practical approach to improving learning processes, especially learner’s motivation. However, little research conducted on student’s intention to use gamification in higher education. Therefore, this study explored the gamification in higher educational courses by collecting surveys and discusses the major factors influencing the acceptance of gamification in higher education. Based on the PLS-SEM results, students should take initial game-based learning content to be more familiar with gamification; furthermore, they could have a positive experience so that they would increase their intention. Performance expectancy is the most important factor influencing a student to accept gamification. Other factors, such as effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, involvement, skills, and control, are also important factors; thereby, instruction designers should increase the interactive activities in the curriculum. With the results of this study, the instructor designer could have substantial help in planning the course content and enhance its efficiency and effectiveness.
論文目次 目次
表次 v
圖次 vi
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 4
第三節 名詞釋義 5
第四節 研究範圍與限制 7
第二章 文獻探討 9
第一節 遊戲化 9
第二節 整合性科技接受模式 21
第三節 沉浸經驗 33
第四節 偏最小平方法結構方程式模組 45
第三章 研究設計 49
第一節 研究架構 49
第二節 研究流程 51
第三節 研究對象與抽樣方法 53
第四節 研究工具 54
第五節 資料處理 56
第四章 資料分析 61
第一節 樣本描述性統計 61
第二節 信度、效度分析 63
第三節 PLS-SEM分析 71
第四節 綜合討論 79
第五章 研究結論與建議 81
第一節 研究結論 81
第二節 研究建議 85
參考文獻 87
中文部分 87
英文部分 88
附件一 97

表次
表2-1遊戲設計元素分級表 10
表2-2九大類遊戲設計元素 11
表2-3遊戲化之相關研究 16
表2-4整合性科技接受模式發展歷程 21
表2-5構面概念來源 27
表2-6整合性科技接受模式之相關研究 29
表2-7沉浸三階段 33
表2-8沉浸經驗之相關研究 41
表3-1高等教育遊戲化學習接受模式問卷概念題項對照表 54
表3-2 Cronbach’s α係數代表意義 57
表3-3驗證性因素分析配適指標標準表 58
表3-4 PLS-SEM檢驗標準 59
表4-1樣本交叉分析統計結果 62
表4-2 KMO與Bartlett檢定 64
表4-3轉軸後因子矩陣表 65
表4-4驗證性因素分析適配指標標準及分析結果比較表 66
表4-5驗證性因素分析結果 67
表4-6 Bootstrap分析結果 69
表4-7各構面之α、CR值與AVE值整理表 71
表4-8 Fornell-Larker Criterion結果 72
表4-9 PLS-SEM各題項之loading值分析結果 74
表4-10本研究各項假設結果 78

圖次
圖2-1遊戲化學習理論 13
圖2-2 TRA理論架構 23
圖2-3 TAM理論架構 23
圖2-4 TAM2理論架構 24
圖2-5 UTAUT理論架構圖 25
圖2-6三頻道沉浸模型 35
圖2-7四頻道沉浸模型 36
圖2-8八頻道沉浸模型 37
圖2-9路徑模式 46
圖2-10 PLS-SEM系統分析步驟 47
圖3-1研究架構圖 50
圖3-2研究流程圖 52
圖3-3資料分析流程圖 56
圖4-1因素萃取陡坡圖 64
圖4-2驗證性因素分析結果 68
圖4-3全部樣本PLS路徑分析結果 75
圖4-4 PLS-SEM重要績效分析法 76
圖4-5 IPMA項目分析 77
參考文獻 中文部分
李文傑(2008)。自我效能, 沈浸經驗與科技接受模式之研究—以線上遊戲為例(未出版之碩士論文)。國立屏東商業技術學院,屏東縣。
周怡君(2013)。不同學習風格學生在專題導向學習中的心流經驗與學習動機之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。淡江大學,新北市。
林志隆、楊乃靜(2013)。以整合性科技接受理論探討屏東縣國民小學英語教師利用網路社群進行教師專業成長之研究。數位學習科技期刊,5(3),1-23。
林家五、何惠鈺、張書豪(2010)。以社會認定與沉浸觀點探討部落格使用者之態度與行為。電子商務學報,12(1),155-182。
張基成、林冠佑(2016)。從傳統數位學習到遊戲式數位學習-學習成效、心流體驗與認知負荷。科學教育學刊,24(3),221-248。
陳中(2014)。基於遊戲化學習的翻轉教室教學設計與實踐。高等教育研究學報,37(4),80-83。
陳偉翔(2015)。運用遊戲化策略於國中九年級英語教學之試探性研究。明道學術論壇,9(4),23-44。
游光昭、蕭顯勝、蔡福興(2006)。運用線上角色扮演遊戲支援網路學習的研究。資訊科學應用期刊,2(1),119-128。
湯家偉(譯)(2016)。結構方程模式:偏最小平方法PLS-SEM(原作者: Joseph F. Hair, Jr, G. Tomas M. Hult, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt)。臺北市:高等教育。(原著出版年:2013)
葉仲達(2008)。以整合科技接受模式探討網路學習工具之使用-以WebCT為例(未出版之碩士論文)。淡江大學,新北市。
廖幸薇(2010)。運用遊戲化策略提升國中學生直笛學習成效之行動研究(未出版之碩士論文)。臺灣師範大學,臺北市。
廖珮妏、余鑑、于俊傑(2012)。應用整合性科技接受模式與創新擴散通用模型於企業導入數位學習之多層次分析。電子商務學報,14(4),657-687。
褚麗娟、李承霖、郭靜蘭(2011)。沉浸經驗於互動式多媒體教材學習效果之影響。文化事業與管理研究,6,1-24。
劉淨(2014)。遊戲化教學在小學數學課堂中的應用(未出版之碩士論文)。河北師範大學,河北省。
劉雯瑜、蔡瓊卉(2011)。以整合型科技接受理論探討大專教師學習管理系統採用行為之研究。績效與策略研究,8(2),49-60。
賴冠鳳(2015)。數位遊戲式英語學習環境中的沉浸感影響學習成效之因素探討(未出版之碩士論文)。國立中央大學,桃園縣。
英文部分
Ajzen, I., &Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Araujo, Z., Jacobson, E., Singletary, L., Wilson, P., Lowe, L., & Marshall, A. M. (2013). Teachers' conceptions of integrated mathematics curricula. School Science and Mathematics, 113(6), 285-296..
Baptista, G., &Oliveira, T. (2017). Why so serious? Gamification impact in the acceptance of mobile banking services. Internet Research, 27(1), 118–139. https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-10-2015-0295
Barclay, D., Higgins, C., & Thompson, R. L. (1995). The partial least squares (PLS). Approach to causal modeling: Personal computer adoption and use as an illustration. Technology Studies, 2(2), 285–309.
Bedwell, W. L., Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Lazzara, E. H., &Salas, E. (2012). Toward a taxonomy linking game attributes to learning: An empirical study. Simulation and Gaming, 43(6), 729–760. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878112439444
Bentler, P. M., &Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588–606. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588
Brian, J. (2014). . Gamification in education. In American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences (ASBBS), 21(1), 32–39,
Brown, E., & Cairns, P. (2004, April). A grounded investigation of game immersion. In CHI'04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 1297-1300). ACM.
Browne, K., Anand, C., &Gosse, E. (2014). Gamification and serious game approaches for adult literacy tablet software. Entertainment Computing, 5(3), 135–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.entcom.2014.04.003
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sage focus editions, 154, 136-136.
Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410600219
Cain, J., &Piascik, P. (2015). Are serious games a good strategy for pharmacy education? American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(4), 47. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe79447
Carmines, E., & McIver, J. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In Social measurement: Current issues (pp. 65–115). https://doi.org/10.1177/004057368303900411
Cheong, C., Filippou, J., &Cheong, F. (2014). Towards the gamification of learning: investigating student perceptions of game elements. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(3), 233.
Codish, D., &Ravid, G. (2014). Academic course gamification: The art of perceived playfulness. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 10(1), 131–151.
Cózar-Gutiérrez, R., &Sáez-López, J. M. (2016). Game-based learning and gamification in initial teacher training in the social sciences: an experiment with MinecraftEdu. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-016-0003-4
Davis, M. S., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety: The experience of play in work and games. Contemporary Sociology, 6(2), 197. https://doi.org/10.2307/2065805
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990), Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience-Steps toward Enhancing theQuality of Life, HarperCollins, New York, NY.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The Evolving Self: A Psychology for the Third Millennium (Vol. 5). New York, NY: HarperCollins publishers..
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow. The psychology of engagement with everyday life. In Journal of Happiness Studies (Vol. 1, pp. 121–123). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010032312178
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived sefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS quarterly, 319-340.
Desurvire, H., Caplan, M., & Toth, J. A. (2004, April). Using heuristics to evaluate the playability of games. In CHI'04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 1509-1512). ACM.
Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., &Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 9–15). Tampere, Finland: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2181037.2181040
Dichev, C., Dicheva, D., Angelova, G., &Agre, G. (2014). From gamification to gameful design and gameful experience in learning. Cybernetics and Information Technologies, 14(4), 80–100. https://doi.org/10.1515/cait-2014-0007
DomíNguez, A., Saenz-De-Navarrete, J., De-Marcos, L., FernáNdez-Sanz, L., PagéS, C., & MartíNez-HerráIz, J. J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers & Education, 63, 380-392.
Edmonds, S. (2011). Gamification of learning. Training and Development in Australia, 38(6), 20–22. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Federoff, M. A. (2002). Heuristics and usability guidelines for the creation and evaluation of fun in video games (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University).
Finneran, C. M., & Zhang, P. (2005). Flow in computer-mediated environments: promises and challenges. Communications of the association for information systems, 15(1), 4. https://doi.org/Article
Fishbein, M., &Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research, 382-388. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980
Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2009). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications, student value edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Govindasamy, T. (2002). Successful implementation of e-learning: Pedagogical considerations. The internet and higher education, 4(3-4), 287-299.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis 6th ed. Uppersaddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F. J., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., &Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Long Range Planning (Vol. 46). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2013.01.002
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., &Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152. https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202
Hamari, J., &Koivisto, J. (2015). Why do people use gamification services? International Journal of Information Management, 35(4), 419–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.04.006
Han, H. C. (2015). Gamified pedagogy: From gaming theory to creating a self-motivated learning environment in studio art. Studies in Art Education, 56(3), 257-267.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2012, October). Defining gamification: a service marketing perspective. In Proceeding of the 16th international academic MindTrek conference (pp. 17-22). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2393132.2393137
Juhary, J. (2014). Perceived usefulness and ease of use of the learning management system as a learning tool. International Education Studies, 7(8), 23. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n8p23
Kapp, K. (2012). The Gamification of Learning and Instruction, Pfeiffer. San Francisco, 480. https://doi.org/10.4018/jgcms.2012100106
Kebritchi, M., Hirumi, A., &Bai, H. (2010). The effects of modern mathematics computer games on mathematics achievement and class motivation. Computers and Education, 55(2), 427–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.02.007
Khan, A., &Pearce, G. (2015). A study into the effects of a board game on flow in undergraduate business students. International Journal of Management Education, 13(3), 193–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2015.05.002
Kim, B. (2015). The popularity of gamification in the mobile and social era. Library Technology Reports, 51(2), 5-9. https://doi.org/10.5860/ltr.51n1
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling(2nd ed.). New York: Guilford. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973150936986
Landers, R. N. (2015). Developing a theory of gamified learning: Linking serious games and gamification of learning. Simulation & Gaming, 45(6), 752-768. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878114563660
Massimini, F., &Carli, M. (1988). The systematic assessment of flow in daily experience. In Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 266–287). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621956.016
van der Merwe, M. D. (2014). Community of inquiry framework: employing instructor-driven measures in search of a relationship among presences and student learning outcomes. International Journal of Learning Technology, 9(3), 304-320.
Mirvis, P. H., Csikszentmihalyi, M., &Csikzentmihaly, M. (1991). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Academy of Management Review (Vol. 16). https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1991.4279513
Munguatosha, G. M., Muyinda, P. B., &Lubega, J. T. (2011). A social networked learning adoption model for higher education institutions in developing countries. On the Horizon, 19(4), 307–320. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748121111179439
Novak, T. P., &Hoffman, D. L. (1997). Measuring the flow experience among web users. Interval Research Corporation, 31(1), 1–35.
Nunnally, J. C., Bernstein, I. H., & Berge, J. M. T. (1967). Psychometric theory (Vol. 226). New York: McGraw-hill.
O’Connor, D. L., &Menaker, E. S. (2008). Can massively multiplayer online gaming environments support team training? Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(3), 23–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/piq
Pagulayan, R. J., Keeker, K., Wixon, D., Romero, R. L., & Fuller, T. (2003). User-centered design in games. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Parton, B. S. (2014). Using standard and custom mobile apps to enhance social presence for online learning. Journal of Applied Learning Technology, 4(1).
Qureshi, M. A., &Niazi, H. K. (2012). Impact of effective teachers on students’ academic achievements. Journal of Educational Research, 15(1), 30–39.
Seaborn, K., &Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 14–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2014.09.006
Shen, J., &Eder, L. B. (2009). Intentions to use virtual worlds for education. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 225–233.
Simões, J., Redondo, R. D., &Vilas, A. F. (2013). A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(2), 345–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.007
De Smet, C., Bourgonjon, J., De Wever, B., Schellens, T., & Valcke, M. (2012). Researching instructional use and the technology acceptation of learning management systems by secondary school teachers. Computers & Education, 58(2), 688-696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.09.013
Sung, E., &Mayer, R. E. (2012). Five facets of social presence in online distance education. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1738–1747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.04.014
Sweetser, P., & Wyeth, P. (2005). GameFlow: a model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 3(3), 3-3. https://doi.org/10.1145/1077246.1077253
Tong, X., Gromala, D., Shaw, C. D., & Choo, A. (2016, July). A field study: evaluating gamification approaches for promoting physical activity with motivational models of behavior changes. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 417-424). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39513-5
Torkzadeh, G., Koufteros, X., &Pflughoeft, K. (2003). Confirmatory analysis of computer self-efficacy. Structural Equation Modeling, 10(2), 263–275. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM1002_6
Venkatesh, V., &Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model : Four Longitudinal Field Studies.Management Science, 46(2), 186–204.
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. M. G., Davis, G. G. B., &Davis, F. D. F. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425–478.
Wang, J., Lin, E., Spalding, E., Klecka, C. L., &Odell, S. J. (2011). Quality teaching and teacher education: A kaleidoscope of Notions. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(4), 331–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487111409551
Webster, J., Trevino, L. K., &Ryan, L. (1993). The dimensionality and correlates of flow in human-computer interactions. Computers in Human Behavior, 9(4), 411–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/0747-5632(93)90032-N
Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the Win:How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business. Wharton Digital Press.
Wold, H. (1985). Partial least squares. In Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences (Vol. 6, pp. 581–591). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Wood, L. C., &Reiners, T. (2012). Gamification in logistics and supply chain education : Extending active learning. IADIS Internet Technologies and Society, 2012(NOVEMBER), 101–108.
Wu, W. H., Hsiao, H. C., Wu, P. L., Lin, C. H., &Huang, S. H. (2012). Investigating the learning-theory foundations of game-based learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(3), 265–279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00437.x
Yusoff, N. M., &Salim, S. S. (2012). Investigating cognitive task difficulties and expert skills in e-Learning storyboards using a cognitive task analysis technique. Computers & Education, 58(1), 652–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.09.009

論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2018-06-29公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-06-29起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信