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系統識別號 U0002-2708201412040100
中文論文名稱 心與物之間:柏格森式閱讀華萊士•史蒂文斯的詩
英文論文名稱 Between Mind and Matter: A Bergsonian Reading of Stevens' Poetry
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 錢淑真
研究生英文姓名 Shu-Jen Chien
學號 897110119
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-06-26
論文頁數 159頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡振興
委員-游錫熙
委員-張麗萍
委員-史文生
委員-楊鎮魁
中文關鍵字 多重性  持續時間  自由意志  心靈能量  虛擬  生命力 
英文關鍵字 multiplicity  duration  free will  mind energy  the virtual  elan vital 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文引用二十世紀法國哲學家亨利.柏格森(Henri Bergson)的「過程形而上學」(process metaphysics)中的理論,解讀同時代美國詩人華萊士.史蒂文斯(Wallace Stevens)的詩與哲學,並試圖探索史蒂文斯如何以想像游走心與物之間,以及柏格森式閱讀如何突破幾個傳統閱讀上的盲點。研究藉由看出史蒂文斯代表性詩作中的原動力(vis or noeud vital)、分歧點(point of divergence)、蛻變(metamorphoses)、與對應現實(counterpart reality),來回應讀者眼中語言唐突、思想前後矛盾、以及文學流派不定的問題。此外,本論文設計了一種另類讀詩法─「柏格森-史蒂文斯法」(Bergson-Stevens Approach)。柏格森的多重性(multiplicity)、持續時間(duration)、自由意志(free will)、心靈能量(mind energy)、虛擬(the virtual)、生命力(elan vital)、創造性進化(creative evolution)等概念是本論文的理論基底與架構。我從五個面向探討史蒂文斯筆下的虛(the unreal)實(the real)乾坤,模擬詩人在持續時間(duration)中自我追尋的生命旅程,追溯詩人如何在柏格森非決定論的薰陶下,發展出靠自己的詩在混亂中尋回秩序的堅定信念。史蒂文斯與柏格森思想遙相呼應,從柏格森本體論(ontology)去欣賞史蒂文斯美學(aesthetics)有其必要性。
論文分成五個章節,導論概括介紹史蒂文斯與柏格森的關係,第一章探討柏格森的多重性觀念如何應用到史蒂文斯不同元素之綜合上,以多重性角度來詮釋史蒂文斯的詩可以衍生對其藝術不同的見地。多重性出現在持續時間中(duration),所以第二章以長詩「化身為字母C的丑角」(“The Comedian as the Letter C”)來闡述柏格森持續時間的觀念。我們的意識在持續時間或真實時間中流動。因為現實會在意識流動的即刻經驗中呈現,所以通到史蒂文斯之現實的唯一的路,便是去跟隨其持續時間。持續時間是生命的活泉和縮影,多重性隨其前行永不再現。經過持續時間中的內省,史蒂文斯方能找到真實自我。一個人感覺到持續時間的那一刻,他已騰出空間給自由意志。所以在第三章,我將「自由意志」及「心靈能量」一併解釋並且用它們來詮釋史蒂文斯的「心靈力量」。史蒂文斯的想像將會從四個面向討論:特點、範疇、價值或實用性,以及方法。由於史蒂文斯的想像範圍遼闊,所以第四章除了將柏格森「虛擬」的概念和史蒂文斯「事物的可能性」做連結之外,會再繼續討論想像的其他特點。詩是生命的意象;在第五章,我把史蒂文斯「詩的蛻變」與柏格森「創造性的進化」對照比較。自此發展出一套「柏格森-史蒂文斯法」來研讀史蒂文斯的詩。
將史蒂文斯對自身哲學觀點的解釋,與柏格森自己所詮釋的「柏格森主義」交叉比對之後,他們思想間的關係便已建立。史蒂文斯所形塑的元素綜合可用柏格森的多重性概念解釋,他們對真實時間的看法也一致。「心靈能量」及「自由意志」的概念大大提升了史蒂文斯的想像力。柏格森是第一位介紹虛擬概念的人,而史蒂文斯的詩,整體而言都有虛擬的一面,其詩的轉變可類比柏格森創造性的演進。因此,柏格森式閱讀史蒂文斯的詩是一個直接的方式,去理解史蒂文斯的基本想法:「他必須從現實中創造出非現實」(The Necessary Angel 58),然後:「將非現實注入現實之中」(150)。
英文摘要 This dissertation is an application of French philosopher Henri Bergson’s process metaphysics to the interpretation of the poetry and philosophy of his then contemporary American poet Wallace Stevens, with a special focus on how Stevens rambled between mind and matter with imagination, and how a Bergsonian reading might traverse some blind spots in traditional reading of Stevens’ poetry. The study responds to the problems of the abruptness in Stevens’ language, the (in)consistency in his thought, and the unstability of his literary genres in readers’ eyes by finding out a vital force (vis or noeud vital), the point of divergence, the metamorphoses, and the corresponding reality in his poetry. Also, I design an unconventional way to comprehend Stevens’ poetry—a “Bergson-Stevens Approach.” The concepts of Bergson’s multiplicity, duration, free will, mind energy, the virtual, elan vital, and creative evolution serve as the foundation and the framework of this dissertation. I explore the unreal and the real worlds in Stevens’ poems, simulate the life voyage of pursuing real self in duration, and trace how the poet was nurtured by Bergson’s indeterminism and develop a firm belief to bring order out of chaos by his own poetry. The thoughts of Stevens and Bergson echo each other at a distance. It is necessary to go into Stevens’ aesthetics through Bergson’s ontology.
This dissertation is divided into five chapters. In the Introduction, I outline the relationship between Stevens and Bergson. Chapter One explores how Stevens’ synthesis of different elements can be brought to bear with Bergson’s concept of “multiplicity.”To interpret Stevens’ poems in terms of “multiplicity” may generate a different perspective of Stevens’ art. As multiplicity appears in duration, Chapter Two scrutinizes Bergson’s concept of “duration” with the illustration of the long poem “The Comedian as the Letter C.” Our consciousness flows in duration, or real time. Since reality is given in an immediate experience of the flow of consciousness, the only way to reach Stevens’ reality is to follow his duration. Duration is a living stream in our life, a miniature of life. Multiplicities proceed along with duration, and never recur. Through introspection in duration, Stevens is able to find his real self. The moments one feels the duration, he has spared some room for free will. In Chapter Three, I explain “free will” together with “mind energy” and use them to interpret Stevens’ “power of mind.” Stevens’ imagination will be discussed in four aspects: characteristics, category, value or utility, and method. Stevens’ imagination covers such a wide range that I have to continue the discussion of the characteristics in Chapter Four after I relate Bergson’s notion of “the virtual” to Stevens’ “possibilities of things.” Poetry is the image of life. In Chapter Five, I compare and contrast Stevens’ “metamorphosis of poetry” with Bergson’s “creative evolution.” As a result, my “Bergson-Stevens Approach” to study Stevens’ poetry is developed.
After intersecting Stevens’ own explanation of his philosophical views with Bergson’s own interpretations of Bergsonism, I conclude that a relationship between their thoughts has been established. Stevens’ singularity of combining elements can be explained by Bergson’s concept of multiplicity. His views regarding time are Bergson’s views of real time or duration. His exertion of imagination is boosted by Bergson’s notions of mind energy and free will. Bergson is the first to introduce the notion of the virtual, and Stevens’ poems seem to have a “virtual” aspect in general. Stevens’ transformation of poetry is an analogy of Bergson’s creative evolution. As a result, a Bergsonian reading of Stevens’ poetry is a direct way to comprehend Stevens’ basic ideas: “He must create his unreal out of what is real” (The Necessary Angel 58) and then “import the unreal into what is real” (150).
論文目次 Table of Contents
Introduction……………………………………………………………………….…1
Chapter One
Bergson’s Multiplicities and Stevens’ Synthesis of Various Elements………….…..27
Chapter Two
Bergson’s “Duration” and Stevens’ “The Comedian as the Letter C”……….……...45
Chapter Three
Stevens’ Power of Mind in Imagination and
Bergson’s Free Will and Mind Energy ……………………………….……………....67
Chapter Four
Stevens’ Possibilities of Things in Imagination and Bergson’s the Virtual…………..98
Chapter Five
Bergson’s Creative Evolution and Stevens’ Poetry Metamorphosis:
Bergson-Stevens Approach……………………………………………………………119
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….140
Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………155

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