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系統識別號 U0002-2708201412122300
中文論文名稱 仿蜂鳥懸停機構套件之設計與製造
英文論文名稱 Design and Manufacture of Hummingbird-like Flapping Mechanisms and Plastic Kits
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 洪堃銓
研究生英文姓名 Kun-Chuan Hung
學號 601370157
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-01
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊龍杰
委員-洪國永
委員-康尚文
中文關鍵字 拍翼微飛行器  四連桿  伊氏直線機構  塑膠射出成型  大行程拍翼角度 
英文關鍵字 flapping micro-air-vehicle (MAV)  four-bar-linkage (FBL)  Evan's straight line mechanism  plastics injection molding  large flapping stroke 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 為設計一種多功能之拍翼微飛行器,本研究開發質輕與節能之新穎拍翼機構。作為整體拍翼微飛行器之最重要部分,本研究拍翼機構以四連桿機構為基礎架構進行改良與設計,並搭配整合伊氏直線機構,使兩翼相位差趨近於零,最大拍翼行程角接近120°,以產生足夠的空氣動力進行前飛巡航與垂直起降。本研究之拍翼機構經過三代的改良設計,使用放電線切割加工製作原型,最終成功開發模具進行塑膠射出成型,該聚甲醛(POM)機構質量僅1.78g。本研究透過高速攝影機拍攝機構運轉可得出其拍翼頻率,搭配20cm翼展輸出之拍翼頻率高達18.86Hz;並使用六軸力規搭配風洞量測該機構產生之升推力,在攻角70°姿態飛行時可產生升力13.4gf,大於拍翼微飛行器總質量9.7g;至於室外飛行測試,則成功在24秒內飛至高度20公尺。
英文摘要 In the body of research relevant to versatile flapping micro-air-vehicles (MAV), design and development of light-weight and energy-efficient flapping mechanisms occupies a position of primacy due to its immense impact on the flight performance and mission capability. Realization of a compact flapping mechanism that can produce adequate aerodynamic force for fulfilling the requirements of cruising forward flight and vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) needs the combination of the four-bar-linkage (FBL) and Evan's straight line mechanism. This paper presents the concerted approach adopted for developing the flapping wing mechanisms for 20 cm span flapping MAVs through an iterative approach involving three design iterations on mechanisms and multiple fabrications approaches such as electrical-discharge-wire-cutting (EDWC) and plastics injection molding. The minimum mass of the polyoxymethylene (POM) mechanism is only 1.78 gram and the maximum flapping frequency is 18.86 Hz. Performance characteristics for each mechanism are evaluated through high speed photography, power take-off measurement, wind tunnel testing and test flights. The maximum lift is 13.4 gram force under the angle of attack of 70° and is beyond the total mass 9.7 gram of the MAV. The resultant flapping mechanism with almost non-existent phase lag between the wings and the extra large flapping stroke up to 120 like birds push this 20 cm-span flapping MAV up to 20 m high in 24 sec.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究背景 1
1-2 文獻回顧 4
1-3 研究目的 11
1-3-1 舊式史蒂芬生拍翼機構 12
1-3-2 舊式史蒂芬生拍翼機構存在之問題 15
第二章 拍翼尺度律與拍翼機規格 16
2-1 拍翼生物尺度律 16
2-2 拍翼飛行器之輕量化 18
2-3 拍翼動作與飛行器自身振動 19
第三章 懸停拍翼機構設計與分析 20
3-1 懸停機構設計 20
3-2 拍翼行程角 21
3-3 拍翼相位差 21
3-4機構設計流程 24
3-5 第一代拍翼機構 25
3-5-1 相位差 26
3-5-2 拓譜構造 27
3-6 第二代拍翼機構 30
3-6-1 相位差 31
3-6-2 拓譜構造 31
3-6-3 傳力角 33
3-7 伊氏拍翼機構 34
3-7-1 拓譜構造 35
3-7-2 機構尺寸設定 36
3-7-3 相位差 38
3-7-4傳力角 40
3-7-5 改變翼面與水平線之傾斜角 41
3-7-6 減速齒輪配置 43
3-8 伊氏與舊式史蒂芬生拍翼機構比較 45
第四章 拍翼機構製作 47
4-1 材料選擇 47
4-2 加工方式 47
4-3 機構組裝 49
第五章 實驗與量測 51
5-1 拍翼頻率量測 51
5-2 拍翼機構消耗扭矩量測 58
5-3 拍翼行程角與相位差分析 62
5-4 拍翼微飛行器升力與推力量測 64
第六章 射出成型開模製造 71
6-1 應力分析軟體介紹 71
6-2 桿件強化之應力與變形量分析 72
6-3 機構多種配置設計 80
6-4 模具與射出成型之零件 83
第七章 實際飛行測試 86
7-1 遙控接收機 86
7-2 拍翼微飛行器整體重量分佈 89
7-3 實際飛行測試 92
第八章 結論與未來展望 98
8-1 結論 98
8-2 未來展望 99
參考文獻 101


圖目錄
圖1-1 初探者 3
圖1-2 初航者 3
圖1-3 第一代金探子 3
圖1-4 PRO-金探子 3
圖1-5雙側桿機構 3
圖1-6 實際飛行 3
圖1-7 AEROVIRONMENT蜂鳥懸停拍翼微飛行器 4
圖1-8 ROBOBEES蒼蠅拍翼微飛行器 5
圖1-9 HOON CHEOL PARK仿甲蟲拍翼微飛行器 5
圖1-10仿甲蟲拍翼微飛行器組成解說 6
圖1-11 球萵拍翼機構 6
圖1-12 雙對翼拍翼機構 7
圖1-13 雙曲柄單翼拍翼機構 7
圖1-14可變行程角之拍翼機構 7
圖1-15拍撲動作連續圖 8
圖1-16球面拍翼機構 8
圖1-17 拍翼軌跡 8
圖1-18 淡江蜂鳥 11
圖1-19 美國蜂鳥拍翼機構組成 12
圖1-20 舊式史蒂芬生拍翼機構 13
圖1-21 瓦特近似直線機構 13
圖1-22 拍翼行程角 13
圖1-23 拍翼行程角 14
圖1-24 桿件加厚 15
圖1-25 馬達與拍翼中心位置 15
圖2-1 「翼展VS.質量」尺度律 17
圖2-2 「拍翼頻率 VS.質量」尺度律 17
圖2-3 高速攝影機拍攝「金探子」 19
圖3-1 紅喉北蜂鳥 20
圖3-2 巨型蜂鳥 20
圖3-3 「金探子」四連桿拍翼機構 22
圖3-4 拍翼相位差 22
圖3-5 升力相位差與行程角相位差之關係 23
圖3-6 直線拍翼機構 23
圖3-7 美國蜂鳥拍翼機構示意圖 24
圖3-8 金探子四連桿機構 25
圖3-9 第一代拍翼機構 25
圖3-10 第一代拍翼機構簡圖 25
圖3-11 N型機構 26
圖3-12 A點之軌跡圖 26
圖3-13 A點之X軸偏移量 27
圖3-14 拍翼行程角 27
圖3-15 桿件命名 28
圖3-16 桿件編號 28
圖3-17 拍翼下行程連續圖 29
圖3-18 五連桿拍翼機構 30
圖3-19 曲柄搖桿機構 30
圖3-20 曲柄搖桿機構接點編號 30
圖3-21 曲柄搖桿機構運動軌跡 30
圖3-22 X軸之偏移量 31
圖3-23 拍翼行程角 31
圖3-24 桿件命名 32
圖3-25 接點編號 32
圖3-26 輸出桿與連桿夾角Α 34
圖3-27 傳力角 34
圖3-28 伊氏拍翼機構 35
圖3-29 伊氏近似直線機構 35
圖3-30 桿件命名 36
圖3-31 接點編號 36
圖3-32 翼桿兩軸孔縮短 37
圖3-33 齒輪軸孔間距 37
圖3-34 翼桿與碳纖維棒契合 38
圖3-35 伊氏近似直線機構之軌跡 39
圖3-36 X軸偏移量 39
圖3-37 拍翼行程角 39
圖3-38 傳動角 40
圖3-39 輸出桿與連桿夾角Α 40
圖3-40 蜂鳥拍翅動作連續圖 41
圖3-41 套環卡入翼桿 41
圖3-42 碳纖維棒套入卡件 41
圖3-43 完成組裝 42
圖3-44 上拍與下拍之翼面角度 42
圖3-45 實際組裝 42
圖3-46 高速攝影機拍攝翼面運動 43
圖3-47 機構有無翅膀之拍翼頻率比較 44
圖3-48 減速齒輪配置 45
圖3-49 機座長度比較 45
圖3-50 馬達與拍翼中心位置 46
圖3-51 懸停姿態比較 46
圖4-1 放電線切割 48
圖4-2 切割導孔 49
圖4-3 機座尺寸補償 49
圖4-4 翼桿墊高 50
圖4-5 墊片 50
圖4-6 機構爆炸圖 50
圖5-1 20CM翼展翅膀 51
圖5-2 7*16MM馬達 51
圖5-3 實驗架構圖 52
圖5-4 連續拍翼動作 53
圖5-5 無翅膀拍翼頻率 54
圖5-6 裝翅膀拍翼頻率 55
圖5-7 拍翼頻率與齒輪比關係 56
圖5-8 與舊式史蒂芬生拍翼機構無裝翅膀比較 56
圖5-9 與舊式史蒂芬生拍翼機構有裝翅膀比較 57
圖5-10 實驗架構 58
圖5-11 無翅膀整體消耗扭矩 60
圖5-12 有翅膀整體消耗扭矩 60
圖5-13 無翅膀整體消耗扭矩比較 61
圖5-14 有翅膀整體消耗扭矩比較 61
圖5-15 無運轉行程角 63
圖5-16 機構空轉行程角 63
圖5-17 3.7V下行程角比較 63
圖5-18 實驗架構 64
圖5-19 六軸力規軸向配置 65
圖5-20 減速齒輪比16 之升推力數據 66
圖5-21 減速齒輪比20 之升推力數據 67
圖5-22 減速齒輪比21.3 之升推力數據 68
圖5-23 減速齒輪比26.67 之升推力數據 69
圖5-24升力比較 70
圖5-25 推力比較 70
圖6-1機械結構應力分析模擬軟體 71
圖6-2 金探子機座與伊氏拍翼機構機座 72
圖6-3 與射出成型機座比較 73
圖6-4 翼桿連接位置 73
圖6-5應力分佈 74
圖6-6 變形量分佈 74
圖6-7 翼桿連接位置強化 74
圖6-8應力分佈 74
圖6-9變形量分佈 74
圖6-10 伊氏近似直線機構軸孔 75
圖6-11應力分佈 75
圖6-12變形量分佈 75
圖6-13 強化位置 76
圖6-14應力分佈 76
圖6-15變形量分佈 76
圖6-16 金探子翼桿 77
圖6-17 模擬設定 77
圖6-18應力分佈 77
圖6-19 變形量分佈 77
圖6-20 伊氏拍翼機構翼桿 78
圖6-21 模擬設定 78
圖6-22 應力分佈 78
圖6-23 變形量分佈 78
圖6-24 伊氏拍翼機構桿件 79
圖6-25 桿件軸孔墊高 79
圖6-26 輸出桿軸孔墊高 79
圖6-27 機座齒輪比配置 81
圖6-28 輸出桿齒輪比配置 81
圖6-29 翼面角度控制組裝示意圖 81
圖6-30 組裝示意圖 82
圖6-31 翼面控制桿組裝示意圖 82
圖6-32 翼面角度變化 83
圖6-33 固定翼面角度控制桿 83
圖6-34 單翼安裝 83
圖6-35 模具零件配置 84
圖6-36 模具 84
圖6-37 射出成型零件 84
圖6-38 機構組裝爆炸圖 85
圖6-39不同材質機構比較 85
圖6-40 拍翼行程角 85
圖7-1 舊式IR接收機、鋰電池 86
圖7-2 新舊式IR接收機尺寸比較 87
圖7-3 18MAH 25C 鋰電池 87
圖7-4 飛行姿態比較 87
圖7-5 900MHZ與IR接收機尺寸比較 88
圖7-6 18MAH、70MAH鋰電池尺寸比較 88
圖7-7 900MHZ遙控器 89
圖7-8 鋰電池充電板 89
圖7-9 各零件重量百分比 90
圖7-10各零件重量百分比 90
圖7-11 伊氏拍翼機構整體重量 91
圖7-12各零件重量百分比 91
圖7-13 接收機與鋰電池安裝位置圖 92
圖7-14 地面垂直起飛 92
圖7-15接收機與鋰電池安裝位置圖 93
圖7-16 高攻角飛行 93
圖7-17接收機與鋰電池安裝位置圖 94
圖7-18 穩定飛行姿態 94
圖7-19 室內飛行高度測試 95
圖7-20 室外飛行高度測試 96
圖7-21 史蒂芬生拍翼微飛行器實際飛行 97

表目錄
表1-1 相位差與拍翼行程角 10
表3-1 蜂鳥種類與尺度律之比較 21
表3-2 第一代機構拓譜構造 28
表3-3 第二代機構拓譜構造 32
表3-4 第三代拓譜構造 36
表3-5 桿件尺寸 38
表4-1 7075鋁合金特性 47
表4-2 機台規格 48
表5-1 有無安裝翅膀拍翼頻率比較 55
表5-2 與舊式史蒂芬生拍翼頻率比較 57
表5-3 整體消耗扭矩比較 62
表5-4 有無翅膀行程角比較 64
表6-1 強化前後應力值變形量比較 75
表6-2強化前後應力值變形量比較 76
表6-3強化前後應力值變形量比較 79
表7-1 各零件重量 89
表7-2 各零件重量 90
表7-3 各零件重量 91

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