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系統識別號 U0002-2806200618175000
中文論文名稱 世界貿易組織紡織品及成衣協定 對歐盟、美國及和全球貿易之影響
英文論文名稱 Impacts to European Union and USA of the WTO Agreements on Textiles and Clothing on the World Trade
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 郭文宇
研究生英文姓名 Wen-Yu Kuo
學號 692030785
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-06-28
論文頁數 87頁
口試委員 指導教授-苑倚曼
委員-沈正玔
委員-任燿廷
委員-苑倚曼
中文關鍵字 N/A 
英文關鍵字 ATC  MFA  T/C  USA  EU  WTO  GATT  safe guard system 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 提要內容:本文就世界貿易組織紡織品及成衣協定對對歐盟、美國及和全球貿易之影響分析討論。首先就織品成衣協定之規則章程進行論述-主要由GATT到MFA、ATC等協定之內容。第二章以經濟學供需、工資與彈性供需模型來解釋ATC協定解除之後開發中國家對已開發國家多面向的影響。第三章以經濟自由放任到保護主義的演進變化切入,後以政治經濟學家Paulkrugman,DavidRegardo等人理論強調國家對經濟影響的重要性。第四章為ATC協定之歷史背景及影響。第五部分進入到主要討論區域-美國,歐洲之織品協定規範組織、其貿易進出口額度變化量,和已開發國家應對開發中國家低工資、低成本的高競爭力,應當著重於其與開發中國家主客關係,善加利用其高技術、創意品牌性等優勢由另外的角度切入以取得經濟政治面雙贏的結果。而對開發國家例如中國而言,一昧地削價可能帶來惡性競爭,造成兩敗俱傷。

英文摘要 This thesis will give an overview on the historical changing of textiles trade agreements made by international trade regimes. Examined are the changes from the GATT quota system to the WTO’s Arrangement of Textiles and Clothing; whether they either freeing or striking the world economy.
Secondly emphasizing the impact what historical ATC changing process had brought.
The third part the world trade under micro economy theories is discussed, the impacts of free trade through different agreements has shown using statistical data.
In the third section 3 political theories will be discussed— realism, neoclassical institutionalism and protectionism. It will be examined whether the international institution a really a positive intervention to world trade.
In the further sections in part III will line out the current textile trading situations in low developed and developed countries, especially emphasize the interaction between China, US and EU, probing into the impacts of functioning free market system.
The last Part IV is the evaluation and overview in the future.
The research field is restricting to Europe, China and America continent.

Key word:ATC, MFA, T/C, USA, EU, WTO, GATT, safe guard system

論文目次 Outlines
Abstract……………………………………………………… viii
Introduction………………………………………………….. ix
Research Method………………………………………. 1
Part I
Overview and theories of textile and clothing industry
1- Fundamental sectors—components and progressing history
1.1Basic elements of textile and clothing industry…………………………………. P1
1.2Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) 1974-1994 Under GATT rules, the forms of
textiles and clothing agreement — the integration process………………………
P.4
1.2.1 History of Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) 1974-1994……………………… P.4
1.2.2 Coverage……………………………………………………………………… P.5
1.2.3 The Monitoring body of MFA………………………………………………... P.5
2- Basic Trade Model
2.1 World demand and supply caused by tariff or quota…………………………… P.6
2.2 Trade— examine the elasticity of textile industry……………………………... P.7
2.3 Labor wage influence…………………………………………………………... P.8
2.4 Summary P.9
3- Discussion about apparel industry— from political economy’s
aspect
3.1 Protectionists— trade regime………………………………………………… P.11
3.1.1 Historic change……………………………………………………………….. P.11
3.1.2 Protectionism and foreign policy decision…………………………………… P.12
3.1.3 Living example……………………………………………………………….. P.14
3.1.4 Summary……………………………………………………………………... P.15
3.2 Realism: hegemony stability…………………………………………………. P.16
3.2.1 Definition & textile and clothing employment rate and the influence of
hegemonies……………………………………………………………………
3.3 Neoclassic economics theories………………………………………………. P.19
3.3.1 Methodological individualism……………………………………………….. P.19
3.3.2 Other theories………………………………………………………………... P.22
3.4 New Theories………………………………………………………………... P.23
3.4.1 Political economy……………………………………………………………. P.23
3.5 Summary…………………………………………………………………….. P.25
Part II
Historic changes of ATC, background and effects
4- WTO agreements on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) 1995-2004
4.1 products coverage………………………………………………………………. P.27
4.2 Monitoring body………………………………………………………………... P.27
4.3 Integration process……………………………………………………………... P.28
4.4 Special transitional safeguard mechanisms…………………………………… P.29
4.5 Summary……………………………………………………………………….. P.29
Part III
5- Current textile and clothing market in developed countries under
ATC regulation
5.1 Textile and clothing industry in developed countries—The United States…... P.31
5.1.1 US Trade policy………………………………………………………………. P.32
5.1.2 Monitory system—Government Accounting Office (GAO) and Customs
& Border Protection’s (CBP)………………………………………………...
P.33
5.1.3 The US textile and apparel domestic production, employment, Imports,
exports………………………………………………………………………...
(1) International im-export with South America
(2) Asia—Tsunami impact
Fears of China influence
P.35
5.1.4 Summary……………………………………………………………………... P.41
5.2 Textile and clothing industry in developed countries— The European Union… P.42
5.2.1 EU textile and clothing (T/C) industry……………………………………….. P.42
5.2.2 EU trade policy……………………………………………………………….
(1)Export policy (2) Protective policy
P.43

(3) Import policy (4) Doha Round
5.2.3 EU Textile and clothing trade policy………………………………………… P.45
5.2.4 EU textile industry’s economic structure and competitiveness……………….
1. From economic structure
2. Division of labor between nations
3. Labor productivity
4. EU Investment distribution in T/C industry
5. The external T/C trade performance
6. EU T/C oriented countries
7. EU Trade dilemma and improvement
8. Comparison—EU and US on T/C industry
P.47
5.2.5 Summary……………………………………………………………………... P.60
6- Developing and less-developed countries—Asian countries
6.1 China……………………………………………………………..………… P.61
6.1.2 Trade policy on T/C industry………………………………….....................
1 China domestic tariff
2 International sanctions
P.61
6.1.3 Monitoring body…………………………………………………………... P.63
6.1.4 Actual situation after 2005………………………………………………...
1 Trade with EU
2 Trades with US
P.65
6.1.5 China’s T/C industry future scenario……………………………………... P.70
6.2 China’s impact on South-east Asia……………………………………….. P.71
6.2.1 Trade existence with US, EU --examine WTO textile agreements to entire
market……………………………………………………………………..
P.71
6.2.2 Impact on female working force between ASEAN members…………….. P.72
6.2.3 Summary………………………………………………………………….. P.73
Part IV
7- Evaluation and Glance in the future
7.1 Textiles and Clothing Agreements’ effect………………………………….. P.77
7.2 EU/USA/China triangularity according to economics models……………... P.78
7.3 Countries’ behavior according to economics models………………………. P.81
7.4 Specialize on Textiles and clothing sector………………………………….. P.82

Tables and graphics
Table1 “Trade in textiles and clothing”………………………………………… P.30
Table2 “Industrialized countries’ exports”……………………………………... P.8
Table3 “developed countries’ exports”………………………………………… P.8
Table4 “history of trade progress”……………………………………………… P.12
Table5 “Employment in Textile & Clothing in ATC countries”……………….. P.19
Table6 “Glamorous Groups Market Capitalization”…………………………… P.20
Table7 “Luxurious Group Market Capitalization”……………………………... P.20
Table8 “Trade Partners visited by Textile production verification 2000-03”….. P.37
Table9 “US top textiles and fiber import partners (199902003)”……………… P.40
Table10 “Textiles trade situation—Portugal & Greece”……………………….. P.49
Table11. “TOP 10 Community Market and Suppliers in Textile”……………... P.54
Table12. “TOP 10 Community Market and Suppliers in textile”……………… P.55
Table13 “Top 10 community supplies in clothing”…………………………….. P.56
Table14 “Top 10 community markets in clothing”…………………………….. P.57
Table15 “Non-argri wages percentage in its economy”………………………... P.73
Table16 “share of the main clothing companies in total turnover”…………….. P.75
Graphic1 “Nation price vs. world price”………………………………………. P.6
Graphic2 “World Wage”……………………………………………………….. P.9
Graphic3 “Changing network of world net export Textiles and Clothing”……. P.15
Graphic4 “CBP’s process for processing and inspecting goods”……………… P.35
Graphic5 “Share of production by industry”…………………………………... P.49
Graphic6 “Labor Product 2002”……………………………………………….. P.51
Graphic7 “Personal Cost per person 2002”……………………………………. P.51
Graphic8 “Exports of China’s Textiles and Clothing”………………………… P.65
Graphic9 “Imports of EU’s Textile and Clothing”…………………………….. P.72
Graphic 10 “Imports of US’s Textile and Clothing”…………………………... P.72
Graphic11 “Source of imported clothing U.S and the EU 2004”……………… P.75
參考文獻 Reference:
Websites—
Dundee Manufacturing Co.,www.dundeemfg.com

EU official website-enterprise& industry
http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/textile/development
Economics Research Service,United States Departments of Agriculture, http://www.ers.usda.gov/data/fibertextiletrade/
ERS Bilateral Fiber and Textile Trade Database

World of Garments,Textile Fashion
http://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/NewsDetails.asp?News_id=12896

Textile and Trade Clothing Information, Dec14th, 2004 www.Emergingtextiles.com

China Chamber Of Commerce for Import & Export of Textiles, http://www.ccct.org.cn/ccct

UN Statistics Database, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/comtrade

US Department of Commerce,official trade statistic and CBP

WTO official website,"The WTO Agreement on Textiles and

Clothing (ATC) 1995-2004" www.wto.org

Yahoo! Business: http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/ll/apparlmkt.html

Yahoo! Finance,Jan21st,05


Journals& News clips—
Alden Edward'sreport(July,2004)
"Too little too late for US garment industry: Continuing our series on the ending of global textile and clothing quotas"LONDON 1ST EDITION, Financial Times.London,UK

Browne Andrew (Dec 28th, 04)"hina Discloses Details of Its Textile Duties; Modest Tariffs on Exports Unlikely to Mollify EU, U.S., And May Spur Protectionism",WSJ

Asian Wall Street Journal. N.Y," New Silk Road: A Free Market in Clothing" (Dec30th,2004)

Bulletin EU 12-2004,Common commercial policy (25/26), PROVISIONAL VERSION

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT
Commission's observations in response to the recommendations of the High Level

China"deeply concerned"(Feb 2nd, 2005) over Turkish textile restrictions, BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific. London:
"Can Vietnam compete?"(Jun4th,2004),South China Morning Post.H.K.

DOHA Ministerial Declaration (Ph.16th)
Field Alan M and Leach Peter T,(Nov 29, 2004.)
"Not sewn up",Journal of Commerce,NY

Forest Laws,(Dec1st,04')"China said to be tossing its weight around at the WTO",Delta Farm Press

"Faces Challenges in Addressing Illegal Textile Transshipment"(Jan,04), Group for textiles and clothing 2003-2004

GAO Report to Congress Committee (2004),"INTERNATIONAL TRADE U.S. Customs and Border Protection

Guercini S.(2004),"International competitive change and strategic behaviour of Italian textile-apparel firms",Journal of Fashion Marketing & Management,
Vol.8 No.3
Lakin William, (Mar4th, 05’)"EU textile quotas benefit consumers",Financial Times

PRC External Trade Regulation Act16.,"Minister of Commerce oh PRC Bureau of fair Trade for import and export”

Taplin Ian M.,"Restructuring and reconfiguration the EU textile and clothing industry adapts to Change",Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina,USA, Bordeaux Business School, Bordeaux, France

"The Economists",Jan29th, 2005
"The Economists",Sep 7th, 2005
"The economists",Dec18th, 2004
"The Economists",Oct23th, 2003

Thitapha Wattanapruttipaisan, (Feb 10, 2005)"Taking stock in a non-quota world",The Bangkok Post

Toh Han Shih, (Feb 16, 2005)"Two sides to the boom in China textile towns;The end of quotas has had no effect on many producers",South China Morning Post. H.K,

World of Garment and Fashion, Jan 25th, 05’




Books—
Art I: General Most-Favored-Nation Treatment
Art XI: General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions

Anderson Kym (2000),"World Trade Liberalization for the New Millennium: An Empirical Study",Centre for Economic Policy Research, P155-160

Bairoch Paul (1993),"Economics and World history: Myths and Paradoxes",NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf,P.75-80

Hoekman M. Bernard (2002),"Development,Trade,andthe WTO: A Handbook (World Bank Trade and Development Series)", World Bank Publications, P.96-105
Campbell R. McConnell, Stanley L.Brue, (October 15, 2001),"Economics", McGraw-Hill Companies; 15th edition, P18-27

Caves E. Richard (2001),"World Trade and Payments: An Introduction (9th Edition)",Addison Wesley,P222-231
Deardorff V. Alan (2001-02),"Deardorff's Glossary of International Economics",P41-43

Friman H. Richard (1990),"Patchwork Protectionism: Textile Trade Policy in US, Japan and West Germany",Cornell University press, P58-60 P116-120

William S. Hein & Company, GATT (1994),"Gatt Multilateral Trade Negotiations the Uruguay Round: Final Act Embokying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations 15 D",P52-61

Gowa Joanne (1994),"Allies Adversaries,and International Trade", Princeton University Press,1994, P71-74

Gilpin Robert (2001),"Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order",Princeton University Press, P34-39 P62-70 P120-126

Grieco M. Joseph (1990).,"Cooperation Among Nations, Europe, America, and Non-tariff Barrier to Trade",Cornell University, P244-249

Hoekman M. Bernard (2001),"The Political Economy of the World Trading System: From Gatt to Wto",Oxford University Press; 2nd edition, P.7-23

Krugman Paul (1991),"Geography and Trade", Cambridge MIT Press, P18-22 P30-51

Miller Henri (1996),"Free Trade vs. Protectionism",
The H.W Wilson Co., New York ,Dublin, P.50-75

Nordås Hildegunn Kyvik (2004),"The Global Textile and Clothing Industry post the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing",WTO Publications, P8-20 P25-30

Patten L. Mildred (Oct, 2003),"Understanding Research Methods: An Overview of the Essentials", Pyrczak Pub; 4th edition, P.10-15

Smith Adam (1776),"An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations",Edinburgh,P.5-19

Samuelson Paul, Nordhaus D. William (2001),"Macroeconomics",McGraw-Hill/Irwin;
17th, P.128-135

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