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中文論文名稱 印尼軍事改革 - 政策安全化與去安全化的激盪
英文論文名稱 The Indonesian Military Reform 1998-2009:Securitization and Desecuritization Dynamics
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 楊專
研究生英文姓名 Yandry Kurniawan Kasim
學號 697330453
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-05-25
論文頁數 177頁
口試委員 指導教授-林中斌
委員-黃介正
委員-沈明室
中文關鍵字 印尼軍事改革  安全化理論  政策安全化  去安全化 
英文關鍵字 Indonesia’s Military Reform  Securitization Theory  Securitization  Desecuritization  Democratic Transition 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本文主要探討1998至2009年期間印尼軍事改革的不穩定性。藉由社會建構理論中的安全化理論,本文主張印尼軍事改革中安全化與去安全化皆造成某種程度上的進步與(或)退化。然而,安全化理論對於安全與不安全變動的解釋及其重要性的皆未曾被應用在解釋印尼軍事改革,這是本文對於學術最主要的貢獻。
本文研究指出,第一、安全化(政治停擺中因應緊急的方法))是一個經常的選項當去安全化(將安全議題轉換為其他議題)失效時。第二、去安全化的選項時總是面臨著持續的挑戰,因此,安全化的作為顯然成為理所當然的選項。因此,在該國軍事改革總是被打折扣的。第三,去安全化非能在一個脆弱的政府中實行。去安全化的作為是避免不需軍事支持強勢領導人的專斷。第四,印尼的軍事改革真實的發生成效,印尼的情形亦可成為其他國家做為一種經驗。
最後,本文最主要的將是,沒有一種軍事解決方案可以完全解決國內的動盪不安。最主要的問題在於,政治上、經濟上及社會上的原因。軍事上的解決應被視為一系列的方式,當行政部門失效時,經由政治上的協商去理解問題、去解決它、去防止問題繼續昇高。政治上的交往互動可以被視為一種選項。但這必須被理解的十,軍事介入是暫時性的,主要在於終止暴力衝突,為一種機制,提供空間做為衝突解決的方案。
英文摘要 This research examines the impact of instability during democratic transition on military reform in Indonesia between 1998 and 2009. By applying securitization theory, which has a root in social constructivist paradigm, this research argues that both the act of securitization and desecuritization have played a certain degree of impact over the progress and/or regress of the Indonesian military reform. Arguably, the use of securitization theory, explanation on securitization – desecuritization dynamics, and the significant role of desecuritization has been never employed in explaining military reform in Indonesia. That would be the main contribution of this research.
As its findings, first, this research shows that the act of securitization (enabling emergency measures and the suspension of normal politics) has always been an option when every attempt for desecuritization (removing issues from security agenda) failed. Second, options for desecuritization had always faced constant challenges therefore options for securitization had seemingly become unavoidable. Consequently, this fact has discounted the progress of military reform in the country. Third, the act of desecuritization is not compatible with a weak government whose pursue military support. The act of desecuritization would be in case if the government led by a strong leadership, which is identified by its independency from military support to stay in power. Fourth, however, the Indonesian military reform indeed took a place. Some achievement could be underlined and Indonesia’s position among countries having similar experience could also be set up.
Finally, the main message of this research would be: there is no military solution for any domestic unrest. The main problem is not laid in military matter but more in political, economics, and socio-cultural realm. The use of military to solve this problem should be regarded as a series of civilian institutions’ failure to acknowledge the problem, to manage it, to prevent it from becoming escalated, and to solve it within normal political bargaining process. As the last resort, military engagement might be considered as an option. But, it has to be understood that military intervention should be temporary in nature, aimed to end the violence conflict, conducted in order to provide a room for peaceful conflict solution mechanism, and in accordance with just war principles.
論文目次 LIST OF CONTENTS

Page
Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) ii
List of Contents iii
List of Figures and Tables vi
Chapter I – Introduction 1
I. Background and Research Motives 1
II. Research Motives and Objectives 8
III. Literature Review 10
IV. Proposed Methodology 25
V. Analytical Framework 32
VI. Expected Contribution 32
VII. Arrangement of Chapters 34
Chapter II – Imperatives for Military Reform:
Excessive Military Presence 37
I. Political Aspects: The Superbody 40
II. Economics Aspect: Corrupt System and Independent Soldier 43
III. Social Aspects: Fabrication of Truth 44
IV. Military Aspects: Lack of Professionalism 46
V. Chapter Conclusions 50
Chapter III – Development of Military Reform: Phase I (1998 – 2001) 54
I. B. J. Habibie’s Administration (1998 – 1999) 56
I.1 Military Reform 59
I.2 Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics:
Case 1 – Separatist Movement in Aceh 64
I.2.1 Desecuritization 64
I.2.2 Securitization 67
I.3 Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics:
Case 2 – The Independent of East Timor 69
I.3.1 Desecuritization 69
I.3.2 Securitization 71
II. Abdurrahman Wahid’s Administration (1999 – 2001) 75
II.1 Military Reform 75
II.2 Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics:
Case 3 – Separatist Movement in Aceh 82
II.2.1 Desecuritization 82
II.2.2 Securitization 84
III. Chapter Conclusions 89
Chapter IV – Development of Military Reform: Phase II (2001 – 2004) 92
I. Military Reform 93
II. Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics:
Case 1 - Horizontal Conflict in Ambon 99
II.1 Desecuritization 99
II.2 Securitization 101
III. Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics:
Case 2 – Separatist Movement in Aceh 103
III.1 Desecuritization 103
III.2 Securitization 104
IV. Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics:
Case 3 – Terrorism 108
IV.1 Desecuritization 109
IV.2 Securitization 111
V. Chapter Conclusions 118
Chapter V - Development of Military Reform:
Phase III (2004 – 2009) 119
I. Military Reform 119
II. Desecuritization Dynamics:
Case 1 - Separatist Movement in Aceh 126
III. Securitization Dynamics: Case 2 - Terrorism 132
IV. Chapter Conclusions 138
Chapter VI – Cost and Benefit Assessment 139
I. Securitization 141
I.1 Cost for Military Reform 141
I.2 Benefit for Military Reform 142
II. Desecuritization 144
II.1 Cost for Military Reform 144
II.2 Benefit for Military Reform 146
III. Impacts of the Past 151
IV. Future Prospects 156
V. Chapter Conclusions 158
Chapter VII – Conclusion 162
Bibliography 169


LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Page

Figure I.1. Analytical Framework 32
Figure II.1. Parallel Structure of Civilian Bureaucracy
and Army Territorial Command 41
Table III.1. Timeline of Post-Suharto Presidency
and Major Events 1998 -2009 56
Table III.2. Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics
during the Indonesian Military Reform
under Habibie’s Administration 74
Table III.3. Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics
during the Indonesian Military Reform
under Wahid’s Administration 88
Table IV.1. Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics
during the Indonesian Military Reform
under Megawati’s Administration 116
Table V.1. Securitization – Desecuritization Dynamics
during the Indonesian Military Reform
under Yudhoyono’s Administration 137
Table VII.1 Achievements and Impediments Comparison
of the Indonesian Military Reform 163
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