||Taiwan's Sports Diplomacy: Case Study of 2017 Taipei Summer Universiade
||Master's Program in Taiwan and Asia-Pacific Studies, College of International Studies (English-Taugh
||Xian Bing Kelvin Hah
|| Sports was an important tool for diplomacy as it was practiced all over the world. Despite facing diplomatic dilemma, Taiwan still managed to stay in the international arena through sports, which was the result of effective Taiwan’s sports diplomacy. The mechanism of sport diplomacy was not understood well, however, it was based mainly on soft power and public diplomacy. However, the aspects of Taiwan’s sport diplomacy went further than simple soft power and public diplomacy where it includes the identity of Taiwan as “Chinese Taipei” in international sports. In addition, the cross-strait relations in sports was also an important factor in Taiwan’s sports diplomacy. Using the case study of 2017 Taipei Summer Universiade, the largest multi-sport event that Taiwan had ever held, it can be observed that soft power, public diplomacy, Taiwanese identity, and cross-strait relations was the key factors that influenced Taiwan’s success in hosting the games. Despite the decline in cross-strait relations during the 2017 Summer Universiade, the other aspects of Taiwan’s sports diplomacy was considered successful. Hence, it can be concluded that Taiwan’s sports diplomacy was successful and was an important diplomatic tool for Taiwan.
||Table of Contents
List of Figures…………………………………………………...…………….vi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………….…vii
List of Abbreviations…………………………………………………...…....viii
I) Introduction 1
1) Research Background and Research Questions 1
A) Research Background 1
B) Research Questions 5
2) Research Motivations and Objectives 5
A) Research Motivations 5
B) Research Objectives 6
3) Literature Review 6
A) Soft Power 7
B) Sport Diplomacy 9
C) Public Diplomacy 11
4) Research Methodology 12
A) Historical analysis: 12
B) Document analysis 13
C) Field study 13
D) Statistical Analysis 14
5) Thesis Structure 15
6) Research Limitations 16
II) Why “Chinese Taipei”, not “Taiwan”? 18
1) Sports and International Relations 18
2) Background of Chinese Taipei and the Olympic Formula 21
A) The history of Chinese Taipei 21
B) Current Development of Chinese Taipei 28
C) The Olympic Formula 29
3) Analysis on the use the Olympic Formula 31
A) The evolution of Chinese Taipei 31
B) The pros- and cons- of Chinese Taipei and Olympic Formula 33
4) Summary 36
III) Taiwan’s Sports Diplomacy 38
1) The structure of international sports 38
A) The International Olympic Committee 38
B) International Sport Federations 39
C) National Olympic Committee 40
2) What is sports diplomacy? 42
3) Sport Diplomacy of Taiwan 46
A) Structure of Sports Governance in Taiwan 46
B) Representatives in IFs 49
C) Hosting of International Sports Events in Taiwan 51
4) Evaluation on Taiwan’s Sports Diplomacy 52
A) Findings 52
B) Factors of Taiwan’s Sport Diplomacy 58
5) Summary 62
IV) The 2017 Taipei Summer Universiade 66
1) The Organization of the Summer Universiade 66
A) The Bidding Process of 2017 Summer Universiade 66
B) The Hosting Process of 2017 Taipei Summer Universiade 68
C) During the 2017 Taipei Summer Universiade 71
D) Legacies of 2017 Taipei Summer Universiade 72
2) Sports Diplomacy of 2017 Taipei Summer Universiade 73
A) Identity 73
B) Soft Power Aspects 75
C) Public Diplomacy 77
D) Cross-Strait Relations 78
3) Summary 80
V) Conclusion 81
1) Executive Summary 81
2) Personal Account from Field Studies 84
3) Current Development 86
4) Policy Suggestions 88
5) Recommendations for further studies 89
1) English Resources 91
2) Chinese Materials 96
List of Figures
Figure 1: Structure of International Sports ........................................................................... 39
Figure 2: Sport Exchanges from Overseas to Taiwan in 2007 to 2016 .................................. 55
Figure 3: Sport Exchanges from Taiwan to Overseas in 2007 to 2016. ................................. 56
Figure 4: Number of Taiwanese and Positions held in International and Regional Sport
Federations from 2007 to 2016 ............................................................................................ 57
Figure 5: Cross-Strait Sport Exchanges from PRC in 2007 to 2016. ..................................... 58
Figure 6: Factors of Taiwan's Sports Diplomacy .................................................................. 63
List of Tables
Table 1: The three types of power ..........................................................................................7
Table 2: Structure of the thesis ............................................................................................. 15
Table 3: Timeline of events for NOC name change for ROC and PRC ................................. 26
Table 4: Chinese Taipei's Performance in International and Regional Multi-Event Games ... 52
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