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系統識別號 U0002-2806200714334400
中文論文名稱 應用於叢集式無線感測網路之登記制行動路由協定
英文論文名稱 Mobile Sink Routing Protocol with Registering in Cluster-based Wireless Sensor Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 傅品方
研究生英文姓名 Ping-Fang Fu
學號 694190074
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-05
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 指導教授-王英宏
委員-陳振炎
委員-逄愛君
委員-張志勇
中文關鍵字 無線感測器網路  行動資料收集節點  叢集式路由協定 
英文關鍵字 Wireless Sensor Networks  Energy-Efficiency  Cluster-based Routing  Mobile Sink 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 無線感測器網路(Wireless Sensor Networks, WSNs),是由資料收集節點與多個感測器節點所組成,所使用的無線感測器節點體積小且成本低廉,因其特性,目前在實務上應用於許多不同的領域,例如:森林監測、環境監控、居家照護等等。

無線感測器節點的這些優點,也帶來了相對應的限制,其中會遇到的最直接且困難之問題即在於其電力能源方面的限制,在路由協定的設計上如何節省電力能源的消耗延長網路的生存時間,是最重要的課題。

故在分析比較許多不同結構的知名路由協定後,本論文提出了一個應用於叢集式無線感測網路之登記制行動路由協定(Mobile Sink Routing Protocol with Registering in Cluster-based Wireless Sensor Networks),採用了叢集架構網路的優點,有效地分散感測器節點的傳輸工作,並使用行動資料收集節點,降低了電力能源的消耗,在其模擬之結果中則可顯示出本文演算法可使整體之電力消耗較其他兩者節省分別約21%和50%,藉由電力的平均分散消耗進而增加網路之生存時間。
英文摘要 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are wireless networks consisting of sink nodes and multiple sensor nodes. While the wireless sensor nodes have several advantages, such as the compact size and the low cost, corresponding constraints on resources can result. The greatest challenge among all is the constraint on energy. Therefore, how to minimize the energy consumption while maintaining an extended network lifetime becomes the most critical issue when it comes to the design of the routing protocol for the wireless sensor networks.

After evaluating various configurations of many well-known routing protocols, we propose in this thesis an alternative solution which utilizes the advantage of cluster-based network with mobile sink nodes (Mobile Sink Routing Protocol with Registering in Cluster-based Wireless Sensor Networks) at an attempt to resolve the above issue. The simulative result has shown that the algorithm is indeed able to achieve an even distribution of the energy consumption and in turn extend the overall network lifetime.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒論 -01-
1-1 研究背景 -04-
1-2 研究動機 -05-
1-3 研究目的 -07-
1-4 論文架構 -08-
第二章 相關技術與研究 -09-
2-1 無線感測器網路與無線隨意式網路之比較 -10-
2-2 叢集式 (Cluster-based) 網路協定 -12-
2-2-1 LEACH -12-
2-2-2 LEACH-C -14-
2-2-3 TEEN -15-
2-2-4 APTEEN -16-
2-2-5 HCDD -17-
2-3非叢集式 (Non-Cluster-based) 網路協定 -18-
2-3-1 SPIN -18-
2-3-2 Direct Diffusion -20-
2-3-3 TTDD -21-
2-4 行動資料收集節點移動方式 -22-
第三章 以叢集架構為基礎的登記制行動路由協定 -24-
3-1 網路環境與假設 -26-
3-2 網路叢集建立階段 (Clustering Phase) -28-
3-3 登記註冊階段 (Register Phase) -33-
3-4 資料傳送階段 (Data Dissemination Phase) -38-
3-5 網路架構維護 (Maintain Phase) -43-
3-5-1 加入新節點 -43-
3-5-2 叢集首節點的替換 -44-
3-5-3 資料傳送路徑維護 -46-
3-6 特性與優勢 -49-
第四章 模擬比較與分析 -50-
4-1 模擬環境 -51-
4-2 模擬結果與分析比較 -52-
第五章 結論與未來研究方向 -57-
5-1 結論 -57-
5-2 未來研究方向 -58-
參考文獻 -59-
附錄一:論文英文稿 -62-

圖目錄
圖1 感測器節點結構框圖 -01-
圖2 無線感測器網路架構示意圖 -02-
圖3 Multi-hop routing之範例圖 -06-
圖4 無線感測器網路感測資料傳輸路由示意圖 -09-
圖5 LEACH之叢集架構表示圖 -12-
圖6 HCDD資料傳輸路由示意圖 -17-
圖7 SPIN運作過程示意圖 -19-
圖8 Direct Diffusion運作過程示意圖 -20-
圖9 TTDD運作過程示意圖 -21-
圖10 Random Waypoint移動過程示意圖 -22-
圖11 行動路由協定流程圖 -25-
圖12 無線感測器網路佈建示意圖 -26-
圖13 叢集劃分流程圖 -31-
圖14 網路叢集劃分階段完成示意圖 -32-
圖15 登記註冊階段流程圖 -35-
圖16 節點登記註冊過程示意圖 -37-
圖17 資料傳送階段流程圖 -38-
圖18 叢集內資料傳送路由示意圖 -40-
圖19 叢集外資料傳送示意圖 -42-
圖20 新節點加入網路叢集流程圖 -44-
圖21 叢集首節點替換流程圖 -45-
圖22 叢集內資料傳送路徑變更示意圖 -48-
圖23 Mobile Sink不同移動速率下傳輸延遲之模擬結果 -52-
圖24 整體網路電力能源消耗比較圖 -53-
圖25 整體網路生存時間比較圖 -54-

表目錄
表1 WSNs與MANETs之概括比較表 -10-
表2 Neighbor Information Table (NIT) 格式表 -28-
表3 Intra-Cluster Schedule Table (IACST) 格式表 -32-
表4 叢集首節點狀態說明表 -33-
表5 RTR (Request To Register) 訊息格式表 -34-
表6 ATR (Agree To Register) 訊息格式表 -34-
表7 叢集首節點註冊資訊表 -36-
表8 RTS (Request To Send) 訊息格式表 -41-
表9 Stop_T訊息格式表 -46-
表10 Change_Path訊息格式表 -47-
參考文獻 參考文獻
[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, "Wireless Sensor Network:a survey", Computer Networks of Elsevier Journal, March 2002, pp.393-422.
[2] W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Micro Sensor Networks," in Proc. of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conf. on System Sciences, 2000, pp. 3005–3014.
[3] Holger karl, Andress Willig, "Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Network", John Wiley & Sons Ltd., January 2006.
[4] Ching-Ju Lin , Po-Lin Chou and Cheng-Fu Chou, "HCDD:Hierarchical Cluster based Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink", International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference , July, 2006 pp.1189 - 1194 .
[5] A. Perrig, R. Szewczyk, V. Wen, D. Culler, and J. D. Tygar, "SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks", in Proc. of the 7th Annual International Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, July 2001.
[6] Millennial Net , http://www.10meters.com/ibean.html.
[7] David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz, and Josh Broch. "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. in Ad Hoc Networking", edited by Charles E. Perkins, Chapter 5, Addison-Wesley, 2001, pp. 139-172.
[8] Ferro Solutions, http://www.ferrosi.com/energy-harvesters.html.
[9] Fan Ye, Haiyun Luo, Jerry Cheng, Songwu Lu, Lixia Zhang, "A two-tier data dissemination model for large-scale wireless sensor networks", Proceedings of the 8th ACM Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2002, pp. 148-159.
[10] Heinzelman, W.B., Chandrakasan, A.P., Balakrishnan, H., "An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks", Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on Volume 1, Issue 4, Oct. 2002, pp. 660-670.
[11] Global Mobile Information Systems Simulation Library, http://pcl.cs.ucla.edu/projects/glomosim/.
[12] Esa Hyytiä and Jorma Virtamo, "Random waypoint model in n-dimensional space", Operations Research Letters, vol. 33, November 2005, pp. 567-571.
[13] C. Bettstetter, H. Hartenstein, and X. Pérez-Costa, "Stochastic properties of the random waypoint mobility model",ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks: Special Issue on Modeling and Analysis of Mobile Networks,September 2004, pp493-619, vol 10.
[14] A. Manjeshwar and D. Agrawal, "TEEN: a Routing Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of the 15th International Conf. on Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, April 2001, pp. 2009–2015.
[15] W. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, "Negotiation-based Protocols for Disseminating Information in Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of the 5th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, August 1999.
[16] Q. Jiang, D. Manivannan, "Routing protocols for sensor networks", in Proc. of the 1st IEEE Conf. on Consumer Communications and Networking, Jan. 2004, pp. 93 – 98.
[17] Al-Karaki, J.N., Kamal, A.E., "Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: a survey", Wireless Communications, IEEE, Vol 11, Issue 6, Dec. 2004, pp. 6-28.
[18] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, D. Estrin, J. Heidemann, F. Silva, "Directed diffusion for wireless sensor networking", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Feb. 2003, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 2-16.
[19] Manjeshwar, A., Agrawal, D.P., "APTEEN: A Hybrid Protocol for Efficient Routing and Comprehensive Information Retrieval in Wireless Sensor Networks", International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium(IPDPS), August 2002, pp. 195-202.
[20] K. Sohrabi, J. Gao, V. Ailawadhi, and G. Pottie, "Protocols for Self-organization of a Wireless Sensor Network", IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 7, Issue 5, Oct. 2000, pp. 16–27.
[21] W. B. Heinzelman, P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, Oct. 2002,pp. 660-670.
[22] G. Resta and P. Santi. "An analysis of the node spatial distribution of the random waypoint model for Ad Hoc networks", In Proceedings of ACM Workshop on Principles of Mobile Computing (POMC), Oct. 2002, pp. 44-50.
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