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中文論文名稱 「他們回去後做什麼?」-影響返鄉泰籍勞工就業之因素
英文論文名稱 “What Did They Do?”-Factors Influencing the Employment of Workers Returned to Thailand.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 東南亞研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 黃士榜
研究生英文姓名 Shih-Pang Huang
學號 692230039
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-05
論文頁數 147頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡青龍
委員-龔宜君
委員-林欽明
中文關鍵字 泰國  返鄉泰籍勞工  就業選擇  工作經驗 
英文關鍵字 Thailand  Return migration  employment  working experience 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 在台灣的外籍勞工以泰國人數最多,現有的文獻大多探討其在台的工作與生活概況,對於返鄉之後的情形卻少有人提及。本論文採用深入訪談法並利用「事件史」的方式,請泰勞回顧其在泰國的工作經驗,研究者在台灣與泰國兩地從事訪談,以求完整的瞭解其在就業時所受到的影響因素為何。

泰國經由八零年代的經濟起飛後,國內的經濟發展成果受到舉世矚目。但是國內的經濟發展的果實僅被少數城市的精英所享有,對於廣大鄉村地區的農民,生活依然艱困。泰國政府早期為了舒緩國內的就業壓力,自七零年代開始往外輸出勞動力,目的國也隨著時間而轉變,由早期的中東地區轉向到亞洲其他新興工業化國家。國內的經濟快速發展與外資進入有相當大的關係,並藉由投資勞力密集型產業而提供大量的就業機會,至八零年代末期,國內的工資水準比其餘鄰近國家高,一方面外資的投資產業轉變為中高科技產業為主,另一方面也吸引大量鄰國的勞動力進入泰國工作。

本研究發現:產業發展的改變,造成普遍教育程度不高的泰籍勞工,在工作上產生了影響。一方面外資現今需求的勞工須具有高教育程度,從事科技研發與管理的人才為主,泰勞返鄉之後,工作機會受到限制。此外,外國投資的勞力密集型產業,選擇工人上已經對於勞動力的性別作了篩選,對於女性勞工的雇用比例較高,此也是就業影響的因素。而外來勞動力進入泰國之後,其於就業市場上產生相對的競爭壓力,主要原因是薪資的差異與泰國當地雇主樂於雇用之。雖然泰國政府訂立政策加以規範,但是外來勞工在泰國就業市場的存在已經是極普遍的社會現象。

在個體因素方面,教育程度是最根本的問題。因為教育程度的限制,返鄉泰勞能選擇的工作有限,其無法配合國家整體的產業轉型,在就業機會上被侷限。而教育程度低落也與外來勞動力相重疊,工作機會上造成相對的競爭。此外,海外的薪資運用也影響其職業的選擇,主要是購買農地會造成選擇農業工作者增加;亦有購買車輛等生財工具,造成職業的轉換。最後,海外的工作經驗並非返鄉就業上的助力,主要是在海外的工作屬低技術的特質,泰國當地雇主並不認同此工作資歷。
英文摘要 The largest group of foreign workers in Taiwan is Thai. Previous studies mostly examined their working and living conditions. Only few discussed their foreign working experience and its relation to job search upon the return to their native villages. In this study, selected Thai workers interviewed in both Taiwan and Thailand. Based on the concept of the “Event History”, information on work experience in Thailand after returning from abroad were collected. Completing this study, I hope to observe what factors have been influence the Thai labors in looking for jobs.


Thailand has achieved rapid economic growth since 1980s and has been recognized as a new NIE in Asia. But the fruit of economical growth is only enjoyed by the ruling elites, most of the peasants still fight for their social needs. While unemployment increased, Thai government worked to place newly redundant labor in more dynamic economies by “export” domestic unemployment overseas. The labor migration path in the early 1970s were almost exclusively to the Middle East. The volume then declined and was more than offset by the increased number of workers migrating to East and Southeast Asia.

Compared to other developing countries, Thailand has traditionally maintaining a relatively liberal and open attitude towards FDI. The depending of FDI has evolved with the transformation of the Thai economic development. Under the government policy, the industries were more labor-intensive in favoring both the FDI and the domestic market. Not merely few decades the rapid economic growth and international competition makes the industrial transform to the medium- and high-technology manufacturing. These transitions not only give outflow of Thai workers to other countries, but also attract the massive inflow of labor force from neighboring countries to Thailand.

This paper observed that the transition of economic development was little benefit for the mass of workers with little education. The high-technology manufacturing preferred highly-educated workers who have research and development ability or management experience to improve the industries competition. Thai labors with foreign experience were mostly low-skilled, and thus could not satisfy the industries needs. As a result, they tend to be declined for employment opportunities. Besides, the local labor-intensive manufacturing preferred female labors. Other influencing factors such as the lower wages of neighboring countries labors competing with the native labors. As the country exports a growing number of workers, it is receiving probably an even larger amount of workers from the neighboring less developed countries. These phenomenons seemed not uncommon in the Thai society nowadays.

At the individual level, education is a fundamental problem. Because of low attainment, the returned Thai labors could not suite the medium- and highly-skilled manufacturing, the differential opportunity is restricted. The main benefit of Thai international labor migration was its potential for generating material wealth. Therefore the salary utilization affects the jobs selection. Some of the return labors use their salaries mainly in purchases the agriculture instruments; or buy a car to facilitate their life and improve their job selective. Finally, the foreign working experience did not vantage their job selection in the native country. One could attribute the differential opportunity to unskilled ability and employer tendency to refuse the foreign working experience as a working preference.
論文目次 目 次
第一章 序論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與目的--------------------------------------------------------1
第二節 問題意識-----------------------------------------------------------------5
第二章 文獻回顧與研究設計--------------------------------------------------------6
第一節 文獻回顧-----------------------------------------------------------------6
第二節 研究設計與研究架構------------------------------------------------20
第三章 產業轉型、外資策略與職業選擇----------------------------------------25
第一節 泰國的經濟發展策略與成果------------------------------------------27
第二節 泰國經濟發展與外國直接投資(FDI)---------------------------28
第三節 外資、區域發展不均與政府因應對策-----------------------------35
第四節 現今外資投資策略對於返鄉泰勞的影響--------------------------40
第五節 小結----------------------------------------------------------------------45
第四章 外來勞動力與職業選擇---------------------------------------------------46
第一節 外籍勞動力移入之因素---------------------------------------------48
第二節 泰國政府外勞政策之演進與外勞人數概況---------------------53
第三節 外籍勞工的地區分佈、職業與生活困境------------------------57
第四節 外籍勞工對於返鄉泰勞就業之影響------------------------------64
第五節 小結---------------------------------------------------------------------70
第五章 個體因素與職業選擇------------------------------------------------------72
第一節 泰勞組成特徵、原鄉工作概況與決定出國之因素------------72
第二節 返鄉工作概況---------------------------------------------------------93
第三節 影響返鄉就業之個體因素------------------------------------------99
第四節 海外工作經驗-助力?--------------------------------------------106
第五節 海外工作薪資的利用對於職業選擇的影響--------------------109
第六節 小結--------------------------------------------------------------------112
第六章 結論--------------------------------------------------------------------------114
第一節 研究發現--------------------------------------------------------------114
第二節 未來研究建議與研究方向-----------------------------------------119
參考書目-------------------------------------------------------------------------------121
附錄一----------------------------------------------------------------------------------128
附錄二----------------------------------------------------------------------------------139
附錄三----------------------------------------------------------------------------------142

圖 目 錄

圖2-1 研究架構圖----------------------------------------24
圖3-1 泰國四大地理區------------------------------------36
圖3-2 泰國三大投資區圖----------------------------------39

表 目 錄
表2-1 泰勞出國的工作地點與其教育程度--------------------18
表2-2 泰勞出國前的職業分佈------------------------------18
表3-1 泰國核准外人直接投資來源國概況(2002-2004)-------33
表3-2 泰國出口貿易結構(2002-2004)---------------------34
表3-3 泰國各區域與曼谷生活在貧窮狀態者占區域人口之百分比40
表3-4 泰國境內核准FDI投資產業的件數與金額---------------41
表4-1 泰國1996-2000年境內的緬甸、寮國與柬普寨的勞工數---56
表4-2 訪談泰勞遇過之外籍勞工之國籍、遇見地點與工作性質--65
表5-1 返鄉泰籍勞工的年齡分佈----------------------------74
表5-2 受訪泰勞年齡層表----------------------------------74
表5-3 在台灣之泰國勞工人數與性別比----------------------78
表5-4 受訪泰勞教育程度表--------------------------------80
表5-5 返鄉泰籍勞工之婚姻狀況----------------------------81
表5-6 男性泰勞出國前主要從事的職業----------------------83
表5-7 決定出國工作的原因--------------------------------88
表5-8 訪談泰勞的返鄉個體概況整理------------------------94
表5-9 泰勞出國前與出國後的職業分佈----------------------96
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