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系統識別號 U0002-2708201508565000
中文論文名稱 以網路分析程序法探討影響服務體驗關鍵因素
英文論文名稱 Using Analytical Network Process To Investigate The Key Factors Of Service Experience
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Information Management
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生中文姓名 莊宜郡
研究生英文姓名 I-Chun Chuang
學號 602630500
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2015-05-30
論文頁數 212頁
口試委員 指導教授-解燕豪
委員-廖則竣
委員-施盛寶
中文關鍵字 服務體驗  網路分析法  關鍵因素  觀光工廠  國際觀光飯店 
英文關鍵字 service experience  analytic network process  key factor  tourism factory  international hotel 
學科別分類
中文摘要 摘要
過去服務相關研究,大多探討顧客的滿意度、服務品質,許多學者都希望能夠透過衡量顧客滿意度以及服務提供商的服務品質,來幫助服務提供商進行服務流程的改善與創新,然而傳遞高品質的服務已經成為服務提供商在營運上的基礎,因此在現今服務服提供商難以透過管理服務品質,與競爭對手產生差異化並維持長期的競爭優勢,因此,為顧客建立一個好的服務體驗也變成服務提供商在營運上的一個重要目標。如果在提供服務時忽略顧客服務體驗,會降低競爭能力與流失客源而被市場淘汰,反之,若服務提供商能夠清楚影響服務體驗的關鍵因素,便可以有效且以科學的方式,管理與經營服務體驗。然而現今仍缺少一份系統化且客觀的建立服務體驗關鍵指標,這樣的困境也使得服務提供商想要營造服務體驗時心有餘而力不足,而服務提供商在有限的資源下也面臨無法確定可以對哪一個影響服務體驗的關鍵因素增加投資幅度,來提供更好的服務體驗。
本研究透過整理學者對於服務體驗的相關文獻,以及訪談業界有實務經驗的專家來建立服務體驗架構,藉由多方觀點與多準則的方式來建立的服務體驗的架構,並使用Saaty在1996年提出多準則決策的網路分析法,並邀請通過政府評鑑的10家觀光工廠與6家國際觀光飯店的高階領人進行問卷的填寫,透過問卷中成對比較的方式量化每一個影響服務體驗的關鍵因素,並從中分析出影響服務體驗的關鍵因素,而本研究為了使網路分析法的量化的數據結果更為可靠,也透過質性的半結構訪談方法,共訪談了14家觀光工廠,與7家國際觀光飯店進行專家訪談。
本研究發現以下研究結果(一)服務提供商在為顧客建立服務體驗時,可以透過「員工」、「顧客」、「服務環境」、「資訊科技」、「知識創造」等五大影響服務體驗的準則以及23項影響準則的子因素來達成。(二)在五大準則中,「員工準則」與「服務環境準則」是服務提供商在傳遞服務體驗時,會優先投入資源並謹慎管理的兩大準則。(三)個別評估五個影響服務體驗準則中的關鍵準則,比如說,觀光工廠在認為在傳遞服務體驗時以「服務環境準則」最為重要,而國際觀光飯店則是認為「員工準則」是服務體驗的關鍵準則。 (四)而在考慮彼此相依與回饋關係時,在二十三個影響服務體驗的因素中,觀光工廠認為「服務便利性因素」是相對重要的,而國際觀光飯店則是認為「員工滿意度因素」是較為關鍵。(五)提供不同類型的服務提供商在經營服務體驗時,擁有不一樣經營策略,比如國際觀光飯店以「員工準則」作為傳遞服務體驗的主要策略時,也需要將「顧客準則」一同考慮,才能為顧客建立更高品質的服務體驗。而透過本研究的結果,服務提供商便可以了解在經營服務體驗時可以透過那些因素進行服務體驗策略的制定,來達到更優渥的收益以及永續經營的目標。
但是仍然有一些議題成為本研究的限制 (一)本研究排除了服務提供商在傳遞服務體驗時無法控管的因素,包括顧客能力、顧客知識、顧客的社經背景等因素。(二)而本研究的研究對象都是台灣的服務提供商,無法了解不同文化背景的差異是否會影響服務體驗的關鍵因素。而在未來的研究上,建議可以將本研究的結果套用於其他的產業上,比較不同的服務提供商對於服務體驗關鍵因素的看法是否不同,並探討資源豐富程度不一的服務提供商,所關注的服務體驗關鍵因素是否有所差異,並為資源豐富程度有所差異的服務提供商,找出更為合適的傳遞服務體驗模式。


英文摘要 Abstract

Previous studies focused on the customer satisfaction or service quality. Many researchers tried to help service providers to improve service processes by evaluating customer satisfaction or service quality. Nowadays, delivering high quality service has been a fundamental basis for service providers. That is, it is difficult for service providers to maintain a long term relation with customers via managing service quality. Hence, providing customers with a high quality service experience is an important goal. Service providers could decrease their competition and increase customer churn when they neglect the importance of service experience. On the contrary, service providers can clarify the key factors of service experience and effectively manage these factors by using scientific methods in order to manage service experience. To our knowledge, there is no systematic and objective perspective to build a framework of service experience for analyzing the key factors. Service providers can’t successfully create high quality service experience without this framework. Meanwhile, service providers don’t ascertain to invest limited resources in designing a suitable service experience. Consequently, this study aims to build a framework of service experience in systematic and scientific methods to quantify the key factors of service experience.
This study builds the framework of service experience from multi perspectives and criterion by reviewing critical literatures of service experience and interviewing practical domain experts. This study adopts an analytic network process approach to quantify the key factors of service experience by collecting questionnaires from domain experts of six tourism factories and ten international tourist hotels. In order to increase the reliability of the results, this study employs the qualitative interview method to interview domain experts of fourteen tourism factories and seven international tourist hotels.
There are several research findings as follows. 1.) There are five critical criterion of the framework of service experience including employee, customer, service environment, information technology and knowledge creation. 2.) Service providers need to pay attention to the criterion of employee and service environment to deliver quality service experience. 3.) Tourism factories emphasize the criteria of service environment and the factor of service convenience and international tourist hotels focus on the criteria of employee and the factor of employee satisfaction. 4.) Tourism factories emphasize the factor of service convenience and international tourist hotels focus on the factor of employee satisfaction. 5.) The proposed framework helps service providers to deliver service experience by using diverse strategies. For instance, international tourist hotels should consider the criterion of employee and customer at the same time for delivering high quality service experience. According to our research findings, service providers can clearly understand the key factors and criterion for appropriate service experience in order for the high profit and business sustainability.

There are service research limitations as follows. First, this study only focuses on the factors that service providers can directly manage. Several factors, such as customer abilities or customer knowledge, are not included in this study. Second, the research objectives are service providers in Taiwan. This study does not take into account the influences of different cultures. The future research can continue to apply our research results into different service sectors and analyze the influences of different service providers in order to figure out the possible difference.

論文目次 目錄
摘要……………………………………………………………………… i
Abstract………………………………………………………………… iii
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 研究背景……………………………………………………… 1
1.2 研究動機……………………………………………………… 4
1.3 研究問題……………………………………………………… 5
1.4 研究目的……………………………………………………… 6
1.5 研究流程……………………………………………………… 8
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………… 9
2.1 服務才是主角………………………………………………… 9
2.1.1 服務的特性……………………………………………… 10
2.1.2 服務科學………………………………………………… 11
2.1.3 小結……………………………………………………… 12
2.2 服務體驗……………………………………………………… 12
2.2.1 服務體驗的定義………………………………………… 13
2.3 服務體驗的架構……………………………………………… 15
2.3.1 服務體驗相關文獻……………………………………… 16
2.3.2 小結……………………………………………………… 20
2.3.3 影響服務體驗的關鍵因素……………………………… 22
2.3.4 小結……………………………………………………… 33
第三章 研究方法……………………………………………………… 33
3.1 緒論…………………………………………………………… 33
3.1.1 研究對象………………………………………………… 33
3.1.2 觀光工廠……………………………………………… 35
3.1.2 國際觀光飯店…………………………………………… 35
3.2 整合質性與量化……………………………………………… 35
3.2.1 研究流程………………………………………………… 36
3.2.2 專家方談確認服務體驗架構…………………………… 37
3.3 網絡分析法(Analytical Network Process)……………… 41
3.3.1 步驟一、確認問題方向與準則的建立………………… 42
3.3.2 步驟二、建立問卷格式………………………………… 45
3.3.3 步驟三 建立成對比較…………………………………… 48
3.3.4 步驟四、特徵向量與權重……………………………… 49
3.3.5 步驟五一致性…………………………………………… 50
3.3.6 步驟六、超級矩陣……………………………………… 52
第四章 資料分析……………………………………………………… 55
4.1 研究對象……………………………………………………… 55
4.2 觀光工廠……………………………………………………… 56
4.2.1 觀光工廠個案探討……………………………………… 56
4.2.2 觀光工廠專家結果整合W21…………………………… 65
4.2.3 觀光工廠專家結果整合W32…………………………… 66
4.2.4 觀光工廠專家結果整合 W22…………………………… 68
4.2.5 超級矩陣………………………………………………… 73
4.2.6 權重排序………………………………………………… 79
4.3 國際觀光飯店………………………………………………… 80
4.3.1 飯店專家結果整合W21…………………………………… 83
4.3.2 飯店專家結果整合 W32………………………………… 83
4.3.3 飯店專家結果整合 W22………………………………… 86
4.3.4 超級矩陣………………………………………………… 89
4.3.5 權重排序………………………………………………… 93
4.4 訪談資料分析………………………………………………… 94
4.4.1 觀光工廠………………………………………………… 94
4.4.2 國際觀光飯店…………………………………………… 98
4.5 討論…………………………………………………………… 100
4.5.1 研究發現………………………………………………… 103
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………… 107
5.1 研究總結……………………………………………………… 107
5.2 研究貢獻……………………………………………………… 109
5.3 實務意涵……………………………………………………… 111
5.4 研究限制及未來研究………………………………………… 114
參考文獻………………………………………………………………… 117
附錄一:訪談大綱………………………………………………………… 125
附錄二:逐字稿…………………………………………………………… 127
附錄三:問卷填寫說明…………………………………………………… 195
附錄四:網路分析法問卷………………………………………………… 198
附錄五:研究資料保密協議書…………………………………………… 212


圖目錄
圖1-1研究流程……………………………………………………………… 8
圖2-1服務體驗架構………………………………………………………… 16
圖2-2員工準則與因素……………………………………………………… 23
圖2-3顧客準則與因素……………………………………………………… 25
圖2-4服務環境準則與因素………………………………………………… 27
圖3-1研究流程……………………………………………………………… 36
圖3-2影響服務體驗之階層架構圖………………………………………… 44
圖3-3影響服務體驗關鍵因素之網路架構圖……………………………… 44
圖3-4SuperDecisions一致性報告………………………………………… 52
圖3-5超級矩陣……………………………………………………………… 53
圖3-6超級矩陣中的子矩陣………………………………………………… 53
圖4-1觀光工廠未加權超級矩陣…………………………………………… 73
圖4-2 觀光工廠加權超級矩陣…………………………………………… 74
圖4-3觀光工廠收斂超級矩陣……………………………………………… 76
圖4-4飯店未加權超級矩陣………………………………………………… 89
圖4-5飯店加權超級矩陣…………………………………………………… 90
圖4-6飯店收斂超級矩陣…………………………………………………… 92
圖4-7觀光工廠與飯店準則比對圖………………………………………… 104
圖4-8觀光工場與飯店因素比較圖………………………………………… 106
圖5-1觀光工廠評估準則對於服務體驗的重性…………………………… 108
圖5-2飯店評估準則對於服務體驗的重要性……………………………… 109
圖5-3觀光工廠與飯店對於影響服務體驗準則的評價…………………… 114

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